Foreign Policy is the policy of the United States designed to achieve American objectives in its interaction with other nations. Goals of U.S. foreign policy – National security – Alliance security – International stability – Economic development
National Security Earlier that was easy because the U.S. was relatively isolated by two vast oceans and bordered by weak neighbors. Communication and Transportation technology “shrank” the world and brought all nations and peoples closer. After WWII, national security was concerned with the growth of communism and the Cold War. Since the late 1990s the focus has been on global terrorism.
Alliance Security Protect the U.S. by protecting allies abroad. Alliance – a treaty that unites its participants in a common cause. Military alliance provides for collective security (mutual defense) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/nato_co untries.htm http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/nato_co untries.htm
International Stability Ending wars and threats of wars through diplomacy. Direct diplomacy – acting as an intermediary between hostile nations United Nations – employ diplomacy as a solution to problems through this global organization. Why is lasting peace elusive?
James 1: 1-10 What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you? 2 You desire but do not have, so you kill. You covet but you cannot get what you want, so you quarrel and fight. You do not have because you do not ask God. 3 When you ask, you do not receive, because you ask with wrong motives, that you may spend what you get on your pleasures. 4 You adulterous people, [a] don’t you know that friendship with the world means enmity against God?a
Therefore, anyone who chooses to be a friend of the world becomes an enemy of God. 5 Or do you think Scripture says without reason that he jealously longs for the spirit he has caused to dwell in us [b] ? 6 But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:b “God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” [c]c 7 Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 8 Come near to God and he will come near to you. Wash your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded. 9 Grieve, mourn and wail. Change your laughter to mourning and your joy to gloom. 10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up.
Economic Development Most economic development comes about because of private trade and investment. The U.S. government also promotes economic development, trade, business between the U.S. and other countries. The U.S. also gives direct aid to countries facing war, famine, and natural disasters. (Marshall Plan – post WWII effort to rebuild western Europe)
Progress of Policy: Stages in U.S. Foreign Policy Isolation 1790-1890: U.S. tended to stay out of others’ affairs, expanded westward though and other exceptions Expansion 1890-1910: international trade, expanded territory, imperialism, intervention (Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Samoa, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Mexico, etc.)
Progress of Policy: Stages in U.S. Foreign Policy Vacillation 1910-1940 – Reluctantly got into WWI, which made the U.S. pull back into isolation Obligation 1940-1991 – WWII, Cold War, nuclear deterrence, containment Transition 1991-present – World policeman, NAFTA, global “war on terror.”
How should the U.S. balance national security and individual liberty?
Policy Makers The President – center stage Executive Office (EOP) – NSC, State Department (embassies, ambassadors, consulates) Dept of Defense – Military, Pentagon, Joint Chiefs of Staff
Policy Makers Department of Homeland Security – Border & transportation security, emergency preparedness and response, WMD countermeasures, information analysis, infrastructure protection (FEMA, ICE, Secret Service, Coast Guard) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) – gathers intelligence (info on activities in foreign countries)
Policy Makers Congress – Senate must approve treaties with a 2/3 vote and may make changes to treaties the president signs. Congress has the power to declare war. Media – provides world news instantaneously, information influences the public who influence the policy makers.
United Nations – hosted by U.S. in New York City Created to maintain world peace and uphold human rights and is made up of 6 divisions. 1. Secretariat – administrative body 2. General Assembly – representative body 3. Security Council – China, France, UK, Russia, US & fifteen others who rotate 4. Economic and Social Council – human rights 5. Trusteeship Council – suspended 6. International Court of Justice – judicial body located at The Hague
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance EU (European Union) is a confederation of European nations with a common currency (euro) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) is an economic treaty between U.S., Canada, & Mexico supporting free trade. WTO (World Trade Organization) breaks down trade barriers IMF (International Monetary Fund) loans money to nations in financial trouble
Defining Terrorism BJUP Government Textbook: the use of unlawful means of war to achieve one’s goals. Dictionary.com: the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, esp. for political purposes. What is the difference between these definitions?
Weapons of Mass Destruction Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons – dirty bombs Chemical weapons – mustard gas, sarin Biological weapons – fatal diseases, organic toxins
Globalization Defined the process enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally, largely as a result of deregulation and improved communications the emergence since the 1980s of a single world market dominated by multinational companies, leading to a diminishing capacity for national governments to control their economies