A Timeline of Events Mar 1610: Galileo published the Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger) 1613: Time of Troubles in Russia ends Dec 1613: Galileo wrote to Benedictine monk Benedetto Castelli on relation between science and religion Dec 1614: Father Thomas Caccini, Dominican friar, publicly attacked Galileo for views on Copernican system
A Timeline of Events Feb 1615: G's letter to Castelli sent to Holy Office in Rome. G later finished Letter Dec 1615: G went to Rome to defend views Feb 1616: G forbidden to hold the condemned Copernican theory by Jesuit Robert Cardinal Bellarmine 1616: Death of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Mar 1616: Congregation of the Index prohibited publication of Copernicus' De Revolutionibus
A Timeline of Events 1618: Thirty Years' War begins 1620: Pilgrims arive at Cape Cod Aug 1623: Maffeo Barberini is elected Pope Urban VIII Oct 1623: G published Il Saggiatore (The Assayer), responding to Jesuit astronomers about comets 1626: St. Peter's Basilica is completed 1631: Mount Vesuvius erupts (again) 1632: Taj Mahal started
A Timeline of Events Feb 1632: G's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems was published Aug 1632: Holy Office ordered sales of Dialogue suspended Oct 1632: G summoned to Rome for trial Jun 1633: G convicted, sentenced to home imprisonment 1636: Harvard University founded 1637: Descartes publishes Discours de la Methode (Discourse on the Method)
History of the Spanish Inquisition First Inquisition: end of 12th c. in France by Pope Lucius III Alonso de Hojeda, Dominican friar from Seville, convinced Queen Isabella of Crypto- Judaism in 1478 Nov 1478: Pope Sixtus IV gave monarchs authority to name their inquisitors Feb 1481: six people burned alive in Seville
The Spanish Inquisition Crypto-Jews Moriscos Protestants Indexes of prohibited books Witchcraft Blasphemy Bigamy Sodomy Freemasonry
Formalism Cardinal Bellarmine: formalist: Heleocentrism can be used as a mathematical model. "To say that the earth moves and the sun stands still saves all the appearances better than eccentrics and epicycles is to speak well...it suffices for mathematicians" "But to affirm the sun is really fixed in the center of the heavens...is a very dangerous thing...injuring our holy faith and making sacred scripture false"
Realism: Galileo Galileo believed that the universe was heliocentric in reality, rather than a mere model In a letter to Bellarmine, states "I should not like to have great men think I endorse the position of Copernicus only as an astronomical hypothesis not really true."
Background to Debate: Ptolemy Plato: goal of astronomy to "save the appearance" of planetary motion. Ptolemy "It is not proper to apply human things to divine things nor th get beliefs concerning such great things from such dissimilar examples" Ptolemy believed his astronomy served as imperfect model of perfect heavens.
Tycho/Descartes Compromise Tycho built a model of the universe with sun orbiting earth and planets orbiting sun, allowing model equivalent to heliocentrism with realism of geocentrism. Descartes in his Principles of Philosophy redefined motion to allow for earth to be "carried" around sun while maintaining the earth to be immobile.
Aquinas on Nat. Philosophy On Question 68 of the Summa, The work of the second day, Aquinas deals with intersection of natural philosophy and religion. Incorruptible heavens: "the firmament, being naturally incorruptible, is of a matter not susceptible to change of form" Authority of Scripture in interpreting natural philosophy: "I answer with Augustine 'these words of scripture have more authority than the most exalted human intellect.'
Aquinas cont. Scriptural interpretation similar to Galileo: "In discussing questions of this kind two rules are to be observed...The first is, to hold the truth of Scripture. The second is that Holy Scripture can be interpreted in a multiplicity of senses" Not always literal interpretation: "It should rather be considered that Moses was speaking to ignorant people, and that out of condescension to their weakness he put before them only such things as are apparent to sense."
A Summary 1. Academic philosophers value opinions more than truth. 2. Science makes no claim about religion. 3. Experience and the reason God gave us ought to be used to decide the meaning of Scripture, rather than a blind acceptance of authority.
A Summary 4. The purpose of the Bible is not to teach science. 5. G was concerned with the danger of allowing dogma to silence intellectual inquiry. 6. Finally, G urged scholars to seek the sense of the Bible with the aid of the sciences.
The Passages Joshua 12:10-14 12 At that time Joshua spoke to the L ORD in the day when the L ORD gave the Amorites over to the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, “Sun, stand still at Gibeon, and moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.” 13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, until the nation took vengeance on their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? The sun stopped in the midst of heaven and did not hurry to set for about a whole day. 14 There has been no day like it before or since, when theL ORD heeded the voice of a man, for the L ORD fought for Israel.
The Passages Psalm 93:1 1The aL ORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty;a The L ORD is clothed, bbHe has girded Himself with strength. Surely the world is stablished, so that it cannot be 1moved. 1
The Passages Genesis 1:6 6 Then God said, i“Let there be a 3firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.”i3
The Issues Reason vs. Authority Purpose Dogma vs. Inquiry Science interprets Scripture
Reflection by JPII on Galileo 1979: John Paul II commissioned Pontifical Academy of Sciences to study Galileo case Oct 31, 1981: Commision presents conclusions to Pope. Pope John Paul II gave speech after this presentation, with the central theme that faith could not contradict reason.
John Paul II's speech addressed modern issue of evolution: should have harmony of faith and scientific reasoning "Let us think of the working out of new theories at the scientific level in order to take account of the emergence of living beings...In particular, when it is a question of the living being is a man... it cannot be said that these theories of themselves constitute an affirmation or denial of the soul"
Galileo case JPII echoes principle of Aquinas "Truth cannot contradict truth" in Galileo case, wanted to address "tragic mutual incomprehension that has been interpreted as a reflection of a fundamental opposition between science and faith" Error of theologians of time: understanding of natural philosophy "imposed by literal sense of scripture"