3 What Is Our Purpose For Today? To grow in our understanding and handling of the Word of God both in the Church and home – some meat to chew on2 Timothy 3: All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent (complete, mature), equipped (fitted out) for every good work.Hunting, sports, camping, etc. all require the proper gear to maximize the experience
4 Definitions Hermeneutics - a method or principle of interpretation A set of norms we go through between the words on the page and us.Homiletics – The art of preaching/teaching
5 Hermeneutic principles Historical-grammatical – is the most common method used – what did the words mean to the author and original hearers, and what grammar is being usedOthers - Election, Covenantal, Predictive, Dispensation, Numerical, Symbolic, Allegorical, Ethnic Division – Jews, Gentiles and the Church, etc. etc. etc.Historical-grammatical uses a general three- fold approach to the text: 1) observation, 2) interpretation, and 3) application.
6 The Word of GodThe Bible is not an English book written for 21st century Americans – Middle Eastern in nature“We believe that the Bible is the divinely inspired Word of God; that it is inerrant in the original manuscripts and has been supernaturally preserved by God, and that, as such; it is the Supreme authority in all matters of faith and conduct.” Hope - SOFOur hermeneutic principles determine our understanding/application of the Scripture
7 The Bible 66 different books, multiple literature types Historical narrative, poetry, letters, apocalyptic, prophetic, Gospel, etc.The Scripture is made up of words, sentences, verses, paragraph, section, book and the entire book covering thousands of years of timeExegesis - lead the meaning out of the textIsogesis - bring a meaning into the text"The best teacher is the one who does not bring his meaning into the Scripture but gets his meaning from the Scripture." Luther
8 The Bible includes Narrative – stories of real people Parables – short stories illustrating one principle truthMetaphors, figures of speech, similesHyperbole – strain a gnat, swallow a camelFigurative language – stomach like heaps of wheat or much in RevelationProphetic language – double fulfillments – both present and future – MessianicTypes and symbols – snake on the pole, sacrificial lambs, Melchizedek
9 Pop quiz – literature types Judges –Psalms –Song of Solomon -Daniel –Mark –Acts –1 Timothy –Revelation -Historical NarrativeWisdom/PoetryHistorical/propheticHistorical/GospelLetterApocalyptic
10 Our English Bible1535 AD: Myles Coverdale's Bible; The First Complete Bible printed in the English Language (80 Books: O.T. & N.T. & Apocrypha) AD: Tyndale-Matthews Bible; The Second Complete Bible printed in English. Done by John "Thomas Matthew" Rogers (80 Books) AD: The "Great Bible" Printed; The First English Language Bible Authorized for Public Use (80 Books) AD: The Geneva Bible Printed; The First English Language Bible to add Numbered Verses to Each Chapter (80 Books) AD: The Bishops Bible Printed; The Bible of which the King James was a Revision (80 Books) AD: The Douay Old Testament is added to the Rheims New Testament (of 1582) Making the First Complete English Catholic Bible; Translated from the Latin Vulgate (80 Books) AD: The King James Bible Printed; Originally with All 80 Books The Apocrypha was Officially Removed in 1885 Leaving Only 66 Books AD: Robert Aitken's Bible; The First English Language Bible (KJV) Printed in America AD: Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas Respectively Produce the First Family Bible and First Illustrated Bible Printed in America. Both were King James Versions, with All 80 Books AD: Jane Aitken's Bible (Daughter of Robert Aitken); The First Bible to be Printed by a Woman AD: Noah Webster's Bible; After Producing his Famous Dictionary, Webster Printed his Own Revision of the King James Bible AD: English Hexapla New Testament; an Early Textual Comparison showing the Greek and 6 Famous English Translations in Parallel Columns AD: The Illuminated Bible; The Most Lavishly Illustrated Bible printed in America. A King James Version, with All 80 Books AD: The "English Revised Version" Bible; The First Major English Revision of the KJV AD: The "American Standard Version"; The First Major American Revision of the KJV AD: The "New American Standard Bible" (NASB) is Published as a "Modern and Accurate Word for Word English Translation" of the Bible AD: The "New International Version" (NIV) is Published as a "Modern and Accurate Phrase for Phrase English Translation" of the Bible AD: The "New King James Version" (NKJV) is Published as a "Modern English Version Maintaining the Original Style of the King James." AD: The English Standard Version (ESV) is Published as a translation to bridge the gap between the accuracy of the NASB and the readability of the NIV.
11 Translation is the art of equivalence All English Bibles are a translationRead the Translation Philosophy in the frontBasically 3 types:Literal word for word (impossible) – KJV, NASB, ESV (essentially literal)Dynamic Equivalence or thought for thought – NIV, HCSB, NRSVParaphrase or rephrasing – The Message, Living Bible, Good News, Amplified (Multiple Choice Bible)
12 John 3:3KJV -Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.NIV - In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no-one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again."NASB - Jesus answered and said to him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.“MSG - Jesus said, "You're absolutely right. Take it from me: Unless a person is born from above, it's not possible to see what I'm pointing to--to God's kingdom."
13 AmplifiedJesus answered him, I assure you, most solemnly I tell you, that unless a person is born again (anew, from above), he cannot ever see (know, be acquainted with, and experience) the kingdom of God.Interlinear Greek-English – Answered Jesus and said to him truly truly I tell thee except anyone is born from above he cannot to see the kingdom of GodLet’s not even go to Russian or Chinese
14 Four broad Norms of hermeneutics 1. Illumination of the Holy Spirit is required2. New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old Testament (filter the Old through the New)3. The literal interpretation is basic4. Scripture interprets Scripture
15 1. The Holy spirit illuminates 2 Corinthians 4:3-4 - And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled only to those who are perishing. In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.1 Corinthians 2: And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual. The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned.
17 1. The Holy spirit illuminates The Word of God is God-breathed and the Holy Spirit is required to understand the truths contained within.John 14: And I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper, to be with you forever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him. You know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.We need to pray for wisdom, understanding, and revelation when we read the Word – the Bible is not a secret Book for God wants to speak to His children
18 2. The Old testament is viewed through the New testament Progressive Revelation – God revealed Himself in the Old Testament differently than in the New – Jesus is the final revelation – If you have seen Me you have seen the Father!Types/shadows, simpler in form focusing primarily on a people group – IsraelEverything revealed moved along toward the conclusion in Christ – all shadows give way in the Light of Jesus!Law was a tutor to bring us to Christ - Galatians 3:24
19 2. The Old testament is viewed through the New testament “you have heard it said…but I say”Jesus fulfilled the Law – Matthew 5:17Types/shadows are fulfilled in Christ – Tabernacle/Temple, animal sacrifice, Adam,Beware of allegory - adding deeper meanings, hidden truths, be clear on what is clearDistinguish between what the Bible records and commands or approves – making doctrine from historical narrative is dangerous!
20 3. The literal interpretation is basic Assume literal unless context forbids itBut, we must understand what type of literature we are reading - Song of Solomon, Revelation, Daniel, etc. literal can get weird“Today” in Hebrews most likely means now, not some mystic code word. Jesus wept means?Jesus saying “Eat my body” is not literalAnthropomorphisms are in the ScriptureAssigning human emotions and body parts to God – the Bible is an accommodating Book – God to humans – infinite to finite beings
21 4. Scripture Interprets Scripture "Obscure passages in Scripture must give way to clear passages.“Be clear on what is very clearInterpretation is one, basic meaning, application can be diverse and many.Scripture will not contradict Scripture – if your understanding of a passage is violating some other verse – you are mistakenIf you know the exact date of Christ’s return you are violating this principle of Hermeneutics
22 4. Scripture Interprets Scripture We are different than Jesus and the New Testament writersThey often brought the Old Testament into a new light in the New Testament – we are not them so be careful1 Timothy 5:18 – “do not muzzle the ox” is equated with paying a pastorBut where they did, we are safe to go there – Acts 2 – Peter said this is what Joel meant!Gospels, Hebrews, Epistles – are full of expounded OT quotes
24 Some CautionsThe Bible is not full of secret codes and meanings beneath the meaning – shun allegory methods and secret interpretationsBe careful using the Bible as a promise book – We must consider if the promise is universal, personal, conditional, for the present or futureThe Bible is not a magic book - let if fall open and poof, there is truth. “Go and hang yourself”
25 Some good toolsConcordance – shows every place a particular word is used in ScriptureLexicon – list of the words and typically includes the definitionHandbook –an overview of manners, customs, background materialCommentaries – someone’s interpretation of what the Scripture says and meansGreek/Hebrew to English dictionaries – helps you make your own conclusions about the meaning of the words
26 Summarize Part oneWhat did the text/letter mean to the original recipients? It was not primarily written to usWhat type of literature am I reading? Do I understand what the words meant to the author?Have I read the other places where this/these words are used?Have I read this verse or section in several different versions to glean insight?Consult commentaries/handbooks carefully – know who wrote it and why – they all have bias and agendas.
27 What are the Four broad Norms of hermeneutics? 1. Illumination of the Holy Spirit is required2. New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old Testament (filter the Old through the New)3. The literal interpretation is basic4. Scripture interprets Scripture
28 Pop Quiz How do I deal with these? Must I keep the Sabbath or the Big 10?I can not eat pig, the Scripture forbids itLet’s place a fleece out or cast lots to decideJob brought on his problems by fear and a bad confessionGod wants you rich and faith is the keyShould my wife wear a head covering?Acts shows the early church patterns for __________Revelation, Daniel, and Zechariah clearly teach _____________
30 Homiletics – the art of preaching “The art of moving men from a lower life to a higher life.” – Beecher“The communication of truth through personality.” – Anonymous“Preaching is divine truth voiced by a chosen personality to meet human need.” A. W. BlackwoodThe clothing of ideas in words - Longino
31 Preaching Declaring God’s Word as recorded in the Bible It is not about man’s ideas of God, but what God has done for man.The uniqueness of a Biblical sermon (as opposed to a speech) is due to the subject matter, the material used, and the results promised!
32 The WordGod is the God that speaks – not a lifeless idol, but One that communicatesFrom the beginning God has spoken to man through other menOT prophets preached, Ezra and Nehemiah taught detailed messages, Early Church typically would reason together, Early Church Fathers and Reformers wrote, etc.Today, just about every method is usedAs long as Christ is preached…
33 Some trends and termsHigher Criticism – attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. Higher criticism, in particular, focuses on the sources of a document and tries to determine the authorship, date and place of composition of the text.Lower Criticism, known as textual criticism, which is the endeavor to establish the original version of a text.Since the 1800’s modernism/evolution (devalue the supernatural) has been an issueIn our day a trend to be relevant to our society rules
34 On to the practicalSpontaneous vs. being prepared – comfort comes from being well preparedWe need to be current in our walk with GodWe should consider our audience – home vs. congregation vs. young, etc
35 What do I preach/teach The Scripture – read and explain Personal experiences either victory or defeat tied back to the WordIt is ok to share books and such in your family devotions…but if in the pulpit, the Word should be the focus. – “It is the foolishness of preaching that brings results” Corinthians 1:20-22The Word produces life – Isaiah 55:10-11 the Word will not return empty or void
36 The attitude of the Teacher Reverence of the Scripture carefully handling the Word of God – we will be held accountable for the words spoken for GodHumility – we do not have all the answers, nor have we arrived in any arenaOur message should match our life – no one is perfect, but preaching against immorality whilst living in it, is worthy of great judgmentJesus was not kind to the religious folks that lived differently than what they preached
37 Types of sermons Three basic types – topical, textual and expository Topical – Parenting, love, joy, end times, sinEasiest to keep unity of the message and easily grasped by the audienceGreat latitude in selecting ideas and topicsAllows a wide range of Scriptures to be usedEasy to get into a rut – water baptism, familyEasier to get into error since context is not the primary issue
38 Textual sermonsA shorter unit of verses than an entire book or chapter2 Peter 1:3-9 – His divine power has granted…Basically same advantages and disadvantages as topical2 Chronicles 27:2 – He did not enter the temple as his father had done…context should rule
39 Expository – prince of sermons Expository – An entire book, a chapter, etcForces the teacher to deal with topics not normally addressedHelps keep verses in their contextWhat does it say and what does it mean?Helps limit “proof texting”
40 Disadvantages Can lose focus over long periods of time Can limit ability to deal with current issues if you refuse to break loseGet lost in the details and potential for unlimited rabbit trailsStill, my favorite because it keeps the speaker close to the text – limits error and pet peevesGood Material!
41 Many ways to skin a sermon Point to point – a progressive line of thoughtTwin – conflicting or contrasting points or positive vs. negativeInterrogative with the text – Journalist questions – who, what, where, why, when, and how.Jewel – turning the verse around and around looking at all sides of it – not cinnamon rollThematic – It’s Friday, but Sunday’s coming” or “better to be a live dog than a dead lion”
42 Sermon typesRebuttal – to correct false teaching – a qualification of an elderLife-situation – marriage, finances, dispairWord studies – chase a word through the BibleCharacter studies – life of David or PaulDrama, poetry, music – the point is to preach Christ!However if someone comes in Sunday late with a gun…please stop them for me
43 Which one is the right one? How long should a piece of rope be?Depends on the need, leading of the Holy Spirit, and the audienceIt’s not a matter of right and wrong, but right and left and obedience to the Lord’s leadingI prefer textual or expository of large sections of ScriptureEasier to stay closer to the context and get the full picture and limit tangents and error, however I also teach topical at times
44 Our Point must be to communicate truth Text – what does it say, what does it mean?Context – what else is being said, the paragraph and chapter and book all add information and clarificationIllustrations – other texts, word pictures, graphics, etc.Illustrations should illustrate not dominateUse carefully – circumcision – think it through – how many of us remember commercials, but not the product they advertised?
45 Doctrine The Scripture teaches us how to live Doctrine is made up of many texts, not oneIf a doctrine is central to Christianity it will surface everywhere – Gospels, Paul, Peter, James, and John – Cross, love one another, the Resurrection, Lordship of Jesus, etc.Beware of doctrines based on limited textsMajor on what is major and minor on what is minor, if it is important it will surface oftenKnow history, creeds, and councils – if your understanding doesn’t fit these, question it
47 What do I do first? Whether at home or asked to share… Remember one task of the teacher is the clothing of ideas in words…Pray and seek the LordChoose your passage(s) depending on length of time and audience making sure you pick something appropriate
48 Think through the objective What type of sermon are your going to give – topical, textual or expositoryStudy your text asking the Holy Spirit to assist your understanding
49 Study, study, studyRead your text in as many translations as possible – why?Consult resource materials – dictionaries, lexicons, concordances, word studies, etcConsult commentaries - use a variety and understand the underlying presuppositions – Calvinist, Armenian, liberal, anti-Catholic, fundamentalist, Charismatic or not –they are all written by men with a particular bent
50 Don’t forget hermanAnswer the journalist questions for each verse – what is he talking about here? What did he say about this elsewhere in his writings? What did others say about it in the Scripture?What type of literature am I reading? Parable, poetry, proverb, narrative, letter?Get your thoughts organized and outlinedAll your points should connect and make senseSub points divide main points – not an excuse to ramble
51 What are we after when we teach or preach? The message should seek to change lives in some specific wayThe message should exalt Christ in some wayThe message should challenge the listeners to be doers of the WordA message should challenge a way of thinking – forsaking gathering together or a faulty underlying worldviewOur goal must be to be used of God in the presentation of truth to affect change
52 Answer the “so what” question Think about what you are attempting to communicate and write it down – the “so what” of the message – what is your point?What difference does it make to anyone listening to you? If is helpful, corrective, instructive, or pointless?Make it as personal as possible in order to relate to those that are listening to youAsk those that love you to help you – listen to your own teaching and be brutally objective
53 Basic sermon pattern Introduction – grab attention or set the focus Main text or texts followed by points and sub pointsIllustrations to enhance, reinforce, and clarify the pointsAPPLICATION – why did I preach this anyway?Conclusion – the purpose is to summarize, reinstate the main point, ask for a response and to conclude – not simply to end.
55 Basic preparation“I don’t use notes,” the preacher boldly declares, and we all say, “we can tell!”Spontaneous most times means unprepared!Studying is not quenching the SpiritGod can and does anoint your preparation – you will be much more comfortable if you are well preparedGo over your teaching several timesPractice it out loudBoil it down to one sentenceBreath, relax, give as unto the Lord
56 How to improve…Read and listen to good sermons with an ear to the details – why did I like this or not?Listen to your own and ask your loved ones to honestly help you - mispronounced words, nervous ticks, fill words – then don’t react if they do!Practice, be prepared and have a heart to serveWe do our best – the results are in God’s hands – did we do what He asked us to do – if so, then we will be just fine
57 Some Summary thoughtsWe have the honor of sharing God’s very words with others –our families and a body of believersWe must take it seriously and apply ourselves to the pursuit of excellence – we never arrive2 Timothy 2:15 – “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.”
58 As I continue to close… Any Questions It is better to leave your listeners longing for more than to have them wishing you were finished…the brain can adsorb no more than the rear can endureGod’s Word will not return void – it will accomplish the task for which He sent it forthBe strong, be men of the Word – keep at it!Any Questions