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Chapter 4: Sacred Scripture: The Inspired Word of God FAITH AND REVELATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Sacred Scripture: The Inspired Word of God FAITH AND REVELATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Sacred Scripture: The Inspired Word of God FAITH AND REVELATION

2 KEY IDEAS  The Bible, consisting of two Testaments—the Old and the New, each containing many individual books written over a long period of time—is one book whose principal author is God.  The inner unity of Scripture is found in Christ and his Covenant, which are hidden in the Old Testament and revealed in the New Testament. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

3 What are the two parts of the Bible? The Old Testament books were written before the time of Christ, and the New Testament books were written after Christ. What is the essential relationship between the two Testaments? The New Testament fulfills and completes the Old. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

4 What is the overall story told by the Old Testament? It recounts the long journey of salvation history toward redemption. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

5 THE OLD LAW PREPARED THE WAY FOR THE GOSPEL God speaks throughout. In the Old Testament, God spoke through prophets; in the New, he spoke through his Son. Given that it is a collection of many books, why is the Bible called the “Bible,” or “Book,” and not the “Bibles,” or “Many Books”? This name reflects the inner unity of these books due to God being their principal author. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

6 The analogy of faith Because of the absolute unity among the truths contained in the Bible, each truth can help understand the other truths and the total plan of Revelation. How does the Person of Christ express the Bible’s inner unity? Both Testaments are centered on Christ; the Old Testament prepares the way for Christ, who is revealed in the New Testament. How is Christ present in the Old Testament? He is present in prophesies he fulfills and in types, that is, events that prefigure him. How is the Church prefigured in the Old Testament? The Chosen People in the Old Testament prefigure the People of God in the New Testament, which is the Church. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

7 Guided Exercise Work with a partner to answer the following question in writing.  Based on the allegorical spiritual sense of Sacred Scripture presented in the last chapter, explain how Christ is prefigured in the Old Testament in the manna in the desert. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

8 Sidebar: THE OLD TESTAMENT IS FULFILLED IN CHRIST How is the entire Old Testament fulfilled in Christ? As a series of covenants between God and his people, the Old Testament is fulfilled in the New Covenant between the Person of Jesus Christ and his people. In this way, the New Testament is hidden in the Old, and the Old is revealed in the New. 1. The Old Law Prepared the Way for the Gospel

9 THE BOOKS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT How many books are in the Old Testament? There are forty-six books in the Old Testament. Over what period of time were the books of the Old Testament written? They were written over a period of nearly 1500 years, from the time of the Exodus through about a century before the coming of Christ. What are the four basic genres of books found in the Old Testament? The Old Testament includes law, history, wisdom, and prophecy. 2. The Old Testament: Law and History

10 THE LAW What different names are given to the first five books of the Bible? The Books of the Law, the Torah (Hebrew for “Law”), the five Books of Moses, and the Pentateuch are used. 2. The Old Testament: Law and History

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13 BASIC QUESTIONS  What is the aim of the wisdom literature of the Bible?  What is the content of the prophetic books? KEY IDEAS  The seven books of wisdom tell stories in poetry or prose and offer advice to help guide life according to God’s wisdom.  The eighteen prophetic books warned Israel over her infidelity, consoled her in her sufferings, and foretold the Messiah, Jesus. 3. The Old Testament: Wisdom and Prophecy

14 WISDOM What is the subject of Job? It is about the suffering of the innocent. Which is the greatest book of religious poetry, and to whom is it attributed? The Psalms are attributed to King David. What is the subject of Ecclesiastes? The vanity of worldly things is decried. 3. The Old Testament: Wisdom and Prophecy

15 PROPHECY To what extent is it true to say that the prophets warned, comforted, and predicted? Often the prophets warned of coming disaster if the people of Israel would not return to God. When disaster struck, the prophets gave the people messages of comfort. Many prophets also predicted the coming of the Messiah. Which prophet has some of the clearest prophecies of Christ? Isaiah prophesied clearly the Messiah. What were people’s reactions to Jeremiah’s foretelling the destruction of Judah? They hated him for giving unpleasant news. 3. The Old Testament: Wisdom and Prophecy

16 Sidebar: What Is Prophetic Literature? How many prophetic books are in the Old Testament? There are eighteen. What is a prophet? A prophet is called by God or speaks on God’s behalf, announcing his message. 3. The Old Testament: Wisdom and Prophecy

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18 BASIC QUESTIONS  What are the four genres of books in the New Testament?  What are the basic features of the Gospels of Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John? KEY IDEAS  The New Testament mirrors the Old Testament with books of law, history, wisdom, and prophecy.  St. Matthew shows Christ to be the heir to David’s Kingdom. St. Mark shows Christ to be the leader of a new Exodus. St. Luke composed his Gospel for Gentile Christians. St. John completes the other three Gospels, emphasizing Christ as the incarnate Word of God. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

19 THE NEW TESTAMENT What is the essential relationship between the Old and New Testaments? The New Testament does not replace but fulfills the Old. What is the Old Testament without the New Testament? It is a collection of tragic stories and unfulfilled promises. What is the Old Testament with the New Testament? It is the story of the gradual unfolding of God’s plan of salvation, which reaches its climax in the Death and Resurrection of Christ. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

20 What is the essential content of the New Testament? It is the story of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ and the earliest years of the Church. What were the two phases by which the Gospels came to be written? First was oral tradition, by which the Apostles handed on what Christ had said and done. Second was the written Gospels, by which the Sacred Authors wrote down some of what had been handed on by word of mouth. Which were the first written Christian works? Most likely the Epistles of St. Paul were first. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

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22 THE GOSPELS Why are the Gospels the heart of all the Scriptures? They are our principal source of knowledge regarding the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Who are the authors of the four Gospels? Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John wrote them. What is an Evangelist? He is an author of one of the Gospels. Extension: The word comes from Greek euangelion, which means “good news.” What were the personal relationships between the Evangelists and Christ? Sts. Matthew and John were disciples of Christ and eyewitnesses of the events they narrate. Sts. Mark and Luke were disciples of the Apostles. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

23 The Gospel of St. Matthew Who was St. Matthew? He was an Apostle of Christ, also called Levi, and originally a tax collector. What was the original audience and primary aim of St. Matthew’s Gospel? St. Matthew wrote for Jewish Christians living in Palestine to show Jesus is the Messiah, the Christ. What are some distinctive characteristics of St. Matthew’s Gospel? Two are the genealogy of Christ, which echoes the Book of Genesis, and his extensive use of direct quotes from Christ. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

24 The Gospel of St. Mark What was the relationship between Sts. Peter and Mark? They had something of a father-and-son relationship. St. Peter was the source of much of St. Mark’s Gospel. Who was St. Mark’s original audience? He probably wrote to Gentile Christians in Rome. What seems to have been St. Mark’s main interest? He emphasized what Christ did more than what he said. Why is it relatively easy to read St. Mark’s Gospel in one sitting? It is the shortest Gospel and reads quickly. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

25 The Gospel of St. Luke When was the Gospel of St. Luke written? It was likely written after those of Sts. Matthew and Mark. Why is there reason to believe there were a number of accounts of Christ’s life circulating among Christians by the time St. Luke had set out to write his Gospel? He wrote that he wanted to give an “orderly account” of Christ’s life. This implies there may have been other, partial accounts that did not provide as complete a history of Christ’s life. With which Apostle is St. Luke most associated? St. Luke accompanied St. Paul on some of his missionary journeys. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

26 Who was St. Luke’s probable original audience? He wrote to Gentile converts. Did St. Luke get all his information about Christ second hand? No. St. Luke was likely an eyewitness to many of the events described in his Gospel. From whom did St. Luke learn of the Annunciation, the Birth of Christ, the visit of the shepherds, and the finding of the Christ child in the Temple? He probably learned these from the Blessed Virgin Mary herself. How does St. Luke’s occupation as a physician show itself in his Gospel? St. Luke’s Gospel takes a detailed interest in Christ’s healings. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

27 The Gospel of St. John Who wrote the Gospel of St. John? “The disciple whom Christ loved,” the Apostle St. John, wrote it. When was St. John’s Gospel written? His was the last Gospel written, probably about AD 100. What is the relationship between St. John’s Gospel and the Synoptic Gospels? St. John’s Gospel presupposes the other Gospels’ existence and was written to complete them. St. John’s Gospel uses a different, more theological language, and it includes events not contained in the other Gospels. 4. The New Testament and the Four Gospels

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29 BASIC QUESTIONS  What is Acts of the Apostles?  What is the purpose of the Epistles?  What is the message of the Book of Revelation? KEY IDEAS  St. Luke followed his Gospel with the Acts of the Apostles, a history of the apostolic Church.  The Epistles, which is the wisdom literature of the New Testament, addressed problems of the early Church to live holy lives.  The Book of Revelation promises the fulfillment of the New Covenant. 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

30 THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES With what element of suspense does each Gospel end? Each Gospel ends with Christ risen from the dead and instructing his disciples to spread the Gospel, but they had not yet received the Holy Spirit. Why did St. Luke write the Acts of the Apostles? Inspired by the Holy Spirit, St. Luke knew future generations could benefit from a record of important events from the apostolic Church. What is the relationship between St. Luke’s Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles? The Acts of the Apostles is a sequel to St. Luke’s Gospel. What have archeologists and historians confirmed about the Acts of the Apostles? Every detail of St. Luke’s narrative that can be verified has turned out to be exactly accurate. Therefore, he is an extraordinarily reliable record-keeper. 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

31 THE EPISTLES Which New Testament books were written earliest? The Epistles likely were written first. What is an epistle? It is a letter intended for a specific audience; the Epistles in the New Testament were written often in response to particular problems in the early Church. How do the Epistles illustrate Christian life in the apostolic Church? They clarified and extended the teachings of the Apostles and corrected early errors. Who wrote most of the Epistles? St. Paul wrote most of them. 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

32 How are the Epistles of St. Paul arranged? They are arranged generally from longest to shortest rather than the order in which they were written. Who made up St. Paul’s original audiences? Nine of St. Paul’s letters were written to churches in various cities of the Roman Empire, and four were written to individuals. What is the importance of the Epistle to the Hebrews? It shows how the Old Testament is fulfilled in the life of Christ. What are the Catholic Epistles? They are letters written to the entire Church rather than to a particular church or individual. 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

33 THE BOOK OF REVELATION What is the literary form of the Book of Revelation? It is a prophetic book. How does the Book of Revelation convey its message? It uses symbols, allegories, and metaphors. Who is the author of the Book of Revelation? It is attributed to St. John, the Apostle and Evangelist, “the disciple whom Christ loved.” 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

34 What is the basic message of the Book of Revelation? There will be great tribulation, but God will preserve his people and bring them into the New, heavenly Jerusalem. How is Revelation an apt conclusion to Sacred Scripture? The Book of Genesis begins with Creation, and the Book of Revelation ends with the New Creation. Genesis recounts the Fall of all people, and Revelation recounts the final salvation of all the faithful. 5. The New Testament: Books of History, Wisdom, and Prophecy

35 BASIC QUESTIONS  How was the canon of Sacred Scripture determined? KEY IDEA  The canon of Sacred Scripture was determined by the Magisterium of the Church. The canon of the Old Testament followed the Septuagint, which was used by the Apostles, while the canon of the New Testament was based on apostolic origin, orthodoxy of content, and catholicity. 6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture

36 THE CANON OF SACRED SCRIPTURE What is the literal meaning of “canon”? It means “measuring rod” or “rule.” What is the meaning of “canon of Scripture”? It denotes a list of books that comprise Sacred Scripture. Do the Sacred Scriptures reveal which books belong to it? No; this was determined by the Magisterium of the Church. What practical problem did the early Church face that resulted in the forming of the canon of Scripture? The practical problem was to choose which of the many writings about Christ in circulation would be read during Church’s liturgies. 6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture

37 Canon of the Old Testament What is the Septuagint? It is a Greek edition of the Old Testament translated by rabbis in Alexandria in the third century BC. Why do modern-day Jews have a different canon than the Old Testament in Catholic Bibles? Jewish rabbis met in Jamnia about AD 90 and decided to exclude Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and fragments of Esther and Daniel because they were not composed or preserved in Hebrew. What are the deuterocanonical books? These books appear in the Septuagint but not in the modern Jewish canon. Deuterocanonical comes from the Greek for “second canon.” 6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture

38 Why did Christians include the deuterocanonical books? The Apostles and their successors in the Catholic Church held them to be part of Sacred Scripture. What are some Catholic beliefs and practices witnessed in the deuterocanonical books? The Second Book of Maccabees shows the practice of praying for the souls of the dead. The Book of Tobit includes the existence and action of guardian angels. What are the apocrypha? The apocrypha are books of dubious origin that have been excluded from the canon of Scripture. Extension: Many Protestants and Jews refer to the deuterocanonical books with this word. 6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture

39 Canon of the New Testament When were the New Testament books written? They were written between AD 40 and 100. What were the original languages of the New Testament books? St. Matthew likely wrote his version of the gospel in Aramaic. The rest were written in Greek with some Semitic influences. Why did the Church need to determine the canon of the New Testament? Within a few centuries, there were numerous accounts of the life of Christ circulating among the Christian community. The origin and teachings of many were suspect. 6. The Canon of Sacred Scripture

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