Presentation on theme: "Living Waters Wednesday Teaching C. Holoman September 3, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Living Waters Wednesday Teaching C. Holoman September 3, 2008
NEW TESTAMENT SURVEY COURSE AT LIVING WATERS Beginning Sept 4, 2008, 7:00pm; Dr. Holoman for Providence Bible College and Seminary. The course will last for 30 three hour sessions ending in May 2009
For college or seminary credit, students are required to register and pay tuition to the school by calling 757-625-7996. For no college credits, students are expected to behave like students: pay attention, attend the classes on time and do the course reading.
TEXT D.S.Russell, Between the Testaments @ Amazon.com
TEXT The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha Revised Standard Version Second Edition 1977 @ Amazon.com
Reading,to the point of familiarly, of D.S. Russell’s Between the Testaments pages 11-117 is assumed (before class begins) as these subjects were covered in the last quarter of O.T. Survey.
Hot News for Living Waters On October 26, Sunday PM will celebrate Sukkoth (the Feast of Booths, Tabernacles) John chapters 7-9 Lev 23:33-43. Deut 16:13-17. Ezra 3:4. 1 K 8:2, 65. Neh 8:13-18. Zech 14:16-19.
John 7:37 On the last day of the feast (of Booths), the great day, Jesus stood up and proclaimed, "If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. 38 He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, `Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.'"
Hosea 9:5 What will you do on the day of appointed festival, and on the day of the feast of the LORD? Hosea 12:9 I am the LORD your God from the land of Egypt; I will again make you dwell in booths, as in the days of the appointed feast.
Canonicity (Part 1) The origin, sacredness, authority and inspiration of canonical scripture.
Canonization= ‘the rule’ (Canonicity, Part 1) (The OT, Part 2) (Apoc. & NT, Part 3) That which lasted for almost five centuries. The historical process, of establishing certain writings to be scripture Cannon, and thus eliminating other writings.
Hebrews 1:1 In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets; 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son,.. Revelation unto scripture came..in many and various ways.. but the source was God.
Why have the Apocrypha as part of the lesson of the New Testament Cannon? Answer: Because the Hebrew- Jewish scripture with the Apocrypha was the Bible of the early church and exerted such a strong influence upon ideas in our New Testament books.
Apocrypha=hidden books Our Apocrypha is a small part of a number of ‘outside books’ written 200 BC-100 AD. Originally a title of honor, since it referred to books whose secret doctrines imparted to them special authority (2 Esdras 14 esp. vs. 42-47).
The Apocrypha, as we have it, is recorded in the LXX, which was the (Greek) scriptures of the early church. Because of the easy possibility of Christian interpretations, the Apocrypha was not included in the Hebrew (Jewish) Bible canonized in 90AD….
The Apocrypha, for the Jews..Additionally, the lack of manuscripts written in Hebrew, and the Jewish faith-position that the exact succession of the prophets has ceased in the time of Artaxerxes that is after the time of Ezra. Similar to the idea that the ‘gifts of the Holy Spirit ceased after the apostles died.’
The Apocrypha The survival of this body of literature is due entirely to the Christians who found these works especially interesting and edifying.
The Apocrypha Although there are no direct quotations from the Apocrypha. in the NT, the influence of these books is felt in every part of the Christian scriptures. Most of the ideas regarding the future life which are found in the NT writings had their origin in the apocalyptic writings in the Apocrypha.
Apocrypha Near quotations from the Apoc. as well as references to unknown works, are scattered throughout the NT writings. For example: Mat 11:28-30 & Sir 51:23ff Mat 9:16-17 & Sir 9:10 Lk 12:16-29 & Sir 11:18-19 Heb 1:1-3 & Wis 7:25-27 Heb 11:35-37 & 2 Mac 6-7 Jn 10:22 & 1 Mac 4:59
Apocrypha The early church fathers treated the canonical and non-canonical books much alike, the first evidence of distinction was about 386 AD. Jerome (430 AD), the translator of the Catholic Vulgate Bible, recognize a distinction from the Hebrew-Jewish cannon of 90 AD and the ‘outside books’, however by his time because of church practice they were included in the Vulgate (Official Latin) Bible.
Apocrypha Two divergent views continue today. The ancient churches, Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox, representing the traditional view of the church include the Apocrypha as canonical. The Protestant tradition has never regarded these ‘outside books’ as sacred scripture.
Apocrypha,Protestant tradition Martin Luther gathered the ‘outside books’ which to this time had been scattered among the OT Hebrew-Jewish cannon books and placed them at the end of the OT. He wrote in his German translation (1534) “These books are not held equal to the sacred scriptures, and yet are useful and good for reading.’
Apocrypha Protestant tradition This (1534) was the beginning of the end for the Apocrypha in Protestant circles, for their inferior rank was now emphasized by their position between the testaments, and their being grouped together made it more easy to remove them in a body from the Bible, if and when desired.
Apocrypha Protestant tradition Luther’s practice of segregating the Apocrypha to between the testaments is evident in early editions of the KJV. Growing antagonism to the ‘outside books’ in Great Britain led the British and Foreign Bible Society, followed by the American Bible Society to announce that they would exclude those books from their printed copies. Since 1927 the Apocrypha has been omitted from most KJV copies.
Apocrypha Roman tradition The Roman church, in reaction, formally canonized the Vulgate at the Council of Trent (1870) and again at the Vatican Council of 1870. Roman Catholic scholars often refer to the Apocrypha as “deutero-canonical works”- with no intention of implying, however, that they are of inferior rank or authority.
The Apocrypha The long-standing controversy regarding the canonicity to the Apocrypha. Thus thus ended in a stalemate, with each side regarding its decisions final and irrevocable. It should be added. However, the attitude toward the Apocrypha has changed considerably in our time.
It has been said that no one can have the complete Bible, as a source book for the cultural study of our religion without the Apocrypha. From the earliest Christian times down to the age of the KJV they belonged to the Bible; and while critical judgments and religious attitudes deny them a position of equality with the Old and New Testaments scriptures, historically and culturally they are still an integral part of our Bible.
Forward of the 2 nd RSV Annotated Bible “..the Apocrypha belong to the common heritage of the Church from Judaism, and have been a part of the great English translations of the Bible, including the KJV of 1611..” “..the complete cannon of the Septuagint Version..” used in the early and orthodox churches.
What is the real issue concerning the canonization of the Apocrypha? Canonicity
Canonicity of Scripture The origin, sacredness, authority and inspiration of canonical scripture was of God. It was God’s teaching to his people of what He purposed for what we call existence and how to relate to it as God’s people.
Deciding Canonization yourself! Do we accept the conclusions of others or examine the writings ourselves? The answer rests in our confidence in either the historical processes, tradition or our own knowledge, hearing and discernment of the Spirit of Prophecy.
Cannon of the New Testament The letters of Paul, written in the 50-60s were collected and in circulation by 100AD. Collections of the standardized first-person remembrances of Jesus-the ‘proto gospels’.
II Clement (150 AD) is the earliest Christian document to cite a passage from the Gospels as holy scripture. About this same time Justin Martyr describes with some fullness that “the memoirs of the Apostles (Gospels) or the writings of the Prophets are read as long as time permits.”
Thus he (Martyr) makes clear, not only that books (Gospels) are the source of his knowledge of Jesus, but also that these same books are being read in the liturgy interchangeable with the prophets of the ancient Hebrew scriptures.
One group of Christian writings- the Gospels- has been established in ecclesiastical usage in the place hitherto reserved to the inspired scriptures of Judaism.
The decisive development takes place 150-200 AD. First the gospels are treated as holy scripture in writings and liturgy. Soon afterward the letters of Paul are associated with them in similar usage; and before 200 AD a variable number of other writings gather around the nucleus of gospel and apostle.
The cannon of the New Testament had emerged in essentials; it only remained to determine its limits by the exclusion of such writings as cannot secure and maintain a title of apostolicity. What is apostolic is canonical; whatever cannot be recognized as stemming from the apostles is not canonical.
Tertullian (155-222AD) is the first writer to use the term ‘New Testament’ in the sense of a collection of books, and he leaves no doubt that for him it possesses exactly the same authority as the ancient scriptures.
The council in Hippo 393 and at the Third Council of Carthage 397 concluded that only these books (our current New Testament) could be read in the church as divine scripture.
The canon was actually determined more by usage, by the common consent of the Christian community, testing the books in its daily life over centuries, rather than by formal authority. Self Authentication.
Mark 12:24 Jesus said to them, "Is not this why you are wrong, that you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God? John 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me;