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The Reformation and The Enlightenment Ayana Allen Shannon Burnett EDCI 658 History of Education Spring 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation and The Enlightenment Ayana Allen Shannon Burnett EDCI 658 History of Education Spring 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reformation and The Enlightenment Ayana Allen Shannon Burnett EDCI 658 History of Education Spring 2007

2 Map of Europe (c. 1560)

3 Roman Catholic – Italy, Spain, Eastern Europe, parts of France, and British Isles particularly England and Ireland (split with Anglican Church) Roman Catholic – Italy, Spain, Eastern Europe, parts of France, and British Isles particularly England and Ireland (split with Anglican Church) Lutheran – Germany (Luther’s 95 Theses posted in Saxony); Prussia, Scandinavia Lutheran – Germany (Luther’s 95 Theses posted in Saxony); Prussia, Scandinavia Calvinist – Switzerland (where he lived), Scotland, Netherlands, Lithuania parts of France Calvinist – Switzerland (where he lived), Scotland, Netherlands, Lithuania parts of France Anglican – England; parts of Ireland Anglican – England; parts of Ireland Eastern Orthodox – Ottoman Empire, Russia Eastern Orthodox – Ottoman Empire, Russia

4 Timeline of the Reformation 1517 – Luther’s “Ninety-Five Theses” 1534 – Henry VII “Acts of Supremacy” 1536 – Calvin’s Institute of the Christian Religion 1543 – Loyola’s Constitutions of the Society 1545 – Council of Trent 1555 – Peace of Augsburg

5 Timeline of the Reformation  Surprising Short Span of 38 years  17 years after Luther; the bulk happened within a span of 11 years.  1545 – Council of Trent (“Catholic Counter-Reformation”): Pope Paul III’s attempt to reform religious practices and combat Protestantism.  1555 – Peace of Augsburg (“cuius regio, eius religio” “Whose rule, his religion;” The religion of the Prince or leader)  1648 – Peace of Westphalia; Formally established religions in their strong holds.

6 Martin Luther ( )  “Ninety-Five Theses” (1517)  Activist  “Justification by Faith”  Universal Literacy  Dual-Track Education

7 Martin Luther ( ) Nailed “Ninety-Five Theses” on church court at Wittenberg Nailed “Ninety-Five Theses” on church court at Wittenberg Objected to the sale of indulgences (paying the R.C. Church for forgiveness of sins); Objected to the sale of indulgences (paying the R.C. Church for forgiveness of sins); Not trying to break from church; influence change. Not trying to break from church; influence change. Activist; In a time when many of his contemporaries (ex. Erasmus) discussed problems, he believed a person should act on beliefs (not just theorize or criticize). Activist; In a time when many of his contemporaries (ex. Erasmus) discussed problems, he believed a person should act on beliefs (not just theorize or criticize). Luther believed salvation was a personal commitment with God (not the church). Luther believed salvation was a personal commitment with God (not the church). “Justification by Faith” – people’s salvation came with accepting God’s gift of faith which will bring salvation. (Priesthood unnecessary) “Justification by Faith” – people’s salvation came with accepting God’s gift of faith which will bring salvation. (Priesthood unnecessary) Acknowledged corruptions of biblical text during Middle Ages; wanted to offer uncorrupted text to masses. Acknowledged corruptions of biblical text during Middle Ages; wanted to offer uncorrupted text to masses. Universal Literacy; Translated Bible into German (Function = All people should know the Bible) Universal Literacy; Translated Bible into German (Function = All people should know the Bible)

8 Martin Luther and Education Believed that Formal Education is not only form of education. Believed that Formal Education is not only form of education. Stressed the role of Family in the enculturation process (esp. in context of the Reformation) Stressed the role of Family in the enculturation process (esp. in context of the Reformation) Encouraged parents to teach literacy skills, religious skills (prayer, Bible study), and vocational skills. Encouraged parents to teach literacy skills, religious skills (prayer, Bible study), and vocational skills. Major vocational skills (Religious, Political, and Economic) Major vocational skills (Religious, Political, and Economic) Believed schools were necessary to defend the faith, teach scripture, and Universal Literacy (so that individuals could read Bible) Believed schools were necessary to defend the faith, teach scripture, and Universal Literacy (so that individuals could read Bible) Dual-Track Education Dual-Track Education Est. vernacular schools for all (religion, reading, writing, math, music) Est. vernacular schools for all (religion, reading, writing, math, music) Humanist secondary schools – to educate religious and political elite. Humanist secondary schools – to educate religious and political elite.

9 John Calvin ( ) Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) Predestination Predestination Universal Literacy Universal Literacy Dual-Track Education Dual-Track Education Education as Disciplinary Tool Education as Disciplinary Tool

10 John Calvin ( ) French Refugee; Moves to Geneva, Switzerland French Refugee; Moves to Geneva, Switzerland Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – broke completely with R.C. Church. Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) – broke completely with R.C. Church. For Calvin, God is an Absolute Sovereign (no need for the intermediation of priests, etc.) For Calvin, God is an Absolute Sovereign (no need for the intermediation of priests, etc.) People are innately corrupt (traces this back to Adam) People are innately corrupt (traces this back to Adam) Authority derives from commitment to righteous living, obedience to God’s will (as defined in Scripture). Authority derives from commitment to righteous living, obedience to God’s will (as defined in Scripture). Predestination: God chose some people for eternal salvation; others eternal damnation Predestination: God chose some people for eternal salvation; others eternal damnation Ideals of Efficiency, Diligence, Industry (Good works were consequence of salvation). Ideals of Efficiency, Diligence, Industry (Good works were consequence of salvation). His theories supported Puritan Work Ethic – appealed to the middle class His theories supported Puritan Work Ethic – appealed to the middle class Emphasized reading of Bible as the source for information; also conversation with God Emphasized reading of Bible as the source for information; also conversation with God

11 Calvin and Education Like Luther, supported Universal Literacy and Dual-Track Education Like Luther, supported Universal Literacy and Dual-Track Education Formal schooling was a means of indoctrinating and disciplining children Formal schooling was a means of indoctrinating and disciplining children Rejected play Rejected play Encouraged corporal punishment Encouraged corporal punishment

12 Henry VIII ( ) Acts of Supremacy (1534) Acts of Supremacy (1534) Head of the Anglican Church Head of the Anglican Church Statute of the Six Articles (1539) Statute of the Six Articles (1539)

13 Henry VII ( ) Second male child born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Not in line for the crown. Second male child born to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Not in line for the crown. Sisters: Margaret (Queen of Scotland); Mary (Queen of France) Sisters: Margaret (Queen of Scotland); Mary (Queen of France) First English monarch educated under Renaissance influence; Accomplished scholar, linguist, musician, athlete. First English monarch educated under Renaissance influence; Accomplished scholar, linguist, musician, athlete. Brother Arthur dies. He comes in line for the throne. He becomes betrothed to Catherine of Aragon (his brother’s widow). Brother Arthur dies. He comes in line for the throne. He becomes betrothed to Catherine of Aragon (his brother’s widow). Pressure towards Protestantism; Henry retains values of Catholicism (Statute of Six Articles). Pressure towards Protestantism; Henry retains values of Catholicism (Statute of Six Articles).

14 The Six Wives of Henry VIII

15 Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived Catherine of Aragon – Divorced after 20 yrs. (several failed pregnancies; one daughter - no male child); Archbishop of Canterbury annuls marriage; Pope declares annulment void, excommunicates Henry VIII. Catherine of Aragon – Divorced after 20 yrs. (several failed pregnancies; one daughter - no male child); Archbishop of Canterbury annuls marriage; Pope declares annulment void, excommunicates Henry VIII. Act of Supremacy (becomes the head of the Church of England, Anglican Church Act of Supremacy (becomes the head of the Church of England, Anglican Church Marries Anne Boleyn (she’s pregnant – girl child); Falsely charged with adultery. Found guilty (Beheaded) Marries Anne Boleyn (she’s pregnant – girl child); Falsely charged with adultery. Found guilty (Beheaded) Jane Seymour births first male child; dies in childbirth Jane Seymour births first male child; dies in childbirth Anne of Cleves – divorced because he dislikes her Anne of Cleves – divorced because he dislikes her Catherine Howard – charged with infidelity (legitimately); beheaded Catherine Howard – charged with infidelity (legitimately); beheaded Margaret Tudor – survived his death Margaret Tudor – survived his death

16 Henry VII and Education Laissez-Faire policy of education (no changes formalized) Laissez-Faire policy of education (no changes formalized) Few major implications for students: Few major implications for students: –Upper and middle-class were given access to humanist education. Stronger implications for teachers: Stronger implications for teachers: –Act of Supremacy meant all teachers must swear oath of loyalty to crown. –Act of Uniformity meant all teachers must support the Anglican church.

17 Ignatius Loyola ( ) Constitutions of the Society (1541) Constitutions of the Society (1541) Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Ratio Studiorum Ratio Studiorum

18 Ignatius Loyola ( ) Served in the court of Juan Velazquez, Spain Served in the court of Juan Velazquez, Spain Injured in battle (leg broken, re-broken, set; walked with limp) Injured in battle (leg broken, re-broken, set; walked with limp) During recuperation, read copy of The Life of Christ (his conversion) During recuperation, read copy of The Life of Christ (his conversion) Later, at Manresa: He is living in a cave communing with Christ. He has a vision enabled him to see God in all things (Grace in this world – principle of S.O.J.) Later, at Manresa: He is living in a cave communing with Christ. He has a vision enabled him to see God in all things (Grace in this world – principle of S.O.J.) Decides he wants to become a priest. Decides he wants to become a priest. Illiterate of Latin, he studied with young boys in grammar school to prepare for the priesthood Illiterate of Latin, he studied with young boys in grammar school to prepare for the priesthood Believed Latin is critical for priests and Christian gentlemen Believed Latin is critical for priests and Christian gentlemen He later studied at University of Paris He later studied at University of Paris Society of Jesus: organization of priest/teachers; Remains a part of the Catholic Church (no schism) Society of Jesus: organization of priest/teachers; Remains a part of the Catholic Church (no schism)

19 Loyola and Education Never intended to establish school but found it a natural evolution for training Jesuits. Never intended to establish school but found it a natural evolution for training Jesuits. Ratio Studiorum (provide general education preceding specialization). Ratio Studiorum (provide general education preceding specialization). Three facilities: 1) Humane Letters (focusing on classical language and literature; some vernacular studies) 2) Arts/Natural Sciences 3) Theology (highest level of education) Stressed eloquence (Quintilian) Stressed eloquence (Quintilian) Emphasized the importance of individualizing curriculum for student’s age, education, capacity, needs, interests, etc. Emphasized the importance of individualizing curriculum for student’s age, education, capacity, needs, interests, etc.

20 Comenius ( ) “Father of Modern Day Education” “Father of Modern Day Education” Pansophism Pansophism Theories bridged Renaissance and The Enlightenment Theories bridged Renaissance and The Enlightenment The Great Didactic (1628) The Great Didactic (1628)

21 Comenius ( ) Moravian Brethren; was married but wife and children died of plague Moravian Brethren; was married but wife and children died of plague Pansophism: believed in Western peace and unity Pansophism: believed in Western peace and unity Pansophic education cultivates: wisdom, virtue, and piety. Pansophic education cultivates: wisdom, virtue, and piety. Referred to as a “belated humanist” Referred to as a “belated humanist” Philosophies bridged humanism and the “naturalism” and “sense realism” of the Enlightenment. Philosophies bridged humanism and the “naturalism” and “sense realism” of the Enlightenment. The true Christian should be formed on the model of Christ and intellectually enlightened through Universal Knowledge The true Christian should be formed on the model of Christ and intellectually enlightened through Universal Knowledge

22 Comenius and Education Acknowledged Stages of Child Development Acknowledged Stages of Child Development Believed schools should be divided into six year increments aligned with the stages of development: 1) Informal education with mother 2) Vernacular School 3) Latin Preparatory School 4) University Believed schools should be divided into six year increments aligned with the stages of development: 1) Informal education with mother 2) Vernacular School 3) Latin Preparatory School 4) University Efficient method of instruction that would make learning joyful and bright light to Christ. Efficient method of instruction that would make learning joyful and bright light to Christ. Teachers should be pleasant. Teachers should be pleasant.

23 The Enlightenment Age of Reason Age of Reason Progress Progress Deism and the Enlightenment Deism and the Enlightenment Laissez-Faire Economics Laissez-Faire Economics Political Liberalism Political Liberalism William Blake’s Isaac Newton (1795)

24 The Enlightenment Age of Reason Age of Reason –Cure social, political, economic ills –Peace, Utopian Government, Perfect Society –Scientific Method, Nature Progress Progress –Humanity’s natural goodness –Reason liberated by natural education –Child-centered education Deism Deism Enlightenment-faith in human reason and benevolence- deism: humans endowed with reasoning minds in order to work out their own destiny. Enlightenment-faith in human reason and benevolence- deism: humans endowed with reasoning minds in order to work out their own destiny. Institutionalized religious orthodoxies were illiberal Institutionalized religious orthodoxies were illiberal Separation of church and state Separation of church and state

25 Laissez-Faire Economics Francois Quesnay Free market economy Free market economy Adam Smith Free trade, economic individualism Free trade, economic individualism “No Taxation without Representation” “No Taxation without Representation” Adam Smith: Wealth of a Nation

26 Laissez-Faire Economics Quesnay ( ) Free market economy Free market economy Agriculture/Production led to wealth Agriculture/Production led to wealth Adam Smith ( ) Free trade, economic individualism, open market, limited government held great appeal for the rising middle classes Free trade, economic individualism, open market, limited government held great appeal for the rising middle classes “No Taxation without Representation” “No Taxation without Representation”

27 John Locke ( ) Political Liberalism Political Liberalism

28 Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ) Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ) Natural Education Natural Education Emile (1762) Emile (1762) Progressive Education Progressive Education Stages of human development Stages of human development Importance of Sensation Importance of Sensation

29 The Reformation and The Enlightenment Rise of Universal Literacy Rise of Universal Literacy Movement away from one central Church and authority Movement away from one central Church and authority Independence of Thought Independence of Thought Scientific Inquiry Scientific Inquiry Movement towards Child-Centered Education Movement towards Child-Centered Education

30 References Gutek, Gerald L. A History of the Western Educational Experience (Second Ed.) Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, Giclee-Print-C jpeg Giclee-Print-C jpeg

31 Answers to Quiz 1.The Reformation began the dissolution of one centralized church and authority in Europe. It played a factor in universal literacy as individuals began to relate to Scripture. 2. Martin’s “Ninety-Five Theses” were intended to call for reform in the Catholic Church. One of his appeals was a call to end the sale of indulgences. 3. John Calvin believes children are “conceived in sin, and born of corruption.” Schools are meant to teach them discipline. 4. Henry VIII secured the “Acts of Supremacy” and became the head of the Anglican Church so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. 5.His philosophies (child development, teaching for a child’s individual needs and making learning joyful) correlate with modern-day teaching principles.

32 Answers to Quiz 6.The Deists were at the forefront of the movement to disestablish state churches and to separate the church and state. 7. Rousseau’s Emile recounted the story of the education of a boy from infancy to manhood? 8.Etienne Bonnot de Condillac asserted that sensation was the source of human knowledge. 9. Through natural education people could be restored to their original goodness and be given the stimulus and preparation to live scientifically, rationally, and progressively. 10. False: Laissez-Faire Economics advocated for a Free Market Economy.


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