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Four Views of the End Times. Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Matthew 24–25; Mark 13; Luke 21 Jesus promised his disciples that he.

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Presentation on theme: "Four Views of the End Times. Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Matthew 24–25; Mark 13; Luke 21 Jesus promised his disciples that he."— Presentation transcript:

1 Four Views of the End Times

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3 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Matthew 24–25; Mark 13; Luke 21 Jesus promised his disciples that he would come again. Before his return there would be “birth pains”— events before “the signs” of the end.

4 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Birth pains: -There will be wars, famine, earthquakes, and pestilence. -Wickedness will increase. -There will be fearful events and signs from heaven. -People will be deceived by many false messiahs.

5 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Birth pains: -Believers in Christ will be persecuted and killed. -Believers will be witnesses of Jesus to kings. -Many will turn away from the faith. -There will be betrayals by parents, brothers, and friends.

6 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End The signs of the end: -Jerusalem will be surrounded by armies. -The “abomination that causes desolation” will stand in the holy place. -Jerusalem will be trampled on by Gentiles.

7 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End The signs of the end: -The sun will darken, the moon will not shine, and the stars will fall. -False prophets will perform signs, and miracles. -Severe ocean activity will disturb the nations. -People will faint with terror.

8 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End The signs of the end: -Jesus will appear in the sky. -The trumpet will sound. -Angels will gather God’s elect.

9 Key Bible Passages What Jesus Taught about the End Jesus said, “No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.” – Matthew 24:36 “Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved.” – Matthew 24:12–13

10 Dispensational Premillennialism Christ’s return and rapture are separate events. Menu

11 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? It’s the belief that Jesus will come back to earth after a seven-year tribulation and will rule during a thousand-year millennium of peace on earth. IsraelChurch Great Tribulation Second Coming of Christ Millennium Eternity Final Judgment 7 yrs1,000 yrs

12 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? God will give the nation of Israel the land described in Genesis 15:18—from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates—the full extent of King Solomon’s kingdom.Genesis 15:18 IsraelChurch Great Tribulation Second Coming of Christ Millennium Eternity Final Judgment 7 yrs1,000 yrs

13 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? The rapture comes before the great tribulation, and the second coming after the great tribulation. Rapture IsraelChurch Great TribulationMillennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Final Judgment

14 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? Most dispensational premillennialists are “pre-tribulationists.” They understand Revelation 4:1–2 to refer to “the rapture.” Rapture Pre-tribulation IsraelChurch Great TribulationMillennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Final Judgment

15 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? The rapture is understood as the event when Christ removes Christians from the earth before the great tribulation begins. Rapture Pre-tribulation IsraelChurch Great TribulationMillennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Final Judgment

16 Dispensational Premillennialism What is Dispensational Premillennialism? Some dispensational premillennialists, known as mid-tribulationists, believe the rapture will occur during the great tribulation. Mid-tribulation Rapture Pre-tribulation IsraelChurch Great TribulationMillennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Final Judgment

17 Dispensational Premillennialism What does this view emphasize? During the seven years of tribulation, people who are faithful to Jesus will suffer intense persecution. Natural disasters and wars will occur. This view emphasizes literal interpretations of Revelation.

18 Dispensational Premillennialism According to this view... During the great tribulation, many Jews will turn to Jesus Christ. God’s promises to Abraham and his offspring were unconditional. Therefore, the Jews will still receive the land described in Genesis 15:18.

19 Dispensational Premillennialism According to this view... The establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948 fulfilled a key end- times prophecy. References to Israel in Revelation refer to the nation of Israel.

20 Dispensational Premillennialism What Scriptures seem to support this view? God will remove Christians before the outpouring of his wrath during the tribulation (Revelation 3:10).Revelation 3:10 God’s promises to Abraham and his offspring were unconditional (Genesis 15:7–21). The church is not specifically mentioned between Revelation 4 and 19.

21 Dispensational Premillennialism When has this view been popular? Emerged in the 1800s among the Plymouth Brethren. Increased in popularity in the late 1800s and remains widespread today.

22 Dispensational Premillennialism Prominent dispensational premillennialists: J. Nelson Darby C.I. Scofield Harry A. Ironside Gleason Archer Donald G. Barnhouse Charles Ryrie Hal Lindsey Chuck Smith John MacArthur Tim LaHaye Charles Stanley Norman L. Geisler Menu

23 Historic Premillennialism Christians endure the tribulation. Menu

24 Historic Premillennialism What is Historic Premillennialism? The belief that Christians will remain on the earth during the great tribulation. The Church Age Great Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ

25 Historic Premillennialism What is Historic Premillennialism? The tribulation will purify the churches by rooting out false believers. The second coming of Christ will precede the millennium. The Church Age Great Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Society grows increasingly evil

26 Historic Premillennialism What is Historic Premillennialism? The church has replaced the nation of Israel as God’s covenant people. The thousand-year millennium is a literal future event. The Church Age Great Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Society grows increasingly evil1,000 yrs

27 Historic Premillennialism What is Historic Premillennialism? The earliest church fathers envisioned an earthly millennium. Early church theologians anticipated not only the physical reign of Jesus Christ following a time of testing, but also the restoration of all creation to its original goodness in a millennial kingdom.

28 Historic Premillennialism What is Historic Premillennialism? Historic premillennialism began to fade as later church fathers focused on the spiritual aspects of Christ’s reign and downplayed the idea of an earthly millennium. They were influenced by Greek philosophers who said the physical world was evil.

29 Historic Premillennialism What does this view emphasize? Historic premillennialists try to balance symbolic and literal interpretations of Revelation. They emphasize both what the book meant to first-century readers and how it might apply for people’s lives today.

30 Historic Premillennialism According to this view... God’s promises of land and blessings to Abraham and his offspring were conditional promises, based on their obedience. Israel’s persistent disobedience violated God’s covenant with them.

31 Historic Premillennialism According to this view... God has maintained a covenant of grace throughout the Old and New Testaments with all who trusted in him. These believers—embodied today in the Church—are the true Israel. Most references to “Israel” in Revelation refer symbolically to the church.

32 Historic Premillennialism What Scriptures seem to support this view? The revealing of the Antichrist precedes Christ’s return (2 Thessalonians 2:3–4).2 Thessalonians 2:3–4 The tribulation will root out false members from the churches (Revelation 2:22–23).Revelation 2:22–23 The saints are on earth during the tribulation (Revelation 13:7).Revelation 13:7

33 Historic Premillennialism What Scriptures seem to support this view? God’s promises to Abraham and his offspring were conditional (Genesis 22:17–18).Genesis 22:17–18 The New Testament frequently uses “Israel” and “the twelve tribes” to refer to Christians (Romans 9:6–8).Romans 9:6–8 Historic premillennialism seems to have been the earliest view of the end times among Christians who lived just after the apostles.

34 Historic Premillennialism Prominent historic premillennialists include: Early church fathers -Papias -Justin Martyr -Irenaeus -Lactantius Modern supporters -David Dockery -John Warwick Montgomery -George R. Beasley- Murray -Robert Gundry -George E. Ladd Menu

35 Amillennialism No literal thousand-year rule Menu

36 Amillennialism What is Amillennialism? The belief that Jesus will come again some day, but there is no literal thousand-year rule by Jesus on earth. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment

37 Amillennialism What is Amillennialism? Rather, the millennium symbolizes Christ’s reign in the lives of his people from the beginning of the church until his second coming. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment

38 Amillennialism What is Amillennialism? Christ’s triumph over Satan through his death and resurrection in AD 30 restrained the power of Satan on the earth. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment Satan’s power is restrained

39 Amillennialism What is Amillennialism? Persecution of Christians (tribulation) will occur until Jesus comes again, as will the expansion of God’s kingdom (the millennium). The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment Satan’s power is restrained

40 Amillennialism What is Amillennialism? When Christ returns, he will immediately defeat the powers of evil, resurrect the saved and the unsaved, judge them, and deliver them to their eternal destinies. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment Satan’s power is restrained

41 Amillennialism What does this view emphasize? Many amillennialists believe that the book of Revelation consists of seven sections. These seven sections are not interpreted as successive time periods.

42 Amillennialism What does this view emphasize? Rather, the seven sections describe the time from Jesus’ first coming until his second coming in seven different ways. Amillennialists tend to emphasize the historical context of Revelation and what the book meant to first-century readers.

43 Amillennialism According to this view... The great tribulation represents disasters, wars, and persecutions that have occurred throughout church history. Most references to “Israel” in Revelation are symbolic references to the people of God on earth (Galatians 6:16).Galatians 6:16

44 Amillennialism According to this view... In apocalyptic literature, numbers represent concepts, not literal statistics. For example: -Six symbolizes incompleteness. -Seven represents completeness. -Ten indicates something that is extreme but limited.

45 Amillennialism According to this view... In apocalyptic literature, numbers represent concepts, not literal statistics. For example: -Twelve represents the perfection of God’s people. -One thousand symbolizes a great amount or long period of time.

46 Amillennialism What Scriptures seem to support this view? The Bible frequently uses the number 1,000 figuratively (2 Peter 3:8).2 Peter 3:8 The first resurrection could refer to the spiritual resurrection (the regeneration or new birth) of persons who trust Christ (Romans 11:13–15).Romans 11:13–15

47 Amillennialism What Scriptures seem to support this view? The second coming of Christ and the resurrection of the saved and the unsaved will occur at the same time (John 5:28–29).John 5:28–29 The saints are on earth during the tribulation (Revelation 13:7).Revelation 13:7

48 Amillennialism When has this view been popular? Amillennialism became popular in the 5th century. Amillennialism has remained widespread throughout church history.

49 Amillennialism Prominent amillennialists include: Augustine (possibly the first amillennialist) Martin Luther John Calvin E.Y. Mullins Abraham Kuyper G.C. Berkouwer Herschel Hobbs Stanley Grenz J. I. Packer Menu

50 Postmillennialism Christ returns after the millennium. Menu

51 Postmillennialism What is Postmillennialism? Postmillennialism is the belief that the second coming of Christ will occur after the millennium. A period of great tribulation may precede the millennium. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment

52 Postmillennialism What is Postmillennialism? The millennial reign described in Revelation 20:1–6 represents a long time period when, through the preaching of the gospel, most of the world will submit to Christ. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Society gradually improves Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment

53 Postmillennialism What is Postmillennialism? During this time, Satan will have no power over the earth, and evil regimes will collapse. The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Society gradually improves Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment

54 Postmillennialism What is Postmillennialism? Some charismatic Christians embrace dominion postmillennialism—that is, through the contemporary charismatic movement, God has been binding Satan. When the church recognizes the fullness of its power through the Holy Spirit, the church will establish God’s kingdom on earth and usher in the millennium, a golden age.

55 Postmillennialism What is Postmillennialism? Some view the tribulation as a brief time of persecution that occurs immediately before the millennium. Others believe that “great tribulation” describes the seven years of the First Jewish-Roman War which culminated in AD 70 with the destruction of the Jewish temple.

56 Postmillennialism What does this view emphasize? Postmillennialists place great confidence in the preaching of the gospel. They contend that the gospel will eventually spread in such a way that nearly everyone in the world will turn to Jesus Christ.

57 Postmillennialism What does this view emphasize? One scripture cited in favor of this view is Mark 3:23–27.Mark 3:23–27 Augustine understood these verses to mean that before Jesus can claim his kingdom, those that are lost (the “possessions” of Satan, “the strong man”) must come under the control of Jesus.

58 Postmillennialism What does this view emphasize? Postmillennialists believe that this golden age is described in Bible passages such as Micah 4:3.Micah 4:3 Postmillennialists tend to emphasize the power of the gospel to transform societies and individual lives.

59 Postmillennialism According to this view... During the millennium, Christ will rule the earth through his Spirit and through his Church. He will not, however, be physically present on the earth. The resurrection depicted in Revelation 20:4 represents the spiritual regeneration of people who trust Jesus Christ.Revelation 20:4

60 Postmillennialism According to this view... These events will occur together immediately after the millennium: -The second coming of Christ -The final conflict between good and evil -The defeat of Satan -The physical resurrection of all people -The final judgment

61 Postmillennialism Which Scriptures seem to support this view? Every ethnic group will receive the gospel before the second coming (Matthew 24:14).Matthew 24:14 The first resurrection could refer to the spiritual resurrection (the regeneration or new birth) of persons who trust Christ (Romans 11:13–15).Romans 11:13–15 The second coming of Christ and the resurrection of all people, saved and unsaved, will occur at the same time (John 5:28–29).John 5:28–29

62 Postmillennialism When has this view been popular? The earliest writer who was clearly postmillennialist was Joachim of Fiore (1135– 1202). But many historians believe that earlier church leaders such as Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius of Alexandria, and Augustine of Hippo were also postmillennialists. During the 1800s, postmillennialism increased in popularity.

63 Postmillennialism When has this view been popular? Some Christians believed that the increased work of missionaries throughout the world represented the beginning of the millennium. During the early 1900s, a world war and an economic depression raised questions about whether the world was actually becoming a better place. Postmillennialism then began to diminish in popularity.

64 Postmillennialism Prominent postmillennialists include: Jonathan Edwards B.B. Warfield Augustus H. Strong Charles Hodge R.L. Dabney Loraine Boettner R.C. Sproul Menu

65 Summary Menu

66 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Yes Historic Premillennialism Yes AmillennialismYes PostmillennialismYes 1. Will Jesus return physically?

67 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism After a 7-year tribulation; before the millennium. Historic Premillennialism After a 7-year tribulation; before the millennium. AmillennialismAnytime; a detailed time frame is not important. PostmillennialismAfter the millennium. 2. When will Jesus return?

68 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism No, they are separated by either 7 years or 3.5 years. Historic Premillennialism Yes AmillennialismYes PostmillennialismYes 3. Will the rapture and second coming of Christ occur at the same time?

69 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Yes Historic Premillennialism Yes AmillennialismIt occurs any time there are wars, disasters, or Christian persecution. PostmillennialismIt’s the conflict between good and evil since Jesus’ resurrection. 4.Will there be a Great Tribulation?

70 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Christians are raptured before the tribulation or 3.5 years into it. Historic Premillennialism Yes, Christians will go through the tribulation. AmillennialismYes, Christians will endure persecution until Christ returns. PostmillennialismYes, tribulation occurs when the gospel is opposed. 5. Will Christians suffer during the tribulation?

71 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism After the tribulation, Christ will return and reign for 1,000 years. Historic Premillennialism After the tribulation, Christ will return and reign for 1,000 years. AmillennialismNo, the millennium is the reign of Christ in the hearts of believers. PostmillennialismNo, it is a period of peace when the gospel reaches all people. 6. Will there be a literal 1,000-year millennium?

72 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Christians only Historic Premillennialism Christians only AmillennialismChristians only PostmillennialismChristians only 7. Who is saved?

73 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Yes Historic Premillennialism No AmillennialismNo PostmillennialismNo 8. Is the modern state of Israel relevant to the prophecies in Revelation?

74 Summary Dispensational Premillennialism Became popular in about 1860 and has increased in popularity. Historic Premillennialism The earliest view of the end times, emerging in the late 1st century. AmillennialismPopularized in AD 400 and continues to be accepted today. PostmillennialismMay have been popular as early as AD 300; less popular today. 9. When was this view most held?

75 Summary Historic Premillennialism The Church Age Great Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Society grows increasingly evil Dispensational Premillennialism Mid-tribulation Rapture Pre-tribulation IsraelChurch Great Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ Final Judgment

76 SummaryPostmillennialism The Church AgeTribulationMillennium Eternity Society gradually improves Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment Amillennialism The Church Age Tribulation Millennium Eternity Second Coming of Christ & Final Judgment Satan’s power is restrained Menu

77 Four Views of the End Times All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means–for example, electronic, photocopy, recording–without prior written permission of the publisher. Author: Timothy Paul Jones, Ed. D Photo Credits: Slide 11: © viki2win; Slide 13 © Brandon Laufenberg; Slide 14 © luchschen; Slide 15 © ArtyFree; Slide 19–20 © Courtney Navey; Slide 22 © JustASC; Slide 24 © Donald Linscott; Slides 29–30 © Ekaterina Fribus; Slide 42 © Liv friis-larsen; Slide 44 © Stephen Finn; Slides 52–53 © Ali Ender Birer; Slides 66–67 © Brian A Jackson; Slides 81–82 © Spectral-Design. Dates for the early church leaders: The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by E.A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977). Trademarks and Photos: Any trademarked symbols included in this teaching presentation belong to the organizations identified. Rose Publishing is a Christian organization and not affiliated with any of the organizations with trademarked symbols. The symbols and photos used in this presentation fall under the U.S.A. Copyright Law, Title 17, Section 107. All Scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version ®. NIV ®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved. © 2008 Bristol Works, Inc. Rose Publishing 4733 Torrance Blvd., #259 Torrance, California 90505 U.S.A. All rights reserved. Email: info@rose-publishing.com www.rose-publishing.com

78 Related teaching materials available at www.rose-publishing.com RESOURCES PowerPoints Pamphlets Wall Charts

79 Related teaching materials available at www.rose-publishing.com RESOURCES PowerPoints Pamphlets Wall Charts

80 1 Thessalonians 4:16–17 “For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever.” Back

81 Genesis 15:18 “On that day the L ORD made a covenant with Abram and said, ‘To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates—’” Back

82 Revelation 3:10 “Since you have kept my command to endure patiently, I will also keep you from the hour of trial that is going to come upon the whole world to test those who live on the earth.” Back

83 Romans 9:6–8 “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.’ In other words, it is not the natural children who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.” Back

84 2 Thessalonians 2:3–4 “Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction. He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.” Back

85 Revelation 2:22–23 “So I will cast her on a bed of suffering, and I will make those who commit adultery with her suffer intensely, unless they repent of her ways. I will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know that I am he who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of you according to your deeds.” Back

86 Revelation 13:7 “He was given power to make war against the saints and to conquer them. And he was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation.”

87 Back Genesis 22:17–18 “I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the starts in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.”

88 Galatians 6:16 “Peace and mercy to all who follow this rule, even to the Israel of God.” Back

89 2 Peter 3:8 “But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day.” Back

90 Romans 11:13–15 “I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy and save some of them. For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?”

91 John 5:28–29 “Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out—those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned.” Back

92 Mark 3:23–27 “So Jesus called them and spoke to them in parables: ‘How can Satan drive out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan opposes himself and is divided, he cannot stand; his end has come. In fact, no one can enter a strong man’s house and carry off his possessions unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can rob his house.” Back

93 Micah 4:3 “He will judge between many peoples and will settle disputes for strong nations far and wide. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore.” Back

94 Revelation 20:4 “I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or his image and had not received his mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years.” Back

95 Matthew 24:14 “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.” Back


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