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An exploration of the 7 Deuterocanonical books Holy Spirit Catholic Church January 2011 Deuterocanonicals.

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Presentation on theme: "An exploration of the 7 Deuterocanonical books Holy Spirit Catholic Church January 2011 Deuterocanonicals."— Presentation transcript:

1 an exploration of the 7 Deuterocanonical books Holy Spirit Catholic Church January 2011 Deuterocanonicals

2 Almighty eternal God, I acknowledge you as my first beginning and my last end. My Creator and my Redeemer, my sanctification and my consummation. My God and my all. I thank you for your lavish gifts to me, to the whole human race and to all creation. Lord, teach me not to hold on to life too tightly. Teach me to take it as a gift. To enjoy it, to cherish it while I have it, but to let go gracefully and thankfully when the time comes. The gift is great, but the Giver is greater still. You are the Giver and in you is the life that never ends. Amen.

3 Deuterocanonical Books meaning of deuterocanonical? which books? when written? what language?

4 Deuterocanonical Books meaning of deuterocanonical? “second canon”

5 Deuterocanonical Books which books? Tobit, Judith, I & II Maccabees Baruch, Wisdom, Sirach

6 Deuterocanonical Books when written? Between early 2 nd & late 1 st Century BC (2oo) (100-90)

7 Deuterocanonical Books what language? most in Hebrew, then Greek some originally in Greek

8 Deuterocanonicals: Book Lengths Baruch 6 chapters Tobit 14 Chapters II Maccabees 15 Chapters I Maccabees 16 Chapters Sirach 51 Chapters Judith 16 Chapters Wisdom 19 Chapters

9 Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories Jewish Categories of T a N a K T orah – the law N eviim – the prophets K ethuvim – the writings

10 Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories Christian Categories of OT Torah/Pentateuch Historical Books Wisdom Books Prophetic Books

11 Deuterocanonicals: Genre Categories Baruch Tobit I & II Maccabees Judith Wisdom Christian Categories of OT Torah/Pentateuch Historical Books Wisdom Books Prophetic Books Sirach

12 Deuterocanonicals: Dating the Texts Baruch Tobit Judith Wisdom Sirach 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees 200 BC

13 Notions of Canon & 7 Books as Canon Jewish Scriptures Christian Scriptures

14 The 7 Books as Canon How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures? Was there a Jewish canon? When? How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures? Was there a Christian OT canon? Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them?

15 How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures? Was there a Jewish canon? When?

16 How did Jews at time of Christ view their sacred scriptures? Was there a Jewish canon? Jews had a very fluid view of canon in the centuries before and after Jesus Torah had a “pride of place” and seen as sacred scripture by 400 BC Prophets garnered same status by 200 BC Wisdom literature same status by 90 AD or later II Maccabees 15:9 – “law and the prophets” Luke 24:44 – “law of Moses, prophets and Psalms” Septuagint was critical translation and important to understanding the Deuterocanonical books

17 Septuagint: Important for understanding the Deuterocanonicals Septuagint (LXX)– critical in understanding history of canon & place of Deuterocanonical books Greek translation of sacred scriptures for Jews in Alexandria and in the Diaspora Translated between 3 rd Century and 130 BC “LXX” meaning denotes a sacred translation Jews initially accepted the value of the Septuagint and later rejected it as Christians accepted as their text SUMMARY: Jews view of canon was fluid until as late as 3 rd Century AD. Rejected Septuagint due to Christian acceptance.

18 How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures? Was there a Christian OT canon?

19 How did Christians at the time of Christ, and shortly thereafter, view their sacred scriptures? Early Christians’ OT was the Septuagint, the Greek OT LXX had all texts, including the 7 Deuterocanonical books The NT writers use LXX most of the time in citing the OT (>80% of time) SUMMARY: Jewish rejection of LXX was two-fold: more conservative view of canon, eliminating books written in Greek (or ones they thought were written in Greek) to solidify Jewish identity the rabbis eliminated any books that Christians were using -- (LXX) included the 7 books

20 Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon Christian OT 46 Books (Septuagint) Used from time of Jesus and throughout the NT

21 Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon 7 Books Christian OT 46 Books (Septuagint) Used from time of Jesus and throughout the NT

22 Septuagint vs later Jewish Canon 7 Books Christian OT 46 Books (Septuagint) Jewish TaNaK 39 Books (Palestinian Canon) Used from time of Jesus and throughout the NT Not decided earlier than 90 AD or 3 rd Century AD

23 Deuterocanonicals in the NT New Testament use of the Deuterocanonicals Over 70 references in NT to Deuterocanonicals > 30 in Gospels/Acts > 20 in Paul > 20 in remaining NT (~13 in Revelation) Gospels’ use: “sheep without a shepherd” (Judith 11:19) “seed on rocky ground, no root” (Sirach 40:15) Jesus calling God his Father (Wisdom 2:16) “takes away branches not bearing fruit” (Wisdom 4:5) Paul’s use: “sin and death entering the world” (Wisdom 2:4) pagan sacrifices are to demons, not God (Baruch 4:7) “suit of armor” language (Wisdom 5:17-20)

24 Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them? (did Catholics “add” them to the Bible?)

25 Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them? (did Catholics “add” them to the Bible?) NO

26 Why do Catholics embrace the 7 books, while Protestants reject them? Catholics accept the 7 books because they were part of the Septuagint, the first OT text of early Christianity (Church Fathers) Protestants reject them on 2 grounds: Jews didn’t accept the books Certain doctrine taught are “Catholic” doctrines Prayers for the dead (Tobit 12:12; 2 Maccabees 12:39-45) Purgatory (Wisdom 3:1-7) Intercession of those in heaven (2 Maccabees 15:14) Intercession of angels (Tobit 12:12-15) Protestants accepted the 27 NT books authorized by the Catholic Church, but reject part of the OT (for faulty reasons)

27 Deuterocanonicals: Use in Lectionary BookChaptersVerses # Sunday Verses # Weekday Verses I Maccabees II Maccabees Tobit Judith Baruch Wisdom Sirach

28 Book of Tobit Dating: early 2 nd Century BC Setting: 8 th Century BC (fall of North 721 BC) Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving) Length: 14 Chapters Themes: God answers prayers and rewards the faithful Angels/Demons are active in affairs Emphasis on prayer, fasting and almsgiving Maintenance of Jewish identity in Exile is critical Strong sapiential/wisdom themes

29 Book of Judith Dating: mid 2nd – early 1 st Century BC Setting: 6 th Century BC (assault on Judah) Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving) Length: 16 Chapters Themes: Overt fiction is the literary medium Tale of unlikely hero delivering her people Strong belief in one God & fidelity to the God & law God is in control of history, saving his people God delivers in unusual ways

30 Book of I Maccabees Dating: mid-late 2 nd Century BC (130s?) Setting: ~175 to ~134 BC Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving) Length: 16 Chapters Themes: Allegiance to the law of God Preservation of Jewish cult and identity Foundational story for Hanukkah Connection to Jewish history God saved Jews thru the Maccabees

31 Book of II Maccabees Dating: late 2 nd Century BC (shortly after 1 Maccabees) Setting: overlaps with 1 Maccabees – only covering yrs Text: Greek (original) Length: 15 Chapters Themes: Theological reflection on 1 Maccabees Stresses martyrdom as a witness to faith Introduces “new” themes/concepts Creation out of nothing (ex nihilo) (7:28) Resurrection/Afterlife (7:9,14) Prayers/sacrifices for the dead (12:38-46) Prayers from the dead (15:14)

32 Development of Wisdom Literature Proverbs ~ BCE secular, optimistic Job ~400 BCE religious, pessimistic Proverbs 1-9 ~400 BCE religious, optimistic Wisdom ~ BCE religious/Greek, realistic Sirach ~ BCE religious, realistic Ecclesiastes ~ BCE secular, pessimistic

33 Book of Baruch Dating: early – middle 2 nd Century BC ( ) Setting: post-Exile Babylon (6 th Century BC) Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving) Length: 6 Chapters Themes: Explores finding God outside of Promised Land Theologically conservative: sin/guilt, contrition, deliverance – lacking sense of afterlife Strong monotheistic emphasis Prophet plays a strong role in reminding the exiles to hope Strong connectedness to Jerusalem, even from afar

34 Book of Sirach Dating: 2 nd Century BC ( ) (translation 132) Text: Hebrew (original), Greek (surviving) Length: 51 Chapters Themes: A collection of moral instructions, proverbs & ethical essays Offers a more conservative response to Hellenization –true wisdom found in Jewish history (heavy integration of history) Heavy connection of wisdom with Jewish cult/priesthood Jewish wisdom trumps wisdom of others “this life” orientation (body/soul dichotomy, afterlife absent)

35 Book of Wisdom Dating: early 1 st Century BC (probably last written) Text: likely Greek (original) Length: 19 Chapters Themes: Written in Greek, saturated with Jewish themes Critique of the traditional notion of retribution Sacred history (haggadah) is important to identity Developed notions of soul/spirit and afterlife Personified Wisdom (picked up in NT, applied to Jesus)

36 In Summary Forms/Literary Genres Tobit & Judith – highly fictionalized narratives with overarching themes & messages I Maccabees – historical narrative written closely to events II Maccabees – polished theological interpretation of I Maccabees Baruch – prose (opening/close) with poetry (middle) Sirach & Wisdom – saturated in proverbs and ethical sayings (typical of wisdom literature )

37 In Summary SHARED Themes God is One: Rigid Monotheism Fidelity to the Law of God Extolling the great story of Israel/Jewish past Prayer, preceded by a contrite heart, is key History is God’s stage

38 In Summary UNIQUE Themes God saves thru the lowly ( Judith ) Angels and demons are amongst us ( Tobit ) Concrete notions of resurrection and afterlife emerged later in time ( II Maccabees, Wisdom ) Preservation of cult/law/way of life should be achieved at all costs ( Judith, I Maccabees ) Wisdom (personified in Wisdom ), found in creation & law ( Baruch ) found in history ( Sirach )


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