Presentation on theme: "A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History – Part II A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History – Part II."— Presentation transcript:
A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History – Part II A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History – Part II
A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History Part I: Origins of Christian Theology and Scripture (600B.C. to 500C.E) Part II: Modern Bible and Christian Sectarianism (1000C.E. to 1800C.E.) 27-page source document available at the bottom of the following web page: http://cegis.cee.vt.edu/userwebs/mdougher/
Bismillah – In the name of God “And there are, certainly, Among the People of the Book, Those who believe in God, In the revelation to you, And in the revelation to them, Bowing in humility to God: They will not sell The signs of God For a miserable gain! For them is a reward With their Lord, And God is swift in account. Surah Al-Imran, 3: 199
Review: What is Theology? NOUN:NOUN: NOUN: 1. The study of the nature of God and religious truth; rational inquiry into religious questions. 2. A system or school of opinions concerning God and religious questions: Protestant theology; Jewish theology. 3. A course of specialized religious study usually at a college or seminary. ETYMOLOGY:ETYMOLOGY: Source: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
Sources of information Krieger, L.S., Neill, I., and E. Reynolds. D.C. 1997. World History-Perspectives on the Past. 5 th edition. Heath and Company, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company. Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines. 2 nd edition. Harper & Row Publishers, N.Y. (Oxford Univeristy lecturer in Patristic Studies) Funk, W. Robert., Hoover, Roy. W., and the Jesus Seminar. 1993. The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus. Macmillan Publishing, N.Y. pp.553. Kennedy, Brent. 1994. Melungeuns: The Resurrection of a Proud People. Mercer University Press. Adams, Dickenson W. (Ed.). 1983. Jefferson’s Extracts from the Gospels “The Philosophy of Jesus” and “The Life and Morals of Jesus.” Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. pp.438. Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. 2000. The Mysteries of Jesus: A Muslim Study of the Origins and Doctrines of the Christian Church. Sakina Books, Oxford, UK. Asad, Muhammad. 1975. Islam at the Crossroads. Arafat Publications. pp.160. Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. 1989. The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. Amana Corporaton, Maryland. pp.1758. Quick, Abdullah Hakim. 1990. Deeper Roots: Muslims in the Caribbean before Columbus to the Present. AICCLA. Diouf, Sylviane A. 1998. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York University Press. Non-Muslim sourcesMuslim sources
Review: Outline of Near East history 600B.C. to 500C.E. Ancient Persian Empire (600B.C. – 330B.C.) –Zorastrianism, ancient Babylon, Jews Rome at its height (0C.E.-200C.E.) –Crucible of modern Christianity Byzantine Empire inherits from declining Rome (200C.E.-563C.E.) –Persian Empire a shadow of former greatness
Review: Foundation of modern Christianity 33 C.E.Jesus (pbuh) is taken up to heaven by God. 70 C.E.The Romans destroy the Temple. 90 C.E.As Christian era begins, a new ritual develops, the Eucharist. 325 C.E.Nicean Council convened by Emperor Constantine* *”Anyone who affirms that the Father pre-existed the Son, or that the Son is a creature produced out of nothingness, or is subject to moral change or development, is formally declared a heretic.” 367 C.E.First official list of 27 books in the New Testament. 381 C.E.Doctrine of “One God in Three Persons” formally ratified. 570 C.E.Muhammad (pbuh) born in Mecca.
Syria and Palestine under Rome (65 B.C.) Roman province of Judea created (6 C.E.)
Byzantines inherit from the Roman Empire. Constantine conquers East and West and ends persecution of Christians. Council of Nicea (325 C.E.) bans “Arianism”.
Review: Foundation of modern Christian theology Jesus (pbuh) came with a message to Bani Israel alone. Jesus (pbuh) is taken to heaven by God. Saul of Tarsus, a Hellenized Jew, preaches a new “gospel” of the resurrected Jesus, eventually converting the Roman Empire. Followers of Jesus remain in Jerusalem worshipping in temple until Roman destruction in 70C.E. Pauline theology gains dominance over Jesus’ followers, the “Nazarenes”.
The Bible Jewish Bible (Torah, Nebiium, Ketubim) Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments) –Biblical inspiration –New Testament (Gospel vs. Injil) –What is the Q source? –What is significance of Dead Sea scrolls?
Words of Jesus in Qur’an Bismillah And (remember) when God will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O Jesus (pbuh), son of Mary! Did you say unto men: “Worship me and my mother as two gods besides God?” He will say: “Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner- self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All- Knower of all that is hidden and unseen.
“Never did I say to them aught except what You (God) did command me to say: ‘Worship God, my Lord and your Lord’, And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things. “If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, Verily You, only You are the All-Mighty, the All- Wise”. [Surah al-Mai’da “The Table Spread”, 5:116-118]
A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History A Muslim Study of Christian Scripture and History Part I: Origins of Christian Theology and Scripture (600B.C. to 500C.E) Part II: Modern Bible and Christian Sectarianism (1000C.E. to 1800C.E.) 27-page source document available at the bottom of the following web page: http://cegis.cee.vt.edu/userwebs/mdougher /
Historical outline of Christian Europe: 1000C.E.-1800C.E. High Middle Ages (1000-1300C.E.) Origin of European nations (1150-1580C.E.) Renaissance and exploration (1300-1600C.E.) Reformation and scientific revolution (1450- 1650C.E.) Spanish Empire and shifting powers (1500- 1650C.E.) Transition to modern times (1558-1815C.E.)
Rise of Islam: 600-750C.E. Abbasid caliphate 750-1055 C.E. Selcuk Turks inherit from the Abbasids, occupying all of Asia Minor and Jerusalem. Crusades (1096-1270 C.E.) are a direct response to Muslim conquest of Jerusalem.
Al Mas’udi map: 346 AH/957 CE the ocean the turks morocco / sudan earth dome andalus freng lands unknown lands china
Byzantine Constantinople Conquered by Muhammad II in 1453 C.E., ending the 1,123 year-old Byzantine Empire.
Conquest of Constantinople (1453 C.E.) Sent shock waves across the Christian world. Ottoman State emerged as a great world power. Ottomans were finally halted at gates of Vienna (1529 C.E.). Ottoman empire dismembered after World War I. Allenby enters Jerusalem, announcing “…the Crusades have ended.” Hundreds of trainloads of Muslim heritage are shipped from Istanbul to museums and private collectors across Europe.