Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biblical Hermeneutics Grammatical-Historical Overview

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biblical Hermeneutics Grammatical-Historical Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biblical Hermeneutics Grammatical-Historical Overview
Lay a foundation for why there is a need for a study that teaches Christ Followers how to rightly divide the word of truth. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

2 Biblical Hermeneutics Table of Content Overview
Study of Supporting Peripheral areas Affecting Hermeneutics Personal Introduction Goal Objective's Course Introduction Who should take this course Hermeneutically Teaching the Word Merrill C Tenny Quote Terms to be Familiar With What is Hermeneutics What is Exegesis What is Eisegesis What do you think about the state of today’s church (Movie) Bible knowledge Survey Discerning the Will of God Objections to learning proper Bible Interpretation The Internal Claims of Scripture Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter EXPECT PERSECUTION FOR SPEAKING BIBLICAL TRUTH Why are there so many different Christian Bible interpretations? In studying Hermeneutics there are supporting peripheral areas that must be understood so that one has a balanced expectation about it. The reason for approaching it this way is to present it in a practical manner so that one can appreciate the value that it brings in understanding God’s will and to help us make sense of the world we live in. I’m under the opinion that a purely academic approach would afford us the view. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

3 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Table of Content Overview 2 Study of Hermeneutics INTERPRETING THE BIBLE OBJECTIVELY (Movie) Which Bible Version to Study From What is Hermeneutics Source of Biblical Interpretation Benefits of Hermeneutics Inappropriate Methods by Dr. Bob Utley, Professor of Hermeneutics (Retired) The Interpretation Process The Language of the Bible The Literal Interpretation Principle of the Bible Types and Antitypes The Grammatical Principle The Cultural Principle The Contextual Principle The Historical Principle Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle The Progressive Principle The Accommodation Principle Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

4 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Table of Content Overview 3 Study of Hermeneutics The One Interpretation Principle The Harmony of Scripture Principle The Genre Figures of Speech in the Bible Interpretation of Prophecy Principles 1 Interpreting Prophecy according to the law of double reference Interpretation of Prophecy Language Principle Interpretation of Prophecy Historical Background Principle Interpretation of Prophecy Passage Parallel Principle Types and Antitypes References used for this Presentation Recommended Books / Websites Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

5 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Goal Reduce Biblical Ignorance among Believers Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

6 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Objectives Enable believers: To defend the faith (2 Pet 3:15) To contend for the faith (Jude 3) Prepare for discipleship and teaching work (Matt 28:19) To enable believers to “correctly” interpret scripture on their own Correctly discern between good and evil (1 John 4:1, Eph 4:14, Heb 5:13-14) To equip and build others within the church (Eph 4:11-12, Acts 18:24-26) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

7 Introduction The fact that God has spoken in Holy Scripture is at the heart of our faith. Therefore it’s important for us to make certain what God has said This task should not be approached carelessly or half heartily but with fear, trembling and prudence Upon the “correct interpretation” of the Bible rests the doctrine of the foundation of our faith i.e., doctrinal understanding of person of Christ, salvation, sanctification, the nature of God, the study of prophecy and other important biblical doctrines and ultimately our eternal destiny The correct interpretation can be done only if we have carefully, thoroughly and systematically apply the system of bible interpretation which will yield the meaning that the bible writer intended to convey as they wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

8 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Introduction Further, we need to know the correct method of Biblical Interpretation so that we do not confuse the voice of God with that of man This should leads us to the questions: How do we bridge the linguistic, cultural, and historical gaps between us today and that of the writers of the Bible What are the guiding principles that will help us build the bridge as we address these gaps? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

9 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Introduction In order for the local church to grow in grace and knowledge of God's word, remain healthy, be ready to address an every changing culture, remain strong during times of adversity. God’s “whole” eternal truth must be consistency taught by its servants, obeyed in the walk of life, expressed in worship, utilized in the work of service. Neh 8:8-9 Also Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, the Levites, explained the law to the people while the people remained in their place. They read from the book, from the law of God, translating to give the sense so that they understood the reading. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

10 Hermeneutically Teaching the Word
There is a distinct difference between preaching and teaching. "Preaching" (Greek: ceruse) is to proclaim, publish, or herald the Good News. “Teaching (Greek didaskō, did-as´-ko) is to systematically and objectively instruct, guide, and apply others through the Word of God. With the direction of the Holy Spirit, both can ultimately lead to a person's salvation. In general, preaching should be used for the unsaved while teaching should be used for the saved. In comparing the two, the Bible clearly places greater emphasis on teaching over preaching. Jesus himself was often times referred to as "Teacher" (Matt. 8:19, 12:38, 19:16, 22:24) or "Rabbi" (John 1:38). Additionally, many New Testament passages allude to teaching more clearly: "Command and teach these things." (1 Timothy 4:11) "You must teach what is in accord with sound doctrine." (Titus 2:1) "Those who oppose him he must gently instruct..." (2 Timothy 2:25) However, we are not to neglect preaching. Jesus tells us to, "Go into all the world and preach the good news to all creation." (Mark 16:15). Paul tells us to, "Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season, correct, rebuke and encourage -- with great patience and careful instruction." (2 Timothy 4:2) Within our society today we can clearly see two distinct types of pastors and ministers within our churches. There are those who "preach" the Word Then there are those who "teach" the Word. The Study of Hermeneutics can and will enable the servant in the Lord to be a workman that’s equip to perform the ministry God call has called them to. (2 Tim 2:15) A teacher or preacher who employs hermeneutics no doubt will be more effective for the cause of Christ in both preaching and teaching believers. (Eph4:11-12) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton (http://www.bibleteacher.org/con_4.htm)

11 Who should take this course
All of those who have been “Born again by the Spirit of God” so that we may effectively engage in the good works of God in which we where save to serve in. (Eph 2:10) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

12 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Keep in Mind "The Bible was written in an environment that is now unfamiliar to most of its readers. The individual realization of the modern world with its new facilities, products, and problems is quite different from the social and economic conditions described in the Bible. Some of its language is puzzling, and can easily be misconstrued if one does not have some explanation of the ancient background." Merrill C. Tenney Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

13 Terms to Be familiar with
Hermeneutics Exegesis Eisegesis Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

14 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
What is Hermeneutics Hermeneutics is the science and art of biblical interpretation to discover what the author’s intended meaning was, when he wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. It is a science because there exists a systematic, mechanical, and formulated approach to the interpretation process. It is an art because it involves an individual's talent, skills, and knowledge to perform the task of interpreting the Scriptures. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

15 "What is Biblical Exegesis?"
Exegesis is the “application of hermeneutics” which seeks to extract from the Scriptural text that meaning which is already present. (Roy B. Zuck, Basic Bible Interpretation, p.22) Good biblical exegesis is actually commanded in scripture. “Study [be diligent] to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). According to this verse, we must handle the Word of God properly, Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

16 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Eisegesis Eisegesis - A subjective method of interpretation by which one introduces their own opinions into the text. This typically is done at the expense of either the language (Hebrew, Greek) and or context of passage or the historical setting or the context of the subject as found in the whole of scripture Avoid this method at all Cost Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

17 What do you think about the state of today’s church?
The purpose of showing you this video is give you a sense of mission and focus as it pertains to the study of Hermeneutics We have just listen to the testimony of pastors, Youth Sunday School teacher, seminary professor, etc where the following points where mentioned: Loss of Focus / mission Lack of over all biblical understanding Less talk about the person of Christ and what God is doing More emphasis about self and self esteem’ i.e. me syndrome Perpetuating of Biblical ignorance Lack of understanding about key biblical doctrines Relevant biblical activities according to the word of God Miss-focus on who the scriptures focus should be about Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

18 Bible knowledge Survey 1
According to a Gallup Poll: Only half of adults interviewed nationwide could name any of the four Gospels of the New Testament. Just 37% of those interviewed could name all four Gospels. Only 42% of adults were able to name as many as five of the Ten Commandments correctly. Seven in ten (70%) were able to name the town where Jesus was born, but just 42% could identify him as the person who delivered the Sermon on the Mount. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

19 Bible knowledge Survey 2
Researcher George Barna has also documented the lack of Bible knowledge in the United States: 38% of Americans believe the entire Bible was written several decades after Jesus' death and resurrection (While this is true of the New Testament, the entire Old Testament was written hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus Christ). 12% of adults believe that Noah's wife was Joan of Arc. 49% believe that the Bible teaches that money is the root of all evil. (The love of money is said to be the root of all types of evil). 75% believe that the Bible teaches that God helps those who help themselves. 10 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

20 Bible knowledge Survey 3
Consider the following statistics regarding “born again” believers:[1] 35% believe that Jesus Christ was crucified but He never had a physical resurrection 28% believe that when Jesus Christ lived on earth He committed sins 46% claim that Satan is “not a living being but is a symbol of evil.” 1/3 believes if a person is good enough, then he or she earn a place in Heaven. 1 out of 4 believes it doesn’t matter what faith you follow because all religions teach the same lessons. 52% reject the existence of the Holy Spirit. Only 5% adults have a biblical worldview. Only 9% born between the yrs base their moral choices on the Bible. Only 32% born between the yrs say that moral truth is absolute. [1] The Barna Group of Ventura, California: Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

21 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (1) 1 Chron 12:32 32  Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with knowledge of what Israel should do, (i.e. what God wanted to accomplish) Eph 5:15-17 15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

22 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (2) Discerning the Will of God Keeping in mind the points discussed in the video; the Gallop Poll survey and Barna surveys and lets discuss the will of God using 1 Chron 12:32 and Eph 5:15-17 to understanding the mind of God for the times we live and the course of action that we should be pursuing. 1 Chron 12:32 32  Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with knowledge of what Israel should do, Understood = ‘biynah / bee-naw‘ n – comes from the root Hebrew verb bene. The verb and its derivatives are used 247 times. The background idea of the verb is to “discern The men of Issachar were the fewest of all, only 200. They understood the natural times: , could discern the face of the sky, were weather-wise, could advise their neighbors in the proper times for ploughing, sowing reaping, etc. They understood the ceremonial times: the hour that Or the ceremonial times, the times appointed for the solemn feasts; therefore they are said to call the people to the mountain (Deut 33:19) to offer sac sacrifices of righteousness. In this critical juncture they knew Israel ought to make David king. It was not only expedient, but necessary; the present posture of affairs called for it. Application : They had discerned God’s will in this matter. These were people who saw with prophetic vision and responded with action. Just as we should respond in the same spirit—rightly discerning the need for accurate Biblical interpretation. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

23 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (3) In Eph 5:15-17 Paul tells the church at Ephesus and by way of application the church individually and universal to understand what the will of God is and act accordingly just as the men of Issachar. Eph 5:15-17 15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us) How to Walk Eph 5:15 “See” is blepō, “to discern mentally, observe perceive, consider, contemplate, look to in the sense of taking care, take heed.” “Walk” is peripateō, “to order one’s behavior, to conduct one’s self.” “Circumspectly” is akribōs - ak·ree·boce , “exactly, accurately, carefully.” Believers then, are to walk (live) carefully, so as to be wise or skillful and thus please the Lord. The manner for this careful, precise walk is making the right use of every opportunity Can be translated , “Be constantly taking heed how accurately you are conducting yourselves.” That is, see to it that your conduct is accurate with respect to the demands of the Word of God. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

24 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (4) Objective of the Walk 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 16 “Redeeming” is exagorazō - ex·ag·or·ad·zo, (The middle voice indicates the subject performing an action upon himself (reflexive action) or for his own benefit. E.g., “The boy groomed himself) .” “to buy up.” Therefore In the middle voice as it is used here, it means, “to buy up for one’s self or one’s advantage.” Metaphorically, it means, “to make a wise and sacred use of every opportunity for doing good,” “Time” kairos - kahee·ros (καιρος), “time as regarded in its strategic. The idea is taking advantage of the opportunities that present themselves. The right time; a limited period of time. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

25 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (5) The reason for redeeming the time V 15 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. “Evil” - poneros /pon·ay·ros , “evil in active opposition to the good, pernicious” . Evil is always aggressive in its opposition to good Our redemption of the time is of special significance as we approach the end of the church The use of the word time indicates opportunity is limited accordingly to the duration of the presented oppportunity Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

26 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Discerning the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation (6) 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us) (5:17) “WhereFore or By Ye - Mood — Imperative The imperative mood corresponds to the English imperative, and expresses a command Example Jesus’ phrase, “Repent ye, and believe the gospel” (Mk.1:15) is not at all an “invitation,” but an absolute command requiring full obedience on the part of all hearers. “Unwise” is aphrōn (ἀφρων), “without reason, senseless, foolish, stupid, without reflection or intelligence, acting rashly.” “Understanding” is suniēmi (συνιημι), “to set or bring together, to put the perception with the thing perceived, to set or join together in the mind,” thus, “to understand.” The word speaks of reflective thinking. The active voice represents the subject as the doer or performer of the action. e.g., in the sentence, “The boy hit the ball,” the boy performs the action. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

27 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Summary of why we need to Discern the Will of God as to the need for Accurate Biblical Interpretation There are 4 four points I would like to bring to your attention: Point 1 The ability to correctly analyze situations through discernment is what is required and should be a normal part of the Christian life. Just as it was for the men of Issachar, so should it be for those who are born again believers. Point 2 It’s imperative that we understand what God wants to accomplish through us. The conception of the will of God is the basis and purpose of salvation; In other words God save you for a reason according to his will and for his purpose. Point 3 The new life of believers through the new birth is conducive and created to understanding and doing the divine will of God. Point 4 God commands that we act in accordance to his will Point 5 AS we approach the end of the age there will be teachers instructors, laity who will …” shine brightly like the brightness of the  expanse of heaven, and those who lead the many to righteousness …“(Dan 12:3), these will understand Dan 12:10e) how to redeem the time. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

28 Objections to learning proper Bible Interpretation
Christians who don't know the rules of Bible Interpretation will still benefit on reading the Bible.  Many Bible verses are so simple and clear that our bigger problem today is not interpreting the difficult verses but  obeying those parts of the Bible that we clearly understand. Objections "Having rules in Bible Interpretation will take the Bible away from the common or not highly educated Christians.“ Some Christians don't believe that there are certain rules that they need to apply in Bible interpretation other than just reading and praying for guidance.  They feel that such rules will take their right to be able to understand the Bible on their own, and that they will have to depend on scholars or experts to explain the Bible for them.  First, proper interpretation only requires more time studying and a little common sense.  An average Christian who can read and follow simple instructions can understand and apply the principles and guidelines of proper interpretation.   Second, these guidelines and principles will give everybody the tools needed to objectively question and make an educated criticism on different interpretations of the Bible today, even those made by Bible experts. Thus heightening ones level and ability to discern biblical truth from error. You will no longer be forced to follow a doctrine or a teaching that you feel is not an accurate interpretation of the Word of God, just because it is being taught by a "teacher" or  an "expert". Or is just part of a particular denominational teaching. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton Information from site used as a base.

29 The Internal Claims of the Importance of Scripture
The source of Scripture GOD: Over 3800 times the bible says, ”God said” 2 Timothy 3: "All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.“ 2 Peter 1: "But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.“ The Vitality of Scripture Hebrews 4:12... "For the Word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

30 The Internal Claims of the Importance of Scripture
The Priority / Authority of Scripture in the life of the believer Matt 4:4 “It is written, ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

31 The Internal Claims of the Importance of Scripture
The Light of Scripture Ps 119:105 - Your word is a lamp to my feet And a light to my path. The Warning of Scripture Isaiah 8:20 - To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. 2 John 9 - Anyone who goes too far and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God;  the one who abides in the teaching, he has both the Father and the Son. 1 Tim 4:16a - “…Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; persevere in these things… “ Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

32 The Internal Claims of the Importance of Scripture
The Eternal Nature of Scripture 1 Pet 1:24-25 24  For, “All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, And the flower falls off, 25  But the word of the Lord endures forever.” And this is the word which was preached to you. Cf Is 40:6-8 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

33 Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(1)
Spiritual qualifications have an important place in the list of qualifications and cannot be overstated. The interpreter must have the same spirit (Holy Spirit) which enabled the writers to understand their revelation from God and to record it 1 Cor 2:14-16 14     But  a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised. 15     But he who is spiritual appraises all things, yet he himself is appraised by no one. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

34 Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(2)
Must be Born again (John 3:3) cf (1 Corinthians 2:14) Must have a zeal that consumes: and enthusiasm that breeds both reverence and productivity of the things of God 1 Pet 2:1-2 1 Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings, 2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby Long/ desire (epipotheo /ep·ee·poth·eh·o ) - deeply desire; have great affection for to long for something with a deep desire implication of recognizing a lack 2 to pursue with love 3 to lust, harbor forbidden desire. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

35 Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter(3)
Must have a deep reverence for God () Prov 9:10 10 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding Must depend on the Holy Spirit to empower you to deliver God’s Word (Acts 1:8) but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” Must be teachable Prov 1:5 5 A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels: Prov 9:9 9 Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser: teach a just man, and he will increase in learning. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

36 EXPECT PERSECUTION FOR SPEAKING BIBLICAL TRUTH
Accursed as being a divider and trouble makers when standing up for Biblical truth within the church Kings 18:16-18 16     So Obadiah went to meet Ahab and told him; and Ahab went to meet Elijah. 17 When Ahab saw Elijah, Ahab said to him, “Is this you, you troubler of Israel?” 18 He said, “I have not troubled Israel, but you and your father’s house have, because you have forsaken the commandments of the Lord and you have followed the Baals. John 15:18-19 18 “If the world hates you, you know that it hated Me before it hated you. 19 If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you” Followed the Baal’s – I.E. the Worlds religions 1 Kings 18:17-18 Accursed has being a divides and trouble makers when standing up for Biblical truth within the church – 1 kings 18:17-18 Its not the ones who want to play by the rules, but with those who want to create their own rules who are causing the problem within the Church. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

37 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Unbelief No spiritual life: 1 Cor 2:14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. Tares among Wheat Matt 13:24-30 24 Jesus presented another parable to them, saying, “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field. 25 “But while his men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went away. 26 “But when the wheat sprouted and bore grain, then the tares became evident also. 27 “The slaves of the landowner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?’ 28 “And he said to them, ‘An enemy has done this!’ The slaves said to him, ‘Do you want us, then, to go and gather them up?’ 29 “But he *said, ‘No; for while you are gathering up the tares, you may uproot the wheat with them. 30 ‘Allow both to grow together until the harvest; and in the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, “First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them up; but gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ” Unbelief. The fact is that many who claim to be Christians have never been born again. They wear the label of “Christian,” but there has been no true change of heart. Many presume to teach the Bible who do not even believe the Bible to be true. They claim to speak for God yet live in a state of unbelief. Most false interpretations of Scripture come from such sources. Examples of these can be clearly seen in varies movements within the church (i.e. Accepted Practicing Homosexual clergy both male and female ; i.e. within the Episcopal, and Lutheran denominations, Liberal Pastors and theologians and professors who deny the truth of scripture, WOF who have demoted God and promoted man, emergent church, etc). These are the many on the broad way. It is impossible for an unbeliever to correctly interpret scripture unbelief keeps him from believing Gods revelation. “The natural man receives not the things of the Spirit neither can he know them” (1 Corinthians 2:14). The Bible describes the unbeliever as dead (nekros) in trespasses and sin (Eph 2:1) An unsaved man (someone who does not have the Holy Spirit) cannot understand the truth of the Bible. He has no illumination. Further, even being a pastor or theologian or teacher does not guarantee one’s salvation. (Eph 2:1) dead- nekros - is a common noun for “dead person or body in this case a metaphor for one spiritually dead. The true teaching of Christ teaches us to self denial and mortification of worldliness and sin. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

38 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Tares Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

39 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Satanic blindness: 2 Cor 4:3-4 3 And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing, 4 in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. 1 John 5:19 19 We know that we are of God, and that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. Satanic Blindness V4 blinded - tuphloo /toof·lo·o NT metaph. to blunt the mental discernment, darken the mind. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

40 How Satan Blinds the Mind
Tares that Satan has planted in the church are dead in trespasses and sin (Eph 2:1) While in this state their habitual behavior/ walk is according to the world system and its wisdom of which they speak from (1 John 4:5) The characteristics of the world’s wisdom is said to be earthy, natural and demonic (James 3:15) While in a state of unbelief the god of this world works through them to accomplish his will (Eph 2:2) They are under his control (1 John 5:19b) That is not to say all those outside of Christ are possessed by demonic spirits in the common use of the term, but it is to say all men everywhere who are not in Christ an obedient to him are and can be influenced by Satan Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

41 Rulers, Powers, World Forces, Spitual Forces
Those who walk in unbelief, walk according to the world system (1 John 4:5), its wisdom (James 3:15) and according to the God of this world (Eph 2:1, 1 Jn 5:19) Religion Philosophies Ethics Morals Education Entertainment KOMOS AION Rulers, Powers, World Forces, Spitual Forces Satan Dead Person Walking Opinions Hopes Aims Thoughts Aspirations Impulses 15. This wisdom— Earthly — is what is in the earth; earthy, what is of the earth. Sensual — literally, “animal-like”: the wisdom of the “natural” (the same Greek) man, not born again of God; “not having the Spirit” (Jude 19). Devilish — in its origin (from “hell,” Jam 3:6; not from God, the Giver of true wisdom, Jam 1:5), and also in its character, which accords with its origin. Earthly, sensual, and devilish, answer to the three spiritual foes of man, the world, the flesh, and the devil. God's Word does three things that interfere with 1)  It presents truth external from all cultures, truth that could not be known without a direct revelation from God. 2)  It condemns the idolatry that all cultures practice.  We all have at one time or another worshiped the works of our own hands and mind, and 3)  It transforms that which is good in all cultures, such as giving a glass of water to someone who is thirsty, but it is now done in the name of the creator and savior of the world, Jesus Christ. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

42 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Cultural (World System) inroads into the church Teachers Speaking from the world system 1 John 4:5 5  They are from the world; therefore they speak as from the world, and the world listens to them. Teachers that have a hostility toward God James 4:4 4  You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. Teachers that have a love for the things of the world 1 John 2:15-17    15  Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.    16  For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world.    17  The world is passing away, and also its lusts; but the one who does the will of God lives forever. Slide 15: Why are there so many different Christian interpretations? 3. Dictates of the culture. Some see the means of Biblical interpretation through the eyes of the culture (World System) by following its own wisdom and living by the light of its own reason The bible teaches separation from the world system and sin 2 Cor 6: Yet there are those in the church who teach the opposite. Example: Interfaith Participation (ecumenical minded churches even among, missionary Baptist, Southern Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian ETC). biblical separation. Preaching a liberation theology instead of a sinners gospel The gospel of self i.e. The prosperity gospel The purpose driven and seeker sensitive gospel. Practice of Occultic mysticism through contemplative spirituality. Practice of sexual perversion through homosexual and heterosexual relationships There will always be hostility between the world system and the word of God; they are diametrically opposed to one another. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

43 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Carnal Blindness 1 Cor 3:1-3 1  And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. 2  I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, 3  for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife among you, are you not fleshly, and are you not walking like mere men? Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

44 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Lack of training 2 Peter 3:16 16   as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction. He attributes their spurious teachings, in part, to the fact that they are “untaught” Untaught - amathes /am·ath·ace/] adj: adjective pertaining to one who has not acquired a formal education, and hence with the implication of being stupid and ignorant—‘uneducated, unlearned, ignorant. Timothy is told to “study to show yourself approved unto God” (2 Tim 2:15) dokimos - In the ancient world there was no banking system as we know it today, and no paper money. All money was made from metal, heated until liquid, poured into moulds and allowed to cool. When the coins were cooled, it was necessary to smooth off the uneven edges. The coins were comparatively soft and of course many people shaved them closely. In one century, more than eighty laws were passed in Athens, to stop the practice of shaving down the coins then in circulation. But some money changers were men of integrity, who would accept no counterfeit money. They were men of honor who put only genuine full weighted money into circulation. Such men were called “dokimos” or “approved”. Donald Barnhouse. There is no shortcut to proper biblical understanding; we are commanded to study and be taught by those God has given to the church to equip us. 5. Lack of training. Untaught The Apostle Peter warns against those who “wrest [misinterpret]” the scriptures. He attributes their spurious teachings, in part, to the fact that they are “unlearned” (2 Peter 3:16). Timothy is told to “study to show yourself approved unto God” (2 Timothy 2:15). There is no shortcut to proper biblical interpretation; we are constrained to study. Untaught - amathes /am·ath·ace/] adj: adjective pertaining to one who has not acquired a formal education, and hence with the implication of being stupid and ignorant—‘uneducated, unlearned, ignorant. (2 Tim 2:15) Timothy is told to “study to show yourself approved unto God” There is no shortcut to proper biblical interpretation; we are constrained to study. In the ancient world there was no banking system as we know it today, and no paper money. All money was made from metal, heated until liquid, poured into moulds and allowed to cool. When the coins were cooled, it was necessary to smooth off the uneven edges. The coins were comparatively soft and of course many people shaved them closely. In one century, more than eighty laws were passed in Athens, to stop the practice of shaving down the coins then in circulation. But some money changers were men of integrity, who would accept no counterfeit money. They were men of honour who put only genuine full weighted money into circulation. Such men were called “dokimos” or “approved”. Donald Barnhouse. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

45 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Those who teach that are Unstable 2 Peter 3:16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction. Unstable - [asteriktos /as·tay·rik·tos/] adj: adjective - pertaining to the tendency to change and waver in one’s views and attitudes—‘unstable. Distort - strebloo /streb·lo·o: to twist, turn awry. 2 to torture, put to the rack. Poor hermeneutics or non at all 2 Tim 2:15 Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. Heretical teaching 2 John 9 Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. 6. Unstable - [asteriktos /as·tay·rik·tos/] adj: adjective - pertaining to the tendency to change and waver in one’s views and attitudes—‘unstable. Distort /wrest - strebloo /streb·lo·o: to twist, turn awry. 2 to torture, put to the rack. 7. Poor hermeneutics or non at all - Much error has been promulgated because of a simple failure to learn and apply good hermeneutics. Taking a verse out of its immediate context can do great damage to the intent of the verse. Ignoring the wider context of the chapter and book, or failing to understand the historical/cultural context will also lead to problems of what the bible writers where conveying. 8. Heretical teaching goes too far - proago /pro·ag·o] comes from two words pro/] preposition – before (2) ago – to lead to go beyond established bounds of teaching or instruction, with the implication of failure to obey properly Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton Continue

46 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Failure to declare the whole counsel of God as an antidote to the doctrine of savage wolves. Acts 20:27-32 (see Acts 20:17-32 for full context) 27  “For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose of God. 28  “Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood. 29  “I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30  and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. 31 “Therefore be on the alert, remembering that night and day for a period of three years I did not cease to admonish each one with tears. 32  “And now I commend you to God and to the word of His grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 9. Ignorance of the whole Word of God. Apollos was a powerful and eloquent preacher, but he only knew of the baptism of John. He was ignorant of Jesus and His provision of salvation, so his message was incomplete. Aquila and Priscilla took him aside and “expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly” (Acts 18:24-28). After that, Apollos preached Jesus Christ. Some groups and individuals today have an incomplete message because they concentrate on certain passages to the exclusion of others. They fail to compare scripture with scripture. 24     Now a Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus; and he was mighty in the Scriptures.      25     This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the baptism of John;      26     and he began to speak out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately.      27     And when he wanted to go across to Achaia, the brethren encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him; and when he had arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace,      28     for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ. 10. Selfishness and pride. Sad to say, many interpretations of the Bible are based on an individual’s own personal biases and pet doctrines. Some people see an opportunity for personal advancement by promoting a “new perspective” on Scripture. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

47 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Selfishness / Pride / Arrogance 2 Chron 26:16-19 (Uzziah) 16 But when he became strong, his heart was so proud that he acted corruptly, and he was unfaithful to the Lord his God, for he entered the temple of the Lord to burn incense on the altar of incense. 17 Then Azariah the priest entered after him and with him eighty priests of the Lord, valiant men. 18  They opposed Uzziah the king and said to him, “It is not for you, Uzziah, to burn incense to the Lord, but for the priests, the sons of Aaron who are consecrated to burn incense. Get out of the sanctuary, for you have been unfaithful and will have no honor from the Lord God.” 19 But Uzziah, with a censer in his hand for burning incense, was enraged; and while he was enraged with the priests, the leprosy broke out on his forehead before the priests in the house of the Lord, beside the altar of incense. 20 Azariah the chief priest and all the priests looked at him, and behold, he was leprous on his forehead; and they hurried him out of there, and he himself also hastened to get out because the Lord had smitten him. Beware of the selfish ambition that places oneself above GOD, and the pride that appropriates His glory. Understand that these are characteristic traits of Satan's rebellion which transformed him into the enemy GOD. Isaiah14:12-21 People puff up with pride in their knowledge, accomplishments and position. As a result there is a failure and or refusal to re-examining one’s position and repent when sin is found. This was apparent in the in the life of Uzziah. Keep in mind pride and arrogance, can have a diabolic origin Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

48 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Failure to mature: 1 Cor 3:1-2    1  And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. 2  I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, Heb 5:11-14    11 Concerning him we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. 12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God, and you have come to need milk and not solid food. 13 For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of righteousness, for he is an infant. 14 But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil. Heb 6:1-3 1  Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, 2  of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment. 3   And this we will do, if God permits. 11. Failure to mature. When Christians are not maturing as they should, their handling of the Word of God is affected. “I have fed you with milk, and not with meat for you are yet carnal” (1 Corinthians 3:2-3). An immature Christian is not ready for the “meat” of God’s Word. Note that the proof of the Corinthians’ carnality is a division in their church (verse 4). Lawsuits, immorality, unscriptural emphasis on tongues,etc Also in Heb 5:11-14 11 Of whom we have many things to say, and hard to be uttered, seeing ye are dull of hearing. 12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. 13 For every one that useth milk is unskillful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. 14 But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil. Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

49 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Undue emphasis on tradition Mark 7:1-13 1 The Pharisees and some of the scribes gathered around Him when they had come from Jerusalem,  2 and had seen that some of His disciples were eating their bread with impure hands, that is, unwashed.  3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they carefully wash their hands, thus observing the traditions of the elders;  4 and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they cleanse themselves; and there are many other things which they have received in order to observe, such as the washing of cups and pitchers and copper pots.)  5 The Pharisees and the scribes *asked Him, “Why do Your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with impure hands?”  6  And He said to them, “Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors Me with their lips, But their heart is far away from Me.  7 ‘But in vain do they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.’  8 “Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men.”  9 He was also saying to them, “You are experts at setting aside the commandment of God in order to keep your tradition.  10 “For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, is to be put to death’;  11 but you say, ‘If a man says to his father or his mother, whatever I have that would help you is Corban (that is to say, given to God),’  12 you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother;  13 thus invalidating the word of God by your tradition which you have handed down; and you do many things such as that.” Col 2:8 8 See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ. 9. Undue emphasis on tradition. Some churches claim to believe the Bible, but their interpretation is always filtered through the established tradition of their church. Where tradition and the teaching of the Bible are in conflict, tradition is given precedence. This effectively negates the authority of the Word and grants the church leadership supremacy. This is prominent in Roman Catholicism. Thus the veneration of the saints, prayer to the saints, Prayer to Mary etc, Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

50 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
To quote the Obvious It is clear that believers and unbelievers will not have the same goals, aspirations and love for one another. Thus heightening the friction between the two groups Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

51 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations?
Our Humanness; we are not infallible Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

52 INTERPRETING THE BIBLE OBJECTIVELY [6]
Basic rules must be followed Over emphasizing one rule at the expense of another Results Everyone starts creating rules as it suits them and their ideas Each person becomes a rule book unto themselves Chaos Redefinition of truth Misrepresentations of the biblical writer (Holy Spirit) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

53 Which Version ? BIBLE VERSIONS COMPARISON OF LITERALNESS MORE LITERAL
LESS INTERPRETATIVE MORE WORD FOR WORD MORE PARAPHRASE MORE INTERPRETATIVE** MORE CONCEPT FOR CONCEPT LXX Young's Literal NAS ASV Amp ESV KJV NKJV NRSV NAB NIV NJB NCV ICB NLT Phillips GNT CEV TLB MSG LXX- Septuagint (*) NAS = New American Standard (*) Amp = Amplified Version ASV  = Authorized Standard Version 1901 ESV = English Standard Version KJV = King James Version (*) NKJV = New King James Version (*) Youngs Literal Translation (*) NRSV= New Revised Std Version NAB = New American Bible (*) NJB  = New Jerusalem Bible NIV = New International Version NCV = New Century Version ICB = International Children's Bible NLT = New Living Translation Phillips = JB Phillips GNT  = Good News Translation CEV  = Contemporary English Version TLB  = The Living Bible MSG  = The Message–not recommended ** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource, for they provide no way to determine whether or not the translator's  interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, KJV, NKJV etc. more accurately  render the words of the original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study. VERSIONS: CHART Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

54 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Hermeneutics Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

55 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
What is Hermeneutics Hermeneutics is the science and art of biblical interpretation to discover what the author’s intended meaning was, when he wrote under the influence of the Holy Spirit. It is a science because there exists a systematic, mechanical, and formulated approach to the interpretation process. It is an art because it involves an individual's talent, skills, and knowledge to perform the task of interpreting the Scriptures. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

56 Source of Biblical Interpretation (Hermeneutics)
These principles are embedded in the scripture itself. The Bible interprets itself (scripture interprets scripture). This principle along mandates that any approach to bible study be based on the entire bible in order to have a comprehensive understanding of its contents. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

57 Benefits of Hermeneutics
Correct Biblical Interpretation is Paramount in order to: provide an “objective, Biblical World view” understanding of what God has said to us through His written word. to “put aside” any denominational, unscriptural traditions, personal opinions, geographical, or “cultural reasoning” that separate our minds from that of the writers of the Bible so that we can understand what God is saying be equipped ourselves for every good work (2 Tim 3:16-17) Slide 25: Benefits of Hermeneutics 4. give an account of why we believe what we believe (1 Pet 3:15) 1 Pet 3:15   but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence; Defense - [apologia /ap·ol·og·ee·ah/] n f. to speak on behalf of oneself or of others against accusations presumed to be false—‘to defend oneself. 5. equip others within the church (Eph 4:11-12a, cf Acts 18:24-25) Eph 4:11-12a 11   And He  gave some as apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as pastors and teachers, 12   for the equipping of the saints for the work of service…, Equipping - [katartismos /kat·ar·tis·mos/ to make someone completely adequate or sufficient for something—‘to make adequate, to furnish completely, to cause to be fully qualified, adequacy. 6. build up the body of Christ (Eph 4:12b) 12b … , to the building up of the body of Christ; 7. be equipped ourselves for every good work (2 Tim 3:16-17) 2 Tim 3:16-17 16   All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17  so that  the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. 8. mature in the faith (1 Pet 2:2, Heb 5:14) 1 Pet 2:2-3  2 like newborn babies, long for the pure milk of the word, so that by it you may grow in respect to salvation, 3 if you have tasted the kindness of the Lord Grow – Passive Voice The passive voice represents the subject as being the recipient of the action. E.g., in the sentence, “The boy was hit by the ball,” the boy receives the action. Heb 5:14 14     But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil. trained - gymnazō [gumnazo /goom·nad·zo/] Trained - to exercise vigorously 9. Correctly discern between good and evil (1 John 4:1, Eph 4:14, Heb 5:13-14) 1 John 4:1 1     Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. Eph 4:14 14 As a result, we are no longer to be children, tossed here and there by waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, by craftiness in  deceitful scheming; 10. contend for the faith (Jude 3-4, Matt 24:3-4,10-11) Jude 3-4, 3 Beloved, while I was making every effort to write you about our common salvation, I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all handed down to the saints. Contend – (epagonizomai /ep·ag·o·nid·zom·ahee) to exert intense effort on behalf of something—‘to struggle for. 4     For certain persons have crept in unnoticed, those who were long beforehand marked out for this condemnation, ungodly persons who turn the grace of our God into licentiousness and deny our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ. Why we should contend Matt 24:3-4, 11   The prophetic scriptures are vividly clear that spiritual deception would be the hallmark within the church as we approach the end of the church age 3 As He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things happen, and what will be the sign of  Your coming, and of the end of the age?”      4    And Jesus answered and said to them, “See to it that no one misleads you.      10   “At that time many will fall away and will betray one another and hate one another.      11   “Many false prophets will arise and will mislead many. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

58 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Inappropriate Methods by Dr. Bob Utley, Professor of Hermeneutics (Retired) Ignoring the literary context of the books of the Bible and using every sentence, clause, or even individual words as statements of truth unrelated to the author’s intent or the larger context. This is often called “proof-texting.” B. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by substituting a supposed historical setting that has little or no support from the text itself. C. Ignoring the historical setting of the books and reading it as the morning hometown newspaper written primarily to modern individual Christians. D. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by allegorizing the text into a philosophical / theological message totally unrelated to the first hearers and the original author’s intent. E. Ignoring the original message by substituting one’s own system of theology, pet doctrine, or contemporary issue unrelated to the original author’s purpose and stated message. This phenomenon often follows the initial reading of the Bible as a means of establishing a speaker’s authority. This is often referred to as “reader response” (“what-the-text-means-to me” interpretation). Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

59 The Interpretation Process
Within the science of interpretation (Hermeneutics) there exists four essential and primary steps in the interpretation process. Observation Interpretation Correlation Application Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

60 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Observation You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this process. This step asks, "What does it say?" As the interpreter, we are to objectively observe the whole picture of what we are attempting to interpret. Figuratively, we are to act as a detective -- investigating, and examining what the passage is saying. Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are: Who are the key figures in the book? Who is Jeremiah, Cyrus, Paul, Timothy, etc.) What is the background and historical setting What are the key dates? When was the book written? What are the key verses in the book? What are the key words? What are the key events taking place? (Pentecost, Paul's conversion, Christ's resurrection) What conclusions can be drawn? Must we observe Jewish customs and laws ? Additionally, the interpreter will observe any key doctrines, themes, and the author's intention in writing the book . Observe the text itself, determining what is a metaphor, simile, anthropomorphism, personification, euphemism, hyperbole, irony. 8. It is within this process that the interpreter would greatly benefit by utilizing Bible tools and references. Dictionaries, commentaries, Bible atlases, concordances, etc. It is important to interpret literally in this process and to allow the Bible to speak for itself. Study objectively not subjectively. It is important to not allow any preconceived conclusions to influence this vital step of interpretation. This includes denominational beliefs, personal opinions, spiritualizing or excessive allegorizing of the passage, etc. Lastly, without this first process of observation, the interpreter cannot properly continue to the next step -- interpretation. "Interpretation should build on observation and then lead into interpretation." Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

61 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Interpretation This crucial step is perhaps the most difficult and time-consuming of these three steps You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this process. This step asks, "What does it mean?“ Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are: Who wrote the book? What is the overall theme of the book? (God's grace, love, Belief etc) What does the Grammar mean What passages make up the context Cross-referencing to compare similar passages talking about the same subject to gain a more in-depth understanding Who is the third person? Me? God? Jesus? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

62 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
CORRELATION Correlation step should be inserted between Interpretation and Application. Correlation means examining how one passage fits in with other passages on the same topic or theme. Use it for broader view. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

63 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Application Here we determine how the passage pertains to the life of the beliver As Dr Roy Zuck points out... Heart appropriation, not merely head apprehension, is the true goal of Bible study. Only in this way can believers grow spiritually. Spiritual maturity, in which we become more like Christ, comes not just from knowing more about the Bible. It comes from knowing more about the Bible and applying it to our spiritual needs. God expects that those who say they love Jesus will apply His words to their lives and live accordingly. (John 14:21) 21   “He who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will disclose Myself to him.” Heb 12:1-2 "let us also lay aside every encumbrance, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us fixing our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of faith" Phil 3:14 pressing "on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus") disciplining ourselves "for the purpose of godliness for bodily discipline is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come." How can I determine if it is a generic application? What key words are observed in determining this? For example, all, you, I, the church at Philippi. Using Galatians 3:26-27 as an example. "You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ." We must determine to whom Paul has directly and indirectly applied this passage to. Clearly, the passage was directly written to the church in Galatia. By using the interpretation process, the student will have seen that in Roman society, a youth coming of age laid aside the robe of childhood and would put on a new toga. This represented his passage into adulthood with full rights and responsibilities. Paul combined this cultural understanding with the concept of baptism. After being baptized, the Galatian church were becoming spiritually grown up and ready to take on the privileges and responsibilities that came along with being more spiritually mature. Indirectly, this passage can be applied to all of us today. Some of the key words can be observed, "...all of you who were baptized into Christ". All of us who have been baptized must recognize we too have now put on new robes and have clothed ourselves with Christ, ready to take on anything the Lord might give us. After all, we have had the honor and blessing of being called, "sons of God". Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

64 The Languages of the Bible
The Bible was originally written in three languages:  Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.  The OT was primarily written in Hebrew Aramaic is used in Daniel 2:4a to 7:28. Aramaic is found also in the Ezra 4:8-6:18, 7:12-26 and Jeremiah 10:11. the Syrian tongue—or Aramaean language, sometimes called Chaldee. Typically this was made use of by the Persians in their decrees and communications relative to the Jews (compare 2 Kings 18:26; Isaiah 36:11). The New Testament is written entirely in Koinie Greek Aramaic and Hebrew are the two languages used in Daniel.  The Aramaic language was the common language, used in Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian communication.  This was made use of by the Persians in their decrees and communications relative to the Jews (compare 2Ki 18:26; Is 36:11). Aramaic is found also in the Ezra 4:8-6:18, 7:12-26 and Jeremiah 10:11. Why did Daniel compose a portion of his revelation in a foreign language?  Some have used this to argue a late date for the book of Daniel.  Aramaic in fact was the common language in the 6th century B.C., Daniel message was not only to the Jewish people, but to the nations. Aramaic in Daniel’s day is equivalent to English in our day.  Daniel 2:4 to 7:28 would be accessible to any literate, Greek, Babylonian or Jew in Daniel’s day and later Alexander the Great is the man who made all the people speak the Greek language, and so he created the grounds for the expansion of Greek civilization. This doesn't mean that every student of the Bible must learn Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek.  There are a number of tools available - lexicons, Bible dictionaries, detailed exegetical commentaries - that can provide a deeper understanding of crucial passages. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

65 The Literal Interpretation Principle
We take the Bible at face value. Isa. 7:14—Born of a virgin Micah 5:2—At Bethlehem Jer. 31:15—Slaughter of the children Hosea 11:1—Called out of Egypt Isa. 11:2—Anointed with the Spirit Zech. 9:9—Entry into Jerusalem Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14—Betrayed by a friend Zech. 13:7—Disciples forsake Him Zech. 11:12—Sold for thirty pieces of silver Zech. 11:13—Potter's field bought Isa. 50:6—Spit on and scourged Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20—Not a bone broken Psa. 69:21—Gall and vinegar We generally take everyday things in life as literal or at face value. This is a common sense approach.  The golden rule of interpretation is: “When the plain sense of the scripture makes common sense, seek no other sense.” Therefore, take every word at its primary, usual, meaning, unless the facts of the immediate context, studied in the light of related passages and fundamental truths, clearly indicate otherwise. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

66 The Grammatical Principle Example 1
The study of word meanings, grammar, culture and syntax of the original languages is important for a proper understanding of Scripture. The word meanings, grammar, and syntax of the original languages are what is included when the Bible say's that God breathe the scriptures (2 Timothy 3:16) Example of Word meaning / syntax / context John 10:30 Amos 4:11 grammar suggests in a general way how sentences are put together according to the rules of the language In understanding Grammar its important to understand that languages are put together differently English – analytic language because it stresses word order Greek – a strong synthetic language where words are only partially understood by word order and much more by word endings Need an example Grammatical involves consideration of the context John 10:30 One (ἑν [hen]). Neuter, not masculine (εἱς [heis]). Not one person as in (cf. εἱς [heis] in Gal. 3:28), but one essence or nature. By the plural συμυς [sumus] (separate persons) Sabellius is refuted, by ὐνυμ [unum] Arius. So Bengel rightly argues, though Jesus is not referring, of course, to either Sabellius or Arius. The Pharisees had accused Jesus of making himself equal with God as his own special Father (John 5:18). Jesus then admitted and proved this claim (John 5:19–30). Now he states it tersely in this great saying repeated later (John 17:11,21). Note ἑν [hen] used in I Cor. 3:3 of the oneness in work of the planter and the water and in 17:11, 23 of the hoped for unity of Christ’s disciples. This crisp statement is the climax of Christ’s claims concerning the relation between the Father and himself (the Son). They stir the Pharisees to uncontrollable anger. I and the Father are one egō kai ho patēr esmen hen verb, first person, plural, present, active, indicative One – (ἑν, hen) neuter, adjective - one essence or nature that which; is united as one in contrast with being divided or consisting of separate parts; I.E. a unity Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

67 The Grammatical Principle Example 2
1John 3:9 TENSE ACTION EXAMPLE & EXPLANATION PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS ACTION HABITUAL ACTION OFTEN REFLECTS A LIFESTYLE PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle, Masculine, Plural, Accusative Knowledge of the tense of a verb can sometimes be critical for accurate interpretation. For example note 1Jo 3:9: "No one who is born of God practices (present tense) sin (noun), because His seed abides in him and he cannot SIN (verb), because he is born of God."  Look at the verb "SIN". At first glance the verse seems to imply that one who is "born of God" can never commit a sin and yet all genuine believers know that this is not a reality (cf 1Jo 1:8). When you understand that the verb SIN is in the present tense, it becomes clear that John is saying that one who is born of God cannot habitually commit sins as a way of life. The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing. GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

68 The Grammatical Principle Example 2
AORIST TENSE EFFECTIVE ACTION SUCCESSFUL ACTION SINGLE ACTION ONE-TIME ACTION States that an action occurs without regard to its duration. It is analogous to a snapshot which captures an action at specific point in time. PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle, Masculine, Plural, Accusative 1Peter 1:3  Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ who according to His great mercy  has caused us to be born again (AAPMSN) (5660) to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, The AORIST TENSE conveys the truth that the believer's new birth (indicative mood is mood of reality) has occurred at a point in the past without specifying when this event occurred. The passive voice indicates this new birth was produced by a Source outside of the recipient and in context that Source is "the God & Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

69 The Grammatical Principle Culturally
Grammar may be studied culturally Acts 16:31 – Jailer converted They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.” household – (greek - oikos) Some have use this verse to support infant baptism since they are part of the household. But the Greek word included household pets and animals non of which are candidates for baptism. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

70 The Grammatical Principle according to a Language Family
Words may be studied in languages of the same family and ancient translations Hebrew language includes languages from Egypt to Mesopotamia, Arabic and Aramaic are of Particular importance for OT studies. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

71 The Cultural Principle
By cultural it is meant the total ways, methods, tools customs, buildings, institutions, on their existence. Religious Culture (god’s worship) Social Legal Material Culture Tools Objects Dwellings Weapons Garments Roman Soldiers armor Eph 6:10 Etc. The Bible was composed in a specific culture at a particular point in time.  The principal purpose of studying the cultural elements aids the interpreter to know what are the original things referred to in scripture. Ex 7-11 The following is a list of Egyptian gods, along with the corresponding plague: 1. Turning water into blood Hapi, the god of the Nile river. 2. Frogs Heqt, goddess of birth. Heqt is often depicted as a frog. 3. Gnats from dust Geb, god of the earth or soil. 4. Flies Kheper, god of beetles and flies. 5. Cattle Apis, sacred bull. 6. Boils Isis, goddess of healing. 7. Hail Nut, sky goddess and/or Horus, falcon god / sky god. 8. Locust Seth, god of crops days of darkness Ra, the sun god (main god of the solar faith) Death of firstborn Pharaoh. The plagues were design to attack the greatest of Egyptian gods, leading to the two greatest gods: Ra, the sun god, and Pharaoh himself. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

72 The Cultural Principle Examples
Passages may be studied culturally Matt 5:41 “When our Lord mentioned that if we were compelled to go one mile, we should go two, He was referring to a well known Persian custom. When a Persian messenger carried a message of the empire he could compel inhabitants of a locality to carry his baggage one mile , or to perform any service the messenger commanded. Hence Christians out of love and not command should help their neighbor not for the customary or accepted one mile, but for the extra mile of love and grace Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

73 The Cultural Principle Examples
The following is a list of Egyptian gods worship within their culture, along with the corresponding plague: Turning water into blood - Hapi, the god of the Nile river. 2. Frogs - Heqt, goddess of birth. Heqt is often depicted as a frog. 3. Gnats from dust - Geb, god of the earth or soil. 4. Flies - Kheper, god of beetles and flies. 5. Cattle - Apis, sacred bull. 6. Boils - Isis, goddess of healing. 7. Hail - Nut, sky goddess and/or Horus, falcon god / sky god. 8. Locust - Seth, god of crops days of darkness - Ra, the sun god (main god of the solar faith) Death of firstborn - Pharaoh who was considered a god. The plagues were design to attack the greatest of Egyptian gods, leading to the two greatest gods: Ra, the sun god, and Pharaoh himself. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

74 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
The Culture Principle Social Culture Manners / Customs Marriage Oldest First Gen 29:26 Laban replied, “It is not our custom here to give the younger daughter in marriage before the older one. The deceiver Jacob had asked for the younger Rachel’s hand, but was deceived by Laban and tricked into marrying Leah. Thus the ancient Near Eastern tradition of the older daughter marrying first was preserved. This custom is still adhered to in many countries, and when a younger daughter has an opportunity to marry, everything is done to get the older daughter married first. Social Culture Marriage custom Oldest First Laban replied, “It is not our custom here to give the younger daughter in marriage before the older one. The deceiver Jacob had asked for the younger Rachel’s hand, but was deceived by Laban and tricked into marrying Leah. Thus the ancient Near Eastern tradition of the older daughter marrying first was preserved. This custom is still adhered to in many countries, and when a younger daughter has an opportunity to marry, everything is done to get the older daughter married first. Ex What where 1. Turning water into blood Hapi, the god of the Nile river. 2. Frogs Heqt, goddess of birth. Heqt is often depicted as a frog. 3. Gnats from dust Geb, god of the earth or soil. 4. Flies Kheper, god of beetles and flies. 5. Cattle Apis, sacred bull. 6. Boils Isis, goddess of healing. 7. Hail, sky goddess and/or Horus, falcon god / sky god. 8. Locust Seth, god of crops days of darkness Ra, the sun god (main god of the solar faith) Death of firstborn Pharaoh. The plagues were design to attack the greatest of Egyptian gods, leading to the two greatest gods: Ra, the sun god, and Pharaoh himself. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton continue

75 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
The Culture Principle Religious Beliefs Practices OT Baal, Queen of Heaven, Ashtoreth, god’s of Egypt Galatians legalism Colossians 1 It was Jewish, stressing the need for observing Old Testament laws and ceremonies. 2 It was philosophical, laying emphasis on some special or deeper knowledge (gnōsis). 3 It involved the worship of angels as mediators to God (Col 2:18). 4 It was exclusivity, stressing the special privilege and “perfection” of those select few who belonged to this philosophical elite. 5 Gnosticism denied the deity of Christ, thus calling forth one of the greatest declarations of Christ’s deity found anywhere in Scripture (Col 1:15-16; 2:9). 1 John Gnostics Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

76 The Contextual Principle
The Word of God is a perfect unit. The global context of any verse is the entire scripture  Consider the: verses immediately before, after, and around the passage the book its in the testament its in (OT / NT) Verbal Cross Reference Wording in one passage is similar to the wording in an other passage Ex “Son of Man” cf “first and the last” (Isaiah 44:6 ; Rev 1:17; 22:13) The scriptures cannot be broken; they all hang together, a perfect unity. The Bible must be interpreted within the framework of the Bible.  Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton continue

77 The Contextual Principle
Conceptual Cross Reference A verse or passage in one book has the identical substance or content of another part of scripture even thought there is no use of common words. Ex., Hebrews 2 and Philippians 2 both discuss the character of the incarnation Ex., Romans 3 and Heb 10 discuss the atonement life of Christ must be compared to all four gospels Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

78 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
Historical Principle All Biblical events occur in the stream of history: How did the fall occur? How did the Jews get to Egypt during Joseph’s time? What where the events that cause the northern kingdom to be exiled into Assyria? What where the events that cause the southern kingdom to be exiled into Babylon during Daniel’s time? What are the events that will bring about the great tribulation? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

79 The Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle
This principle is best illustrated by what is known as "topical Bible study."  There are two essential 'rules' for applying this principle:  1) The context of the two passages must be the same 2) The plain passage must be used to guide our interpretation of a less clear passage - not the other way around! Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

80 The Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle
Parallel cross Reference two or more books describe essentially the same events The same historical materials are covered by Samuel(1,2), Kings, and Chronicles The Events in the life of Christ in all four gospels Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

81 The Progressive Revelation Principle
The Word of God is to be understood from the Old Testament to the New Testament as a flower unfolding its petals to the morning sun. God initiated revelation, but He did not reveal His truths all at one time. The Old Testament is the New Testament concealed, and the New Testament is the Old Testament revealed. In the sermon on the mount Jesus said he came to fulfill the law In: Luke 24:27 27 Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures. John 5:39 39  You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; it is these that testify about Me! In the sermon on the mount Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

82 The Accommodation Principle
The Bible is to be interpreted in view of the fact that it is an accommodation of Divine truths to human minds: God the infinite communicating with man the finite. The Bible was written in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. The Bible was also created in space, in time, and in history so that man could understand it. The truths of God made contact with the human mind at a common point, the Bible, to make God (and, indeed, all of reality) knowable.  Accommodation through Objects Tabernacle: Animal sacrifice Accommodation through Nature: Parables: Matt 13:25-30 We must be careful, not to push accommodating language about God and His nature to literal extremes.  God does not have feathers and wings (e.g., Psalms 17:8); nor is He our literal Father in the same sense our earthly father is. For Israel, the Tabernacle was instituted for the purpose of revealing through object lessons God’s whole plan of redemption for every believing Israelite. Every part of the Tabernacle and all its appointed ministries were to Israel a symbol, a testimony of the coming Christ and His blessed work of redemption. Through these things, “by faith they saw Him who is invisible.” Acts 7:44; Heb. 11:27. For us, the Holy Spirit has recorded the things concerning the Tabernacle to illustrate the work of redemption which has been accomplished for us by our Lord Jesus Christ. To us these things are types, or figures of the person and work of Christ. Without a knowledge of the Tabernacle and its typical meaning, very much of what the New Testament tells us of Christ and His work is but little understood. What could we understand of the priestly ministry of our blessed Lord, if we were not told about the priestly office and service of Aaron and his sons in the Tabernacle and the Temple? The types of the Old Testament are the Kindergarten part of the Bible, the spirit given object lessons for babes in Christ. The woeful ignorance of most Christians concerning Christ and His work as revealed in the New Testament is a terrible testimony that many pastors and teachers have not used the God appointed means and method of instructing babes in Christ. “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine (teaching, r.v.), for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.” II Tim. 3:16. “Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.” Rom. 15:4. Rugh, W.W.: Christ in the Tabernacle : Person and Work of Jesus Christ. Willow Grove, PA : Woodlawn Electronic Publishing, 1998 Tare - [zizanion /dziz·an·ee·on/] n n n: noun or neuter - a particularly undesirable weed resembling wheat and possessing a seed which is poisonous Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament : Based on Semantic Domains. electronic ed. of the 2nd edition. New York : United Bible societies, 1996, c1989, S. 1:31 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

83 The One Interpretation Principle
Every verse in the Bible has only one interpretation A verse may have many applications. The one correct interpretation is that which mirrors the intent of the inspired author. Simply put, this law states that ALL biblical passages are to be taken exactly as they read unless there is something in the text indicating and extended meaning is present (address the law of double ref.) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

84 The Harmony of Scripture Principle
No part of the Bible may be interpreted so as to contradict another part of the Bible.  Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

85 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
The Genre Principle The Genre Principle Genre is a literary term having to do with the category or "genus" of  literature under consideration. Here are some books of the Bible and their respective genres: Psalms – Poetry Proverbs - Wise Sayings Minor/Major Prophetic Books (Isaiah–Malachi) History/Prophecy The Gospels / Acts - Biography and History The Epistles - Teaching and Doctrine Revelation - Eschatology and Prophecy Proper interpretation must take the general literary category of any given passage into consideration.    For example, if the author is writing history - the genre of the Pentateuch of Moses - it would not be proper to interpret a single reference (such as the speech of Balaam's ass) as poetry, unless a variety of contextual markers compelled us to do so. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

86 Figures of Speech in the Bible
Simile: A comparison using "like" or "as." Example: "As lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man" (Matthew 24:27) Metaphor: One thing described in terms of some other thing. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom" (Luke 12:32) Anthropomorphism: God described in human terms. "The eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth" (2 Chronicles 16:9) Words of association: One word stands for something else. Examples: "Circumcision" meaning the Jews (Galatians 2:9, King James Version); "sword" for all weapons (Romans 8:35) Personification: Personal qualities assigned to an object. "The mountains skipped like rams" (Psalm 114:4) Euphemism: Substituting an inoffensive word for a possibly harsh or crude one. "Adam lay with his wife Eve" (Genesis 4:1) means that they had sexual intercourse Hyperbole: Exaggeration. "If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out" (Matthew 5:29). Irony: The literal meaning is opposite the real meaning. "You have become kings...! How I wish that you really had become kings so that we might be kings with you!" (1 Corinthians 4:8) Apocalyptic Literature: Uses symbols that communicates absolute truth (Rev 1:20 seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches. Scripture gives the definitions Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

87 Interpretation of Prophecy
Meaning and significances of: All proper names Events References to: Geography Customs Culture The following is a list of names that will form the united coalition as mentioned in Ezek 38:1-6. They can be currently identified based on the historical geographical region each group occupied Gog is described as being “of the land of Magog” and as the “prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal.” Most Bible scholars believe Gog is not a name but a title, like Pharaoh or Czar. He is a dictator who will hatch an “evil plan” (Ezek 38:10). Magog = Leading Bible scholars say this is Russia and republics of the former Soviet Union. The first century Roman historian Josephus said the “Magogites” were the peoples whom the Greeks called “Scythians.” Scythians were a fierce, blood-thirsty civilization that settled north of the Baltic Sea in what is now Russia and the European republics of the former USSR. Rosh = Russia* Meshech = Some Bible scholars say this is Moscow, others believe it refers to Turkey Tubal = Some Bible scholars say this refers to the city/region of Tobolsk in Russia along the Tobol River; others say it refers to a section of modern-day Turkey. (Interestingly, in 1964, massive reserves of oil and gas were discovered in the Tobolsk region of Siberia and people now refer to the region as the “energy center of Russia.”)* Cush = Sudan and Ethiopia Put = Libya, and possibly Algeria and Tunisia Gomer = Turkey, but also possibly Germany and Austria Beth-togarmah = Armenia and the Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Asia “Many peoples with you” who will attack along “the mountains of Israel” = Other countries will be involved in the coalition as well, notably countries that border the mountains of Israel. This may include Lebanon, Syria and possibly Jordan. Persia = This was the official name of Iran until 1935 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

88 Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
Interpret Literally The New Testament literal method of fulfillment establishes the “literal method” as God’s method in regard to unfulfilled prophecy Isa. 7:14—Born of a virgin Micah 5:2—At Bethlehem Jer. 31:15—Slaughter of the children Hosea 11:1—Called out of Egypt Isa. 11:2—Anointed with the Spirit Zech. 9:9—Entry into Jerusalem Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14—Betrayed by a friend Zech. 13:7—Disciples forsake Him Zech. 11:12—Sold for thirty pieces of silver Zech. 11:13—Potter's field bought Isa. 50:6—Spit on and scourged Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20—Not a bone broken Psa. 69:21—Gall and vinegar continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

89 Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
Interpret according to the harmony of prophecy This rule is laid down in 2 Pet 1:20-21, where the author affirms, “no prophecy is of private interpretation” 20  But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21  for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. The prophecies did not originate with the prophets themselves. The word epilyseōs (“interpretation,” lit., “unloosing”) and the word ginetai (“came about”). The Scriptures did not stem merely from the prophets themselves; their writings came from God. Verse 20, then, speaks not of interpretation, but of revelation, the source of the Scriptures. continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

90 Interpretation of Prophecy Principles
Scripture should be interpreted only in context, that is, a prophecy cannot stand alone without other prophecies to aid in its understanding. Observe the time relationships Interpret prophecy Christologically Rev 19:10 10  Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he *said to me, “Do not do that; I am a fellow servant of yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus; worship God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.” 1 Pet 10-11 10 As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful searches and inquiries, 11 seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow. continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

91 Interpreting Prophecy according to the law of double reference
“Some” prophetic versus focus on the immediate historical context of the prophet, yet there is a more complete fulfillment later. May have a primary application to the millennial kingdom or the eternal kingdom, but are fulfilled in part in the church age. These prophecies speak of events that are separated by time as though they were not separated. (J. Dwight Pentecost) "Two events, widely separated as to the time of their fulfillment, may be brought together into the scope of one prophecy. This was done because the prophet had a message for his own day as well as for a future time . . . It was the purpose of God to give the near and far view so that the fulfillment of the one should be the assurance of the fulfillment of the other." (J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1964], pp. 46,47.) continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

92 Examples of the Law of Double Reference 1
Verse Immediate Reference Later Reference Psalm 22:1 David Matt 27:46 (Christ on the Cross) Psalm 22:6-7 Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 53:3; Luke 23:35 (Christ) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

93 Examples of the Law of Double Reference - Gap
The prophet predicts two dissimilar events, widely separated by time, as though they were one event. Isa. 61:1-9 Isaiah 11:1-5 Verse Fulfillment: Later Reference Isa. 61:1-2a Christ 1st coming Luke 4:18-21 (Christ in the synagogue on the Sabbath) Isa. 61:2b-9 Christ 2nd coming TBF Isa. 11:2 Christ 1st coming Matt 3:16, John 1:32 Isa. 11:3 John 2:25; 7:24 Isa 11:4-5 Christ 2nd coming 2 Thess 2:8 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

94 Law of Double Reference -Unforeseen Partial
The prophet predicts aspects of God's kingdom at the end of the age. (In the final kind of double reference, the prophet's focus is exclusively on the later event.) New Testament authors subsequently reveal that this prediction has been granted in a partial way to the church. (The prophets predictions will still be fulfilled at the end of the age.) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

95 Law of Double Reference - Unforeseen Partial
Examples: Jer. 31:31-34 (compare Heb. 8:8-13;10:16-18); (Jer. 31:31-34) "The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. (32) It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them, " declares the LORD. (33) "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. (34) No longer will a man teach his neighbor, or a man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more.“ Jer. 31:31-34 describes the spiritual blessings that “Israelites” will enjoy when God inaugurates his New Covenant with them at the end of the age. (Heb. 10: 16-18) The Holy Spirit also testifies to us about this. First he says: (16) "This is the covenant I will make with them after that time, says the Lord. I will put my laws in their hearts, and I will write them on their minds." (17) Then he adds: "Their sins and lawless acts I will remember no more." (18) And where these have been forgiven, there is no longer any sacrifice for sin. The author of Hebrews declares that these same blessings have been given to all who believe in Jesus during the Church Age. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

96 Law of Double Reference -Unforeseen Partial
Examples: Isa. 49:6 (compare Acts 13:47) (Isa. 49:6) He says, “It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.” God says that his Servant will restore Israel to him and be a light to the nations so that his salvation may reach to the ends of the earth. Isaiah evidently understood this to refer to the rule of Messiah in the millennial kingdom. Acts 13:47 47  “For so the Lord has commanded us, ‘I have placed You as a light for the Gentiles, That You may bring salvation to the end of the earth.’ ” Paul quotes this same passage as a description of the church's mission work to the Gentiles. This phase of Messiah's redemptive work with the Gentiles (through the Body of Christ) was unforeseen by Isaiah. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

97 Interpretation of Prophecy Language Principle
Give careful attention to: Language of the prophetic passage: Figurative Psalms 2:1-3 Poetic Symbolic Dan 7:23 beast =a nation; Dan 8:20-21 horn=king) Do not presume to know the meaning because it is familiar The word Arabia, by way of illustration, is used in scripture to indicate different territories than the word signifies to us. continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

98 Interpretation of Prophecy Historical Background Principle
Determine the historical background of the prophet and the prophecy continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

99 Interpretation of Prophecy Passage Parallel Principle
Search the entire body of Scripture to see what passage parallel each other: Day of the Lord The Shaking of the Nations Re-gathering of Israel Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

100 The Types and Antitypes Principles
Type - (Greek tupos) means the mark of a stroke or blow Method of biblical interpretation where by an figure, emblem or symbol found in the Old Testament is seen to prefigure one found in the New Testament. Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. Antitype – is the fulfillment of the type Types and antitypes are never identical but only similar Either type or antitype may be a person, thing, or event, but often the type is messianic and frequently related to the idea of salvation. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

101 Biblical Types and Antitypes in the Law of Moses
OT Type OT Reference NT Antitype NT Reference The people of Israel Exod. 19:6 Believers 1 Peter 2:5 The Prophet like Moses Deut. 18:17-19 The Messiah John 5:46; 6:14; 7:40; Acts 3:22-26; 7:37 Animal sacrifices Lev.1-7, Num 6:14 The cross, Heb. 7:27; 10:1-4; 1 Peter 2:24 God's presence with His people Exod. 40:34-38; Num. 9:15-23 The incarnation of Jesus Matt. 1:23; John 1:14; Acts 2:2-4; 1Cor. 3:10-17; 6:19 Bread of the presence (made from manna) Exod. 25:23-30 Jesus the bread of life John 6:32-33, 35 Altar of incense Exod. 30:1-10 The prayers of the saints Rev. 5:8; 8:3 Washing basin / laver Exod. 30:17-21; 38:8 Washing from sin in baptism / satisfying spiritual thirst / the Holy Spirit Acts 2:38 / John 4:13-14 / John 7:37-39; Acts 1:5; 10:47 The grain offering Lev. 2 Jesus offered us His flesh to eat John 6:54-58 The high priesthood Lev. 8 A mediator between God and men 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 7:26-28 The Passover lamb Exod. 12:1-28, 43-49 Jesus Christ Acts 8:32: 1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Peter 1:15-19; 2:21-23. Feast of first fruits Lev. 23:11; Deut. 16:9-12 Christ's resurrection 1 Cor. 15:20, 23 The day of atonement Lev. 16 The cross Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:7-8, Heb 9:23-28; Heb 9:13:11-13 The bronze serpent Num. 21:5-9 John 3:14-16 The smitten Rock Exod. 17:5-7 Christ 1 Cor. 10:4 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

102 References used for this Presentation
Protestant Biblical Interpretation by Bernard Ramm (1970) Baker Book House Basic Bible Interpretation by Dr. Roy Zuck (1991) Chariot Victor Publishing Wilson Dictionary of Bible Types by Walter Lewis Wilson(1957 Eerdmans Publishing Tense Voice Mood : Pierce, Larry Wuest’s Word Studies in the Greek New Testament Strong, James: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible Walvoord, John F. ; Zuck, Roy B. ; Dallas Theological Seminary: The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

103 References used for this Presentation
Robertson, A.T.: Word Pictures in the New Testament Logos Bible Software Scholar Version Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament : Based on Semantic Domains. The New Manners and Customs of the Bible by Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:869). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. By J Dwight Pentecost; THINGS TO COME; A study in Biblical Eschatology DICTIONARY OF DEITIES AND DEMONS IN THE BIBLE Edited by Karel van der Toorn ,Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

104 References used for this Presentation
(J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1964 Why are there so many different Christian interpretations? Got Questions Ministries provided the base The Principles of Biblical Interpretation Jamieson, Robert ; Fausset, A. R. ; Fausset, A. R. ; Brown, David ; Brown, David: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Evans, William ; Coder, S. Maxwell: The Great Doctrines of the Bible. Enl. ed. Chicago : Moody Press, 1998, c1974, S. 194 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton

105 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton
You must understand that Satan is real and the spirit realm is controlling what we perceive as truth and reality in the physical realm through the KOMOS. KOMOS AION Demonic Forces Satan Walking in Unbelief Education (POL) Philosophies (POL) Religion (POL) Psychology (LOF,POL,LOE) Ethics POL Thoughts (LOF,LOE,POL) Morals (LOF) 16. all that is in the world—can be classed under one or other of the three; the world contains these and no more. lust of the flesh—that is, the lust which has its seat and source in our lower animal nature. Satan tried this temptation the first on Christ: Luk 4:3, “Command this stone that it be made bread.” Youth is especially liable to fleshly lusts. lust of the eyes—the avenue through which outward things of the world, riches, pomp, and beauty, inflame us. Satan tried this temptation on Christ when he showed Him the kingdoms of the world in a moment. By the lust of the eyes David (2 Sam 11:2) and Achan fell (Jos 7:21). Compare David’s prayer, Ps 119:37; Job’s resolve, Ps 31:1; Mt 5:28. The only good of worldly riches to the possessor is the beholding them with the eyes. Compare Luk 14:18, “I must go and see it.” pride of life—literally, “arrogant assumption”: vainglorious display. Pride was Satan’s sin whereby he fell and forms the link between the two foes of man, the world (answering to “the lust of the eyes”) and the devil (as “the lust of the flesh” is the third foe). Satan tried this temptation on Christ in setting Him on the temple pinnacle that, in spiritual pride and presumption, on the ground of His Father’s care, He should cast Himself down. The same three foes appear in the three classes of soil on which the divine seed falls: the wayside hearers, the devil; the thorns, the world; the rocky undersoil, the flesh (Mt 13:18–23; Mk 4:3–8). The world’s awful anti-trinity, the “lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life,” similarly is presented in Satan’s temptation of Eve: “When she saw that the tree was good for food, pleasant to the eyes, a tree to be desired to make one wise,” Gen 3:6 (one manifestation of “the pride of life,” the desire to know above what God has revealed, Col 2:8, the pride of unsanctified knowledge). At the core its to please “self”. They follow after the pattern of Satan himself Aims (LOF,POL,LOE) Hopes Aspirations (POL) Impulses Entertainment (LOF,LOE) Continue Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton


Download ppt "Biblical Hermeneutics Grammatical-Historical Overview"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google