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1 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton1

2 2 Table of Content 1 Study of Supporting Peripheral areas Affecting Hermeneutics Personal Introduction Goal Objective's Course Introduction Who should take this course Hermeneutically Teaching the Word Merrill C Tenny Quote Terms to be Familiar With What is Hermeneutics Exegesis What is Exegesis Eisegesis What is Eisegesis What do you think about the state of today’s church (Movie) Bible knowledge Survey Discerning the Will of God Objections to learning proper Bible Interpretation The Internal Claims of Scripture Biblical Spiritual Qualifications of an Interpreter EXPECT PERSECUTION FOR SPEAKING BIBLICAL TRUTH Why are there so many different Christian Bible interpretations?

3 Table of Content Overview 2 Study of Hermeneutics INTERPRETING THE BIBLE OBJECTIVELY (Movie) Which Bible Version to Study From What is Hermeneutics Source of Biblical Interpretation Benefits of Hermeneutics Inappropriate Methods by Dr. Bob Utley, Professor of Hermeneutics (Retired)Dr. Bob Utley The Interpretation Process The Language of the Bible The Literal Interpretation Principle of the Bible Types and Antitypes The Grammatical Principle The Cultural Principle The Contextual Principle The Historical Principle Scripture Interprets Scripture Principle The Progressive Principle The Accommodation Principle Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton3

4 Table of Content Overview 3 Study of Hermeneutics The One Interpretation Principle The Harmony of Scripture Principle The Harmony of Scripture Principle The Genre The Genre Figures of Speech in the Bible Interpretation of Prophecy Principles 1 Interpreting Prophecy according to the law of double reference Interpretation of Prophecy Language Principle Interpretation of Prophecy Historical Background Principle Interpretation of Prophecy Passage Parallel Principle Types and Antitypes References used for this Presentation Recommended Books / Websites Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton4

5  Reduce Biblical Ignorance among Believers Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton5

6  Enable believers:  To defend the faith (2 Pet 3:15)  To contend for the faith (Jude 3)  Prepare for discipleship and teaching work (Matt 28:19)  To enable believers to “correctly” interpret scripture on their own  Correctly discern between good and evil (1 John 4:1, Eph 4:14, Heb 5:13-14)  To equip and build others within the church (Eph 4:11-12, Acts 18:24- 26) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton6

7 7  The fact that God has spoken in Holy Scripture is at the heart of our faith. Therefore it’s important for us to make certain what God has said  This task should not be approached carelessly or half heartily but with fear, trembling and prudence  Upon the “correct interpretation” of the Bible rests the doctrine of the foundation of our faith i.e., doctrinal understanding of person of Christ, salvation, sanctification, the nature of God, the study of prophecy and other important biblical doctrines and ultimately our eternal destiny  The correct interpretation can be done only if we have carefully, thoroughly and systematically apply the system of bible interpretation which will yield the meaning that the bible writer intended to convey as they wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit

8  Further, we need to know the correct method of Biblical Interpretation so that we do not confuse the voice of God with that of man This should leads us to the questions: 1. How do we bridge the linguistic, cultural, and historical gaps between us today and that of the writers of the Bible 2. What are the guiding principles that will help us build the bridge as we address these gaps? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton8

9  In order for the local church to grow in grace and knowledge of God's word, remain healthy, be ready to address an every changing culture, remain strong during times of adversity. God’s “whole” eternal truth must be consistency taught by its servants, obeyed in the walk of life, expressed in worship, utilized in the work of service.  Neh 8:8-9 Also Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, the Levites, explained the law to the people while the people remained in their place. They read from the book, from the law of God, translating to give the sense so that they understood the reading. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton9

10  There is a distinct difference between preaching and teaching.  "Preaching" (Greek: ceruse) is to proclaim, publish, or herald the Good News.  “Teaching (Greek didaskō, did-as´-ko) is to systematically and objectively instruct, guide, and apply others through the Word of God. With the direction of the Holy Spirit, both can ultimately lead to a person's salvation.  In general, preaching should be used for the unsaved while teaching should be used for the saved. In comparing the two, the Bible clearly places greater emphasis on teaching over preaching. Jesus himself was often times referred to as "Teacher" (Matt. 8:19, 12:38, 19:16, 22:24) or "Rabbi" (John 1:38). Additionally, many New Testament passages allude to teaching more clearly:  "Command and teach these things." (1 Timothy 4:11)  "You must teach what is in accord with sound doctrine." (Titus 2:1)  "Those who oppose him he must gently instruct..." (2 Timothy 2:25)  However, we are not to neglect preaching. Jesus tells us to, "Go into all the world and preach the good news to all creation." (Mark 16:15). Paul tells us to, "Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season, correct, rebuke and encourage -- with great patience and careful instruction." (2 Timothy 4:2)  Within our society today we can clearly see two distinct types of pastors and ministers within our churches.  There are those who "preach" the Word  Then there are those who "teach" the Word.  The Study of Hermeneutics can and will enable the servant in the Lord to be a workman that’s equip to perform the ministry God call has called them to. (2 Tim 2:15) A teacher or preacher who employs hermeneutics no doubt will be more effective for the cause of Christ in both preaching and teaching believers. (Eph4:11-12) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton 10 (http://www.bibleteacher.org/con_4.htm)

11  All of those who have been “Born again by the Spirit of God” so that we may effectively engage in the good works of God in which we where save to serve in. (Eph 2:10) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton11

12 "The Bible was written in an environment that is now unfamiliar to most of its readers. The individual realization of the modern world with its new facilities, products, and problems is quite different from the social and economic conditions described in the Bible. Some of its language is puzzling, and can easily be misconstrued if one does not have some explanation of the ancient background." Merrill C. Tenney Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton12 Keep in Mind

13  Hermeneutics  Exegesis  Eisegesis Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton13

14  Hermeneutics is the science and art of biblical interpretation to discover what the author’s intended meaning was, when he wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.  It is a science because there exists a systematic, mechanical, and formulated approach to the interpretation process.  It is an art because it involves an individual's talent, skills, and knowledge to perform the task of interpreting the Scriptures. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton14

15  Exegesis is the “application of hermeneutics” which seeks to extract from the Scriptural text that meaning which is already present. (Roy B. Zuck, Basic Bible Interpretation, p.22)  Good biblical exegesis is actually commanded in scripture. “Study [be diligent] to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton15

16  Eisegesis - A subjective method of interpretation by which one introduces their own opinions into the text. This typically is done at the expense of either the language (Hebrew, Greek) and or context of passage or the historical setting or the context of the subject as found in the whole of scripture  Avoid this method at all Cost Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton16

17  What do you think about the state of today’s church? What do you think about the state of today’s church  The purpose of showing you this video is give you a sense of mission and focus as it pertains to the study of Hermeneutics Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton17

18  According to a Gallup Poll:  Only half of adults interviewed nationwide could name any of the four Gospels of the New Testament.  Just 37% of those interviewed could name all four Gospels.  Only 42% of adults were able to name as many as five of the Ten Commandments correctly.  Seven in ten (70%) were able to name the town where Jesus was born, but just 42% could identify him as the person who delivered the Sermon on the Mount. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton18

19  Researcher George Barna has also documented the lack of Bible knowledge in the United States:  38% of Americans believe the entire Bible was written several  decades after Jesus' death and resurrection (While this is true of the New Testament, the entire Old Testament was written hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus Christ).  12% of adults believe that Noah's wife was Joan of Arc.  49% believe that the Bible teaches that money is the root of all evil. (The love of money is said to be the root of all types of evil).  75% believe that the Bible teaches that God helps those who help themselves. 10 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton19

20  Consider the following statistics regarding “ born again ” believers:[1][1]  35% believe that Jesus Christ was crucified but He never had a physical resurrection  28% believe that when Jesus Christ lived on earth He committed sins  46% claim that Satan is “ not a living being but is a symbol of evil.”  1/3 believes if a person is good enough, then he or she earn a place in Heaven.  1 out of 4 believes it doesn’t matter what faith you follow because all religions teach the same lessons.  52% reject the existence of the Holy Spirit.  Only 5% adults have a biblical worldview.  Only 9% born between the yrs base their moral choices on the Bible.  Only 32% born between the yrs say that moral truth is absolute.  [1] The Barna Group of Ventura, California: [1] Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton20

21 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton21 1 Chron 12:32 1 Chron 12:32 32 Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with knowledge of what Israel should do, (i.e. what God wanted to accomplish) Eph 5:15-17 Eph 5: See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us)

22 Discerning the Will of God  Keeping in mind the points discussed in the video; the Gallop Poll survey and Barna surveys and lets discuss the will of God using 1 Chron 12:32 and Eph 5:15-17 to understanding the mind of God for the times we live and the course of action that we should be pursuing.  1 Chron 12:32 32 Of the sons of Issachar, men who understood the times, with knowledge of what Israel should do, Understood = ‘biynah / bee-naw‘ n – comes from the root Hebrew verb bene. The verb and its derivatives are used 247 times. The background idea of the verb is to “discern 1. The men of Issachar were the fewest of all, only They understood the natural times: , could discern the face of the sky, were weather-wise, could advise their neighbors in the proper times for ploughing, sowing reaping, etc. 3. They understood the ceremonial times: the hour that  Or the ceremonial times, the times appointed for the solemn feasts; therefore they are said to call the people to the mountain (Deut 33:19) to offer sac sacrifices of righteousness. In this critical juncture they knew Israel ought to make David king. It was not only expedient, but necessary; the present posture of affairs called for it. Application : They had discerned God’s will in this matter. These were people who saw with prophetic vision and responded with action. Just as we should respond in the same spirit—rightly discerning the need for accurate Biblical interpretation. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton22

23  In Eph 5:15-17 Paul tells the church at Ephesus and by way of application the church individually and universal to understand what the will of God is and act accordingly just as the men of Issachar. Eph 5: See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us)  How to Walk Eph 5:15 15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, “See” is blepō, “to discern mentally, observe perceive, consider, contemplate, look to in the sense of taking care, take heed.” “Walk” is peripateō, “to order one’s behavior, to conduct one’s self.” “Circumspectly” is akribōs - ak·ree·boce, “exactly, accurately, carefully.” Believers then, are to walk (live) carefully, so as to be wise or skillful and thus please the Lord. The manner for this careful, precise walk is making the right use of every opportunity Can be translated, “Be constantly taking heed how accurately you are conducting yourselves.” That is, see to it that your conduct is accurate with respect to the demands of the Word of God. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton23

24  Objective of the Walk 16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.  16 “Redeeming” is exagorazō - ex·ag·or·ad·zo, (The middle voice indicates the subject performing an action upon himself (reflexive action) or for his own benefit. E.g., “The boy groomed himself).” “to buy up.”  Therefore In the middle voice as it is used here, it means, “to buy up for one’s self or one’s advantage.” Metaphorically, it means, “to make a wise and sacred use of every opportunity for doing good,”  “Time” kairos - kahee·ros ( καιρος ), “time as regarded in its strategic. The idea is taking advantage of the opportunities that present themselves. The right time; a limited period of time. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton24

25  The reason for redeeming the time V 15 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.  “Evil” - poneros /pon·ay·ros, “evil in active opposition to the good, pernicious”. Evil is always aggressive in its opposition to good  Our redemption of the time is of special significance as we approach the end of the church  The use of the word time indicates opportunity is limited accordingly to the duration of the presented oppportunity Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton25

26 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. (i.e. what God wants to accomplish through us)  (5:17) “WhereFore or By Ye - Mood — Imperative The imperative mood corresponds to the English imperative, and expresses a command  Example Jesus’ phrase, “Repent ye, and believe the gospel” (Mk.1:15) is not at all an “invitation,” but an absolute command requiring full obedience on the part of all hearers.  “Unwise” is aphrōn ( ἀ φρων ), “without reason, senseless, foolish, stupid, without reflection or intelligence, acting rashly.”  “Understanding” is suniēmi ( συνιημι ), “to set or bring together, to put the perception with the thing perceived, to set or join together in the mind,” thus, “to understand.” The word speaks of reflective thinking.  The active voice represents the subject as the doer or performer of the action. e.g., in the sentence, “The boy hit the ball,” the boy performs the action. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton26

27  There are 4 four points I would like to bring to your attention:  Point 1  The ability to correctly analyze situations through discernment is what is required and should be a normal part of the Christian life. Just as it was for the men of Issachar, so should it be for those who are born again believers.  Point 2  It’s imperative that we understand what God wants to accomplish through us. The conception of the will of God is the basis and purpose of salvation; In other words God save you for a reason according to his will and for his purpose.  Point 3  The new life of believers through the new birth is conducive and created to understanding and doing the divine will of God.  Point 4  God commands that we act in accordance to his will  Point 5  AS we approach the end of the age there will be teachers instructors, laity who will …” shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven, and those who lead the many to righteousness …“(Dan 12:3), these will understand Dan 12:10e) how to redeem the time. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton27

28  Christians who don't know the rules of Bible Interpretation will still benefit on reading the Bible.  Many Bible verses are so simple and clear that our bigger problem today is not interpreting the difficult verses but obeying those parts of the Bible that we clearly understand. Objections 1. "Having rules in Bible Interpretation will take the Bible away from the common or not highly educated Christians.“ 2. Some Christians don't believe that there are certain rules that they need to apply in Bible interpretation other than just reading and praying for guidance. They feel that such rules will take their right to be able to understand the Bible on their own, and that they will have to depend on scholars or experts to explain the Bible for them.  First, proper interpretation only requires more time studying and a little common sense. An average Christian who can read and follow simple instructions can understand and apply the principles and guidelines of proper interpretation.  Second, these guidelines and principles will give everybody the tools needed to objectively question and make an educated criticism on different interpretations of the Bible today, even those made by Bible experts. Thus heightening ones level and ability to discern biblical truth from error.  You will no longer be forced to follow a doctrine or a teaching that you feel is not an accurate interpretation of the Word of God, just because it is being taught by a "teacher" or an "expert". Or is just part of a particular denominational teaching. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton28 Information from site used as a base.http://www.bible-interpretation.com

29 1) The source of Scripture GOD: Over 3800 times the bible says, ”God said” 2 Timothy 3: "All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17 that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. “ 2 Peter 1: "But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.“ 2) The Vitality of Scripture  Hebrews 4:12... "For the Word of God is living and active and sharper than any two- edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton29 Continue

30 3) The Priority / Authority of Scripture in the life of the believer  Matt 4:4 “It is written, ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.’ Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton30

31 4) The Light of Scripture  Ps 119:105 - Your word is a lamp to my feet And a light to my path. 5) The Warning of Scripture  Isaiah 8:20 - To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.  2 John 9 - Anyone who goes too far and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God; the one who abides in the teaching, he has both the Father and the Son.  1 Tim 4:16a - “… Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; persevere in these things… “ Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton31

32  The Eternal Nature of Scripture 1 Pet 1: For, “All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, And the flower falls off, 25 But the word of the Lord endures forever.” And this is the word which was preached to you. Cf Is 40:6-8 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton32

33 1. Spiritual qualifications have an important place in the list of qualifications and cannot be overstated. 2. The interpreter must have the same spirit (Holy Spirit) which enabled the writers to understand their revelation from God and to record it  1 Cor 2:14-16  14 But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised.  15 But he who is spiritual appraises all things, yet he himself is appraised by no one. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton33

34 3. Must be Born again (John 3:3) cf (1 Corinthians 2:14)John 3:3 4. Must have a zeal that consumes: and enthusiasm that breeds both reverence and productivity of the things of God 1 Pet 2:1-2 1 Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings, 2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby Long/ desire ( epipotheo /ep·ee·poth·eh·o ) - deeply desire; have great affection for to long for something with a deep desire implication of recognizing a lack 2 to pursue with love 3 to lust, harbor forbidden desire. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton34

35 3. Must have a deep reverence for God () 1. Prov 9:10 10 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding 4. Must depend on the Holy Spirit to empower you to deliver God’s Word  (Acts 1:8) but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” 5. Must be teachable Prov 1:5 5 A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels: Prov 9:9 9 Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser: teach a just man, and he will increase in learning. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton35

36 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton36 Accursed as being a divider and trouble makers when standing up for Biblical truth within the church Kings 18: So Obadiah went to meet Ahab and told him; and Ahab went to meet Elijah. 17 When Ahab saw Elijah, Ahab said to him, “Is this you, you troubler of Israel?” 18 He said, “I have not troubled Israel, but you and your father’s house have, because you have forsaken the commandments of the Lord and you have followed the Baals. John 15: “If the world hates you, you know that it hated Me before it hated you. 19 If you were of the world, the world would love its own. Yet because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you”

37 1. Unbelief  No spiritual life:  1 Cor 2:14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.  Tares among Wheat  Matt 13: Jesus presented another parable to them, saying, “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field. 25 “But while his men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went away. 26 “But when the wheat sprouted and bore grain, then the tares became evident also. 27 “The slaves of the landowner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?’ 28 “And he said to them, ‘An enemy has done this!’ The slaves said to him, ‘Do you want us, then, to go and gather them up?’ 29 “But he *said, ‘No; for while you are gathering up the tares, you may uproot the wheat with them. 30 ‘Allow both to grow together until the harvest; and in the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, “First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them up; but gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ” Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton37

38 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton38

39 2. Satanic blindness:  2 Cor 4:3-4 3 And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing, 4 in whose case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.  1 John 5:19 19 We know that we are of God, and that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton39 Continue

40 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton40 How Satan Blinds the Mind Continue Tares that Satan has planted in the church are dead in trespasses and sin (Eph 2:1) While in this state their habitual behavior/ walk is according to the world system and its wisdom of which they speak from (1 John 4:5) The characteristics of the world’s wisdom is said to be earthy, natural and demonic (James 3:15) While in a state of unbelief the god of this world works through them to accomplish his will (Eph 2:2) They are under his control (1 John 5:19b) That is not to say all those outside of Christ are possessed by demonic spirits in the common use of the term, but it is to say all men everywhere who are not in Christ an obedient to him are and can be influenced by Satan

41 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton41 Those who walk in unbelief, walk according to the world system (1 John 4:5), its wisdom (James 3:15) and according to the God of this world (Eph 2:1, 1 Jn 5:19) Religion Philosophies Ethics Morals Education Entertainment Dead Person Walking Opinions Hopes Aims Thoughts Aspirations Impulses

42 3. Cultural (World System) inroads into the church  Teachers Speaking from the world system 1 John 4:5 5 They are from the world; therefore they speak as from the world, and the world listens to them.  Teachers that have a hostility toward God James 4:4 4 You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.  Teachers that have a love for the things of the world 1 John 2: Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world. 17 The world is passing away, and also its lusts; but the one who does the will of God lives forever. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton42 Continue

43 4. Carnal Blindness 1 Cor 3:1-3 1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. 2 I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, 3 for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife among you, are you not fleshly, and are you not walking like mere men? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton43 Continue

44 5. Lack of training  2 Peter 3:16 16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.  He attributes their spurious teachings, in part, to the fact that they are “untaught”  Untaught - amathes /am·ath·ace/] adj: adjective pertaining to one who has not acquired a formal education, and hence with the implication of being stupid and ignorant—‘uneducated, unlearned, ignorant.  Timothy is told to “study to show yourself approved unto God” (2 Tim 2:15)  dokimos - In the ancient world there was no banking system as we know it today, and no paper money. All money was made from metal, heated until liquid, poured into moulds and allowed to cool. When the coins were cooled, it was necessary to smooth off the uneven edges. The coins were comparatively soft and of course many people shaved them closely. In one century, more than eighty laws were passed in Athens, to stop the practice of shaving down the coins then in circulation. But some money changers were men of integrity, who would accept no counterfeit money. They were men of honor who put only genuine full weighted money into circulation. Such men were called “dokimos” or “approved”. Donald Barnhouse.  There is no shortcut to proper biblical understanding; we are commanded to study and be taught by those God has given to the church to equip us. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton44 Continue

45 6. Those who teach that are Unstable  2 Peter 3:16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction. Unstable - [ asteriktos /as· tay ·rik·tos/] adj : adjective - pertaining to the tendency to change and waver in one’s views and attitudes—‘unstable. Distort - strebloo /streb· lo ·o: to twist, turn awry. 2 to torture, put to the rack. 7. Poor hermeneutics or non at all  2 Tim 2:15 Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. 8. Heretical teaching  2 John 9 Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton45 Continue

46 9. Failure to declare the whole counsel of God as an antidote to the doctrine of savage wolves.  Acts 20:27-32 (see Acts 20:17-32 for full context) 27 “For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose of God. 28 “Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood. 29 “I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30 and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. 31 “Therefore be on the alert, remembering that night and day for a period of three years I did not cease to admonish each one with tears. 32 “And now I commend you to God and to the word of His grace, which is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton46 Continue

47 10. Selfishness / Pride / Arrogance  2 Chron 26:16-19 (Uzziah) 16 But when he became strong, his heart was so proud that he acted corruptly, and he was unfaithful to the Lord his God, for he entered the temple of the Lord to burn incense on the altar of incense. 17 Then Azariah the priest entered after him and with him eighty priests of the Lord, valiant men. 18 They opposed Uzziah the king and said to him, “It is not for you, Uzziah, to burn incense to the Lord, but for the priests, the sons of Aaron who are consecrated to burn incense. Get out of the sanctuary, for you have been unfaithful and will have no honor from the Lord God.” 19 But Uzziah, with a censer in his hand for burning incense, was enraged; and while he was enraged with the priests, the leprosy broke out on his forehead before the priests in the house of the Lord, beside the altar of incense. 20 Azariah the chief priest and all the priests looked at him, and behold, he was leprous on his forehead; and they hurried him out of there, and he himself also hastened to get out because the Lord had smitten him.  Beware of the selfish ambition that places oneself above GOD, and the pride that appropriates His glory. Understand that these are characteristic traits of Satan's rebellion which transformed him into the enemy GOD.  Isaiah14:12-21 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton47

48 11. Failure to mature:  1 Cor 3:1-2 1 And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh, as to infants in Christ. 2 I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able,  Heb 5: Concerning him we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. 12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the oracles of God, and you have come to need milk and not solid food. 13 For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed to the word of righteousness, for he is an infant. 14 But solid food is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil.  Heb 6:1-3 1 Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, 2 of instruction about washings and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment. 3 And this we will do, if God permits. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton48 Continue

49 12. Undue emphasis on tradition Mark 7: The Pharisees and some of the scribes gathered around Him when they had come from Jerusalem, 2 and had seen that some of His disciples were eating their bread with impure hands, that is, unwashed. 3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they carefully wash their hands, thus observing the traditions of the elders; 4 and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they cleanse themselves; and there are many other things which they have received in order to observe, such as the washing of cups and pitchers and copper pots.) 5 The Pharisees and the scribes *asked Him, “Why do Your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with impure hands?”* 6 And He said to them, “Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors Me with their lips, But their heart is far away from Me. 7 ‘But in vain do they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.’ 8 “Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men.” 9 He was also saying to them, “You are experts at setting aside the commandment of God in order to keep your tradition. 10 “For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, is to be put to death’; 11 but you say, ‘If a man says to his father or his mother, whatever I have that would help you is Corban (that is to say, given to God), ’ 12 you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother; 13 thus invalidating the word of God by your tradition which you have handed down; and you do many things such as that.”  Col 2:8 8 See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton49

50  It is clear that believers and unbelievers will not have the same goals, aspirations and love for one another. Thus heightening the friction between the two groups Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton50

51 12. Our Humanness; we are not infallible Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton51

52 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton52

53 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton 53 BIBLE VERSIONS COMPARISON OF LITERALNESS MORE LITERAL LESS INTERPRETATIVE MORE WORD FOR WORD MORE PARAPHRASE MORE INTERPRETATIVE** MORE CONCEPT FOR CONCEPT LXX Young's Literal NAS ASV Amp ESV KJV NKJV NRSV NAB NIV NJB NCV ICB NLT Phillips GNT CEV TLBMSG ** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource, for they provide no way to determine whether or not the translator's interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, KJV, NKJV etc. more accurately render the words of the original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study. VERSIONS: CHART LXX- Septuagint (*) NAS = New American Standard (*) Amp = Amplified Version ASV = Authorized Standard Version 1901 ESV = English Standard Version KJV = King James Version (*) NKJV = New King James Version (*) Youngs Literal Translation (*) NRSV= New Revised Std Version NAB = New American Bible (*) NJB = New Jerusalem Bible NIV = New International Version NCV = New Century Version ICB = International Children's Bible NLT = New Living Translation Phillips = JB Phillips GNT = Good News Translation CEV = Contemporary English Version TLB = The Living Bible MSG = The Message–not recommended

54 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton54

55  Hermeneutics is the science and art of biblical interpretation to discover what the author’s intended meaning was, when he wrote under the influence of the Holy Spirit.  It is a science because there exists a systematic, mechanical, and formulated approach to the interpretation process.  It is an art because it involves an individual's talent, skills, and knowledge to perform the task of interpreting the Scriptures. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton55

56  These principles are embedded in the scripture itself. The Bible interprets itself (scripture interprets scripture). Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton56

57 Correct Biblical Interpretation is Paramount in order to: provide an “objective, Biblical World view” understanding of what God has said to us through His written word. to “put aside” any denominational, unscriptural traditions, personal opinions, geographical, or “cultural reasoning” that separate our minds from that of the writers of the Bible so that we can understand what God is saying be equipped ourselves for every good work (2 Tim 3:16-17) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton57

58 A. Ignoring the literary context of the books of the Bible and using every sentence, clause, or even individual words as statements of truth unrelated to the author’s intent or the larger context. This is often called “proof-texting.” B. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by substituting a supposed historical setting that has little or no support from the text itself. C. Ignoring the historical setting of the books and reading it as the morning hometown newspaper written primarily to modern individual Christians. D. Ignoring the historical setting of the books by allegorizing the text into a philosophical / theological message totally unrelated to the first hearers and the original author’s intent. E. Ignoring the original message by substituting one’s own system of theology, pet doctrine, or contemporary issue unrelated to the original author’s purpose and stated message. This phenomenon often follows the initial reading of the Bible as a means of establishing a speaker’s authority. This is often referred to as “reader response” (“what-the-text-means-to me” interpretation). Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton58

59 Within the science of interpretation (Hermeneutics) there exists four essential and primary steps in the interpretation process. 1. Observation 2. Interpretation 3. Correlation 4. Application Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton59

60  You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this process.  This step asks, "What does it say?" As the interpreter, we are to objectively observe the whole picture of what we are attempting to interpret. Figuratively, we are to act as a detective -- investigating, and examining what the passage is saying.  Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are: 1. Who are the key figures in the book? Who is Jeremiah, Cyrus, Paul, Timothy, etc.) 2. What is the background and historical setting 3. What are the key dates? 4. When was the book written? 5. What are the key verses in the book? What are the key words? 6. What are the key events taking place? (Pentecost, Paul's conversion, Christ's resurrection) 7. What conclusions can be drawn? Must we observe Jewish customs and laws ? 8. Additionally, the interpreter will observe any key doctrines, themes, and the author's intention in writing the book. 9. Observe the text itself, determining what is a metaphor, simile, anthropomorphism, personification, euphemism, hyperbole, irony. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton60

61  This crucial step is perhaps the most difficult and time-consuming of these three steps  You will need to consult Bible references and tools during this process.  This step asks, "What does it mean?“  Some of the questions the interpreter might ask are: 1. Who wrote the book? 2. What is the overall theme of the book? (God's grace, love, Belief etc) 3. What does the Grammar mean 4. What passages make up the context 5. Cross-referencing to compare similar passages talking about the same subject to gain a more in-depth understanding 6. Who is the third person? Me? God? Jesus? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton61

62  Correlation step should be inserted between Interpretation and Application.  Correlation means examining how one passage fits in with other passages on the same topic or theme.  Use it for broader view. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton62

63 1. Here we determine how the passage pertains to the life of the beliver  As Dr Roy Zuck points out...  Heart appropriation, not merely head apprehension, is the true goal of Bible study. Only in this way can believers grow spiritually. Spiritual maturity, in which we become more like Christ, comes not just from knowing more about the Bible. It comes from knowing more about the Bible and applying it to our spiritual needs.  God expects that those who say they love Jesus will apply His words to their lives and live accordingly.  (John 14:21) 21 “He who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will disclose Myself to him.”  Heb 12:1-2Heb "let us also lay aside every encumbrance, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us fixing our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of faith"  Phil 3:14Phil 3:14 pressing "on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus") disciplining ourselves "for the purpose of godliness for bodily discipline is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come." Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton63

64  The Bible was originally written in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.  The OT was primarily written in Hebrew  Aramaic is used in  Daniel 2:4a to 7:28.  Aramaic is found also in the Ezra 4:8-6:18, 7:12-26 and Jeremiah 10:11.  the Syrian tongue —or Aramaean language, sometimes called Chaldee. Typically this was made use of by the Persians in their decrees and communications relative to the Jews (compare 2 Kings 18:26; Isaiah 36:11).  The New Testament is written entirely in Koinie Greek Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton64

65  We take the Bible at face value.  Isa. 7:14—Born of a virgin  Micah 5:2—At Bethlehem  Jer. 31:15—Slaughter of the children  Hosea 11:1—Called out of Egypt  Isa. 11:2—Anointed with the Spirit  Zech. 9:9—Entry into Jerusalem  Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14—Betrayed by a friend  Zech. 13:7—Disciples forsake Him  Zech. 11:12—Sold for thirty pieces of silver  Zech. 11:13—Potter's field bought  Isa. 50:6—Spit on and scourged  Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20—Not a bone broken  Psa. 69:21—Gall and vinegar Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton65

66  The study of word meanings, grammar, culture and syntax of the original languages is important for a proper understanding of Scripture.  The word meanings, grammar, and syntax of the original languages are what is included when the Bible say's that God breathe the scriptures (2 Timothy 3:16)  Example of Word meaning / syntax / context  John 10:30IandtheFatherareoneegōkaihopatēresmenhen verb, first person, plural, present, active, indicative One – ( ἑ ν, hen) neuter, adjective - one essence or nature that which; is united as one in contrast with being divided or consisting of separate parts; I.E. a unity Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton66

67 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton67 TENSEACTIONEXAMPLE & EXPLANATION PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS ACTION HABITUAL ACTION OFTEN REFLECTS A LIFESTYLE PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle, Masculine, Plural, AccusativePassive Voice Knowledge of the tense of a verb can sometimes be critical for accurate interpretation. For example note 1Jo 3:9: "No one who is born of God practices (present tense) sin (noun), because His seed abides in him and he cannot SIN (verb), because he is born of God." Look at the verb "SIN". At first glance the verse seems to imply that one who is "born of God" can never commit a sin and yet all genuine believers know that this is not a reality (cf 1Jo 1:8).1Jo 3:9practicessinabidesbornSIN1Jo 1:8 When you understand that the verb SIN is in the present tense, it becomes clear that John is saying that one who is born of God cannot habitually commit sins as a way of life.SIN The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing. GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE 1John 3:9

68 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton68 AORIST TENSE EFFECTIVE ACTION SUCCESSFUL ACTION SINGLE ACTION ONE-TIME ACTION States that an action occurs without regard to its duration. It is analogous to a snapshot which captures an action at specific point in time. PPPMPA: Present Tense, Passive Voice, Participle, Masculine, Plural, AccusativePassive Voice 1Peter 1:31Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again (AAPMSN) (5660) to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,has caused us to be born againAAPMSN5660 The AORIST TENSE conveys the truth that the believer's new birth (indicative mood is mood of reality) has occurred at a point in the past without specifying when this event occurred.indicative mood The passive voice indicates this new birth was produced by a Source outside of the recipient and in context that Source is "the God & Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". The aorist and present tenses are used about equally in the NT, together making up over 80% of all verbs and verbals. Chapman, B. (1994). Greek New Testament Insert. (2nd ed., revised.). Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing.passive voice

69  Grammar may be studied culturally  Acts 16:31 – Jailer converted  They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”  household – (greek - oikos) Some have use this verse to support infant baptism since they are part of the household. But the Greek word included household pets and animals non of which are candidates for baptism. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton69

70  Words may be studied in languages of the same family and ancient translations  Hebrew language includes languages from Egypt to Mesopotamia, Arabic and Aramaic are of Particular importance for OT studies. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton70

71  By cultural it is meant the total ways, methods, tools customs, buildings, institutions, on their existence.  Religious Culture (god’s worship)  Social  Legal  Material Culture  Tools  Objects  Dwellings  Weapons  Garments  Roman Soldiers armor Eph 6:10  Etc.  The Bible was composed in a specific culture at a particular point in time.  The principal purpose of studying the cultural elements aids the interpreter to know what are the original things referred to in scripture. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton 71

72  Passages may be studied culturally  Matt 5:41  “When our Lord mentioned that if we were compelled to go one mile, we should go two, He was referring to a well known Persian custom. When a Persian messenger carried a message of the empire he could compel inhabitants of a locality to carry his baggage one mile, or to perform any service the messenger commanded.  Hence Christians out of love and not command should help their neighbor not for the customary or accepted one mile, but for the extra mile of love and grace Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton72

73  Ex 7-11  The following is a list of Egyptian gods worship within their culture, along with the corresponding plague: 1. Turning water into blood - Hapi, the god of the Nile river. 2. Frogs - Heqt, goddess of birth. Heqt is often depicted as a frog. 3. Gnats from dust - Geb, god of the earth or soil. 4. Flies - Kheper, god of beetles and flies. 5. Cattle - Apis, sacred bull. 6. Boils - Isis, goddess of healing. 7. Hail - Nut, sky goddess and/or Horus, falcon god / sky god. 8. Locust - Seth, god of crops days of darkness - Ra, the sun god (main god of the solar faith). 10. Death of firstborn - Pharaoh who was considered a god.  The plagues were design to attack the greatest of Egyptian gods, leading to the two greatest gods: Ra, the sun god, and Pharaoh himself. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton73

74  Social Culture  Manners / Customs  Marriage  Oldest First Gen 29:26  Laban replied, “It is not our custom here to give the younger daughter in marriage before the older one.  The deceiver Jacob had asked for the younger Rachel’s hand, but was deceived by Laban and tricked into marrying Leah. Thus the ancient Near Eastern tradition of the older daughter marrying first was preserved. This custom is still adhered to in many countries, and when a younger daughter has an opportunity to marry, everything is done to get the older daughter married first. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton74 continue

75  Religious Beliefs Practices  OT  Baal, Queen of Heaven, Ashtoreth, god’s of Egypt  Galatians  legalism  Colossians 1 It was Jewish, stressing the need for observing Old Testament laws and ceremonies. 2 It was philosophical, laying emphasis on some special or deeper knowledge (gnōsis). 3 It involved the worship of angels as mediators to God (Col 2:18). 4 It was exclusivity, stressing the special privilege and “perfection” of those select few who belonged to this philosophical elite. 5 Gnosticism denied the deity of Christ, thus calling forth one of the greatest declarations of Christ’s deity found anywhere in Scripture (Col 1:15-16; 2:9).  1 John  Gnostics Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton75

76  The Word of God is a perfect unit.  The global context of any verse is the entire scripture  Consider the:  verses immediately before, after, and around the passage  the book its in  the testament its in (OT / NT)  Verbal Cross Reference  Wording in one passage is similar to the wording in an other passage  Ex “Son of Man” cf “first and the last” (Isaiah 44:6 ; Rev 1:17; 22:13) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton76 continue

77  Conceptual Cross Reference  A verse or passage in one book has the identical substance or content of another part of scripture even thought there is no use of common words.  Ex., Hebrews 2 and Philippians 2 both discuss the character of the incarnation  Ex., Romans 3 and Heb 10 discuss the atonement  life of Christ must be compared to all four gospels Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton77

78  All Biblical events occur in the stream of history:  How did the fall occur?  How did the Jews get to Egypt during Joseph’s time?  What where the events that cause the northern kingdom to be exiled into Assyria?  What where the events that cause the southern kingdom to be exiled into Babylon during Daniel’s time?  What are the events that will bring about the great tribulation? Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton78

79  This principle is best illustrated by what is known as "topical Bible study."  There are two essential 'rules' for applying this principle: 1) The context of the two passages must be the same 2) The plain passage must be used to guide our interpretation of a less clear passage - not the other way around! Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton79 Continue

80  Parallel cross Reference two or more books describe essentially the same events  The same historical materials are covered by Samuel(1,2), Kings, and Chronicles  The Events in the life of Christ in all four gospels Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton80

81  The Word of God is to be understood from the Old Testament to the New Testament as a flower unfolding its petals to the morning sun.  God initiated revelation, but He did not reveal His truths all at one time.  The Old Testament is the New Testament concealed, and the New Testament is the Old Testament revealed.  In the sermon on the mount Jesus said he came to fulfill the law  In:  Luke 24:27 27 Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.  John 5:39 39 You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; it is these that testify about Me ! Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton81

82  The Bible is to be interpreted in view of the fact that it is an accommodation of Divine truths to human minds:  God the infinite communicating with man the finite.  The Bible was written in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.  The Bible was also created in space, in time, and in history so that man could understand it.  The truths of God made contact with the human mind at a common point, the Bible, to make God (and, indeed, all of reality) knowable.  Accommodation through Objects  Tabernacle:  Animal sacrifice  Accommodation through Nature:  Parables: Matt 13:25-30  We must be careful, not to push accommodating language about God and His nature to literal extremes.  God does not have feathers and wings (e.g., Psalms 17:8); nor is He our literal Father in the same sense our earthly father is. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton82

83  Every verse in the Bible has only one interpretation  A verse may have many applications.  The one correct interpretation is that which mirrors the intent of the inspired author.  Simply put, this law states that ALL biblical passages are to be taken exactly as they read unless there is something in the text indicating and extended meaning is present (address the law of double ref.) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton83

84  No part of the Bible may be interpreted so as to contradict another part of the Bible. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton84

85  The Genre Principle  Genre is a literary term having to do with the category or "genus" of literature under consideration.  Here are some books of the Bible and their respective genres:  Psalms – Poetry  Proverbs - Wise Sayings  Minor/Major Prophetic Books (Isaiah–Malachi) History/Prophecy  The Gospels / Acts - Biography and History  The Epistles - Teaching and Doctrine  Revelation - Eschatology and Prophecy Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton85

86  Simile: A comparison using "like" or "as." Example: " As lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man" (Matthew 24:27)  Metaphor: One thing described in terms of some other thing. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom" (Luke 12:32)  Anthropomorphism: God described in human terms. "The eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth" (2 Chronicles 16:9)  Words of association: One word stands for something else. Examples: "Circumcision" meaning the Jews (Galatians 2:9, King James Version); "sword" for all weapons (Romans 8:35)  Personification: Personal qualities assigned to an object. "The mountains skipped like rams" (Psalm 114:4)  Euphemism: Substituting an inoffensive word for a possibly harsh or crude one. "Adam lay with his wife Eve" (Genesis 4:1) means that they had sexual intercourse  Hyperbole: Exaggeration. "If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out" (Matthew 5:29).  Irony: The literal meaning is opposite the real meaning. "You have become kings...! How I wish that you really had become kings so that we might be kings with you!" (1 Corinthians 4:8)  Apocalyptic Literature:  Uses symbols that communicates absolute truth (Rev 1:20 seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.  Scripture gives the definitions Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton86

87  Meaning and significances of:  All proper names  Events  References to:  Geography  Customs  Culture The following is a list of names that will form the united coalition as mentioned in Ezek 38:1-6. They can be currently identified based on the historical geographical region each group occupied Gog is described as being “of the land of Magog” and as the “prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal.” Most Bible scholars believe Gog is not a name but a title, like Pharaoh or Czar. He is a dictator who will hatch an “evil plan” (Ezek 38:10). Magog = Leading Bible scholars say this is Russia and republics of the former Soviet Union. The first century Roman historian Josephus said the “Magogites” were the peoples whom the Greeks called “Scythians.” Scythians were a fierce, blood-thirsty civilization that settled north of the Baltic Sea in what is now Russia and the European republics of the former USSR. JosephusScythianswhat is now Russia and the European republics of the former USSR Rosh = Russia* Meshech = Some Bible scholars say this is Moscow, others believe it refers to Turkey Tubal = Some Bible scholars say this refers to the city/region of Tobolsk in Russia along the Tobol River; others say it refers to a section of modern-day Turkey. (Interestingly, in 1964, massive reserves of oil and gas were discovered in the Tobolsk region of Siberia and people now refer to the region as the “energy center of Russia.”)*“energy center of Russia.”) Cush = Sudan and EthiopiaPut = Libya, and possibly Algeria and Tunisia Gomer = Turkey, but also possibly Germany and AustriaBeth-togarmah = Armenia and the Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Asia “Many peoples with you” who will attack along “the mountains of Israel” = Other countries will be involved in the coalition as well, notably countries that border the mountains of Israel. This may include Lebanon, Syria and possibly Jordan. Persia = This was the official name of Iran until 1935official name of Iran Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton87

88 1. Interpret Literally A. The New Testament literal method of fulfillment establishes the “literal method” as God’s method in regard to unfulfilled prophecy  Isa. 7:14—Born of a virgin  Micah 5:2—At Bethlehem  Jer. 31:15—Slaughter of the children  Hosea 11:1—Called out of Egypt  Isa. 11:2—Anointed with the Spirit  Zech. 9:9—Entry into Jerusalem  Psa. 41:9; 55:12-14—Betrayed by a friend  Zech. 13:7—Disciples forsake Him  Zech. 11:12—Sold for thirty pieces of silver  Zech. 11:13—Potter's field bought  Isa. 50:6—Spit on and scourged  Exodus 12:46; Psa. 34:20—Not a bone broken  Psa. 69:21—Gall and vinegar Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton88 continue

89 2. Interpret according to the harmony of prophecy A. This rule is laid down in 2 Pet 1:20-21, where the author affirms, “no prophecy is of private interpretation” 20 But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.  The prophecies did not originate with the prophets themselves. The word epilyseōs (“interpretation,” lit., “unloosing”) and the word ginetai (“came about”). The Scriptures did not stem merely from the prophets themselves; their writings came from God. Verse 20, then, speaks not of interpretation, but of revelation, the source of the Scriptures.lit. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton89 continue

90 1. Scripture should be interpreted only in context, that is, a prophecy cannot stand alone without other prophecies to aid in its understanding. 2. Observe the time relationships 3. Interpret prophecy Christologically A. Rev 19:10 10 Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he *said to me, “Do not do that; I am a fellow servant of yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus; worship God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”* B. 1 Pet As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful searches and inquiries, 11 seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton90 continue

91  “Some” prophetic versus focus on the immediate historical context of the prophet, yet there is a more complete fulfillment later.  May have a primary application to the millennial kingdom or the eternal kingdom, but are fulfilled in part in the church age.  These prophecies speak of events that are separated by time as though they were not separated.  (J. Dwight Pentecost) "Two events, widely separated as to the time of their fulfillment, may be brought together into the scope of one prophecy. This was done because the prophet had a message for his own day as well as for a future time... It was the purpose of God to give the near and far view so that the fulfillment of the one should be the assurance of the fulfillment of the other." (J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1964], pp. 46,47.) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton91 continue

92 VerseImmediate ReferenceLater Reference Psalm 22:1DavidMatt 27:46 (Christ on the Cross) Psalm 22:6-7DavidIsaiah 49:7; Isaiah 53:3; Luke 23:35 (Christ) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton92

93  The prophet predicts two dissimilar events, widely separated by time, as though they were one event.  Isa. 61:1-9  Isaiah 11:1-5 VerseFulfillment:Later Reference Isa. 61:1-2a Christ 1 st coming Luke 4:18-21 ( Christ in the synagogue on the Sabbath ) Isa. 61:2b-9 Christ 2 nd coming TBF Isa. 11:2 Christ 1 st coming Matt 3:16, John 1:32 Isa. 11:3 Christ 1 st coming John 2:25; 7:24 Isa 11:4-5 Christ 2 nd coming 2 Thess 2:8 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton93

94 The prophet predicts aspects of God's kingdom at the end of the age. (In the final kind of double reference, the prophet's focus is exclusively on the later event.) New Testament authors subsequently reveal that this prediction has been granted in a partial way to the church. (The prophets predictions will still be fulfilled at the end of the age.) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton94

95 Examples: Jer. 31:31-34 (compare Heb. 8:8-13;10:16-18); (Jer. 31:31-34) "The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. (32) It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them, " declares the LORD. (33) "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. (34) No longer will a man teach his neighbor, or a man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more.“ Jer. 31: describes the spiritual blessings that “Israelites ” will enjoy when God inaugurates his New Covenant with them at the end of the age. (Heb. 10: 16-18) The Holy Spirit also testifies to us about this. First he says: (16) "This is the covenant I will make with them after that time, says the Lord. I will put my laws in their hearts, and I will write them on their minds." (17) Then he adds: "Their sins and lawless acts I will remember no more." (18) And where these have been forgiven, there is no longer any sacrifice for sin. The author of Hebrews declares that these same blessings have been given to all who believe in Jesus during the Church Age. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton95

96 Examples: Isa. 49:6 (compare Acts 13:47) (Isa. 49:6) He says, “It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.” God says that his Servant will restore Israel to him and be a light to the nations so that his salvation may reach to the ends of the earth. Isaiah evidently understood this to refer to the rule of Messiah in the millennial kingdom. Acts 13:47 47 “For so the Lord has commanded us, ‘I have placed You as a light for the Gentiles, That You may bring salvation to the end of the earth.’ ” Paul quotes this same passage as a description of the church's mission work to the Gentiles. This phase of Messiah's redemptive work with the Gentiles (through the Body of Christ) was unforeseen by Isaiah. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton96

97  Give careful attention to:  Language of the prophetic passage:  Figurative Psalms 2:1-3  Poetic  Symbolic Dan 7:23 beast =a nation; Dan 8:20-21 horn=king) Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton97 continue

98  Determine the historical background of the prophet and the prophecy Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton98 continue

99  Search the entire body of Scripture to see what passage parallel each other:  Day of the Lord  The Shaking of the Nations  Re-gathering of Israel Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton99

100  Type - (Greek tupos) means the mark of a stroke or blow  Method of biblical interpretation where by an figure, emblem or symbol found in the Old Testament is seen to prefigure one found in the New Testament.  Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.  Antitype – is the fulfillment of the type  Types and antitypes are never identical but only similar  Either type or antitype may be a person, thing, or event, but often the type is messianic and frequently related to the idea of salvation. Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton100

101 OT TypeOT ReferenceNT AntitypeNT Reference The people of IsraelExod. 19:6Believers1 Peter 2:5 The Prophet like MosesDeut. 18:17-19The MessiahJohn 5:46; 6:14; 7:40; Acts 3:22-26; 7:37 Animal sacrificesLev.1-7, Num 6:14The cross,Heb. 7:27; 10:1-4; 1 Peter 2:24 God's presence with His people Exod. 40:34-38; Num. 9:15-23The incarnation of JesusMatt. 1:23; John 1:14; Acts 2:2-4; 1Cor. 3:10-17; 6:19 Bread of the presence (made from manna) Exod. 25:23-30Jesus the bread of lifeJohn 6:32-33, 35 Altar of incenseExod. 30:1-10The prayers of the saintsRev. 5:8; 8:3 Washing basin / laverExod. 30:17-21; 38:8Washing from sin in baptism / satisfying spiritual thirst / the Holy Spirit Acts 2:38 / John 4:13-14 / John 7:37-39; Acts 1:5; 10:47 The grain offeringLev. 2Jesus offered us His flesh to eatJohn 6:54-58 The high priesthoodLev. 8A mediator between God and men1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 7:26-28 The Passover lambExod. 12:1-28, 43-49Jesus ChristActs 8:32: 1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Peter 1:15-19; 2: Feast of first fruitsLev. 23:11; Deut. 16:9-12Christ's resurrection1 Cor. 15:20, 23 The day of atonementLev. 16The crossRom. 3:25; Heb. 9:7-8, Heb 9:23-28; Heb 9:13:11-13 The bronze serpentNum. 21:5-9The crossJohn 3:14-16 The smitten RockExod. 17:5-7Christ1 Cor. 10:4 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton101

102  Protestant Biblical Interpretation by Bernard Ramm (1970) Baker Book House  Basic Bible Interpretation by Dr. Roy Zuck (1991) Chariot Victor Publishing  Wilson Dictionary of Bible Types by Walter Lewis Wilson(1957 Eerdmans Publishing  Tense Voice Mood : Pierce, Larry  Wuest’s Word Studies in the Greek New Testament  Strong, James: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible  Walvoord, John F. ; Zuck, Roy B. ; Dallas Theological Seminary: The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton102

103  Robertson, A.T.: Word Pictures in the New Testament  Logos Bible Software Scholar Version  Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament : Based on Semantic Domains.  The New Manners and Customs of the Bible by Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible  GREEK VERBS QUICK REFERENCE  Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:869). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.  By J Dwight Pentecost; THINGS TO COME; A study in Biblical Eschatology  DICTIONARY OF DEITIES AND DEMONS IN THE BIBLE Edited by Karel van der Toorn,Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst Toorn, K. v. d., Becking, B., & Horst, P. W. v. d. (1999). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible DDD (2nd extensively rev. ed.). Leiden; Boston; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Brill; Eerdmans Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton103

104  (J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1964   Why are there so many different Christian interpretations? Got Questions Ministries provided the base  The Principles of Biblical Interpretation sson% pdf+biblical+example+of+Contextual+Principle&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us sson% pdf+biblical+example+of+Contextual+Principle&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us  Jamieson, Robert ; Fausset, A. R. ; Fausset, A. R. ; Brown, David ; Brown, David: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments   Louw, Johannes P. ; Nida, Eugene Albert: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament  Evans, William ; Coder, S. Maxwell: The Great Doctrines of the Bible. Enl. ed. Chicago : Moody Press, 1998, c1974, S. 194 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton104

105 Created by Layman Perspective Ministries Hiram E. Sutton105 Walking in Unbelief Religion (POL) Philosophies (POL) Ethics POL Morals (LOF) Education (POL) Entertainment (LOF,LOE) Psychology (LOF,POL,LOE) Hopes Aims (LOF,POL,LOE) Aspirations (POL) Thoughts (LOF,LOE,POL) Impulses You must understand that Satan is real and the spirit realm is controlling what we perceive as truth and reality in the physical realm through the KOMOS. Continue


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