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Buddhism and Daoism Face-off. Buddhism and Daoism Competed  Co-existence of Buddhism and Daoism anticipated competition and intermingling between the.

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Presentation on theme: "Buddhism and Daoism Face-off. Buddhism and Daoism Competed  Co-existence of Buddhism and Daoism anticipated competition and intermingling between the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buddhism and Daoism Face-off

2 Buddhism and Daoism Competed  Co-existence of Buddhism and Daoism anticipated competition and intermingling between the two  Competition for supremacy led to denunciation of opponent  Buddhist monks accused Daoist priests of stealing their ideas and texts;  Daoist reacted with the same accusation  Each conceived and created its new scriptures, known as apocrypha, which simultaneously show the creation of new “gods” or “deities”, and/or resurgent worships and practices

3  The purposes of new scriptures are:  to achieve “scriptural hegemony”  to strength liturgical and evangelical monopolies by integrating other’s favored rituals and practices  Aims of New ritual and liturgical procedures:  practical:  maintain the well-being of their practitioners/followers  help them obtain healthy and long life  offer protective treatment of disease  teach them measures to exorcise the demons  soteriological  help them attain salvation in this world and in the next world

4  Each also relied on existing/new liturgical devices:  talismans, incantations, invocation of the deity’s name, effigies, icons, diagrams, registers, charts, texts of mysterious origin  Each also adopted vocabulary used by its opponent  This had an ironic outcome  two teachings were brought closer  reconciliation of differences occured

5  This also led to the following phenomena: I. Reaffirmation of the powers of “talismans”  “Talismans” were widely used in the Celestial Master (Tianshi) School and the Numinous Treasure (Lingbao) School of Daoism  They were now adopted by Buddhist monks, particularly by Tantric masters in Tang China, for therapeutic and exorcistic purposes similar to that of Celestial Master School of Daoism

6 II. Reaffirmation of the efficacy of the utterance of “word”  The invocation of the deity’s name is reminiscent of what the Lotus Sutra teaches:  the invocation of Guanyin’s name to free oneself from peril  Invocation of mantra, dhāraņīs

7 III. Reaffirmation of the exorcistic power of images/icons/statues/sculptures/effigies the deity IV. Reaffirmation of alimentary precepts such as  grain-free diet recommended by Daoism  Vegetarianism recommended by Buddhism  All of these were to fulfill the same salutary purposes for both Buddhists and Daoists within their fields of healing, life-saving, life-prolonging formulas

8  In their competition, Buddhist monks denounced Daoism, denigrating it as a producer of heretical texts and false sutras.  Zhen Luan wrote Laughing at the Dao (Xiaodao lun 笑道 論 ) denouncing the counterfeits of the Lotus Sutra forged by the Daoists and accused them of stealing.  Dao’an wrote On the Two Teachings (Erjiao lun 二教論 ), charging Daoists plagiarizing Buddhist scriptures.  Falin, wrote In Defense of What is Right (Bianzheng lun 辨正論 ) accusing Daoists of misappropriating Buddhist scriptures to form Daoist Lingbao scriptures

9  Buddhist monks accused Daoist priests of plagiarizing some Buddhist scriptures to produce Daoist Scriptures. Examples:  Repaying the Profound Kindness of Parents, Revealed by Lord Lao  Adapted from Sutra on the Profound Kindness of Parents, which is itself a Buddhist apocryphon  Scripture for Pacifying Houses, Revealed by the Lord Lao  Adapted from the Sutra for Pacifying Houses, also a Buddhist apocryphal text

10  Scripture of the Eight Yang for Pacifying Houses, Revealed by the Most High Lord Lao  Adapted from Sutra of Incantations of the Eight Yang  Daoist priests also claimed that Buddhist monks plagiarized their scriptures  Sutra of the Three Kitchens  Stolen from Daoist scripture titled Scripture of the Five Kitchens,[Revealed by Laozi]

11  Sutra of the Divine Talismans of the Seven Thousand Buddhas to Increase the Account, Preached by the Buddha  Stolen from Daoist scripture titled Marvelous Scripture for Prolonging life and for Increasing the Account, Revealed by the Most High Lord Lao

12  Other adaptation:  Daoist: The Marvelous Scripture for Extending Longevity, Revealed by the Most High Heavenly Venerable of the Numinous Treasure  Extension of life is guaranteed by the “Venerable of the Numinous Treasure Prologation-of- Destiny”  Buddhist: Sutra to Extend Destiny, Preached by the Buddha  the same extension is granted by the “Bodhisattva Prolongation of Destiny”

13 Buddhism and Daoism Transformed  Buddho-Daoist interaction resulted in the transformation of Buddhism and Daoism  Transformation due to fabrication/forgery of scriptures produced by its opponent  Fabrication/forgery involved “plagiarism” or stealing of the opponent’s texts  These texts are referred to as “Buddhist/Daoist apocrypha”  A new apocryphon is likely to anticipate a counter-apocryphon from each one’s opponent

14 Examples of Apocrypha  Daoist Scripture for Unbinding Curse, Revealed by the Most High Lord Lao was a response to the earlier Buddhist Sutra for the Conjuration of Bewitchments, Preached by the Buddha  Buddhist Sutra on Prolonging Life through Worship of the Seven Stars of Northern Dipper, Preached by the Buddha, aka. Great Dipper Sutra, was a response to Daoist Supreme Scripture of the Great Dipper of Mysterious Power Guiding Destiny and Prolonging Life

15 Buddhist: The Sutra of the Three Kitchens  A Buddhist apocryphon based on Daoist creation  Three kitchens refer to:  The spontaneous Kitchen of compassion and consciousness of the self  The kitchen of the four steps towards the enlightenment of a pratyekabuddha (a self- realized buddha” and the non conceptualization of the auditors  The spontaneous kitchen of being, non-being, and non-divine

16  The sutra emphasizes Buddhist origin, representing the Buddha’s words, but traces of Daoist phraseology can be detected  Buddhist phraseology is used to lend a perfect Buddhist coloration: Three Jewels, Six pāramitā, Amitābha, Sukhāvatī  Daoist phraseology lurks beneath them: five phases, broth of jade (yujiang, saliva), eating jujubes, great granary, mobile kitchen; 

17  The structure of the text attests to its Daoist origin: Daoist correlation theory, synergy between one’s body and environment  Main themes:  Stresses the importance of reciting the “Method of Three Kitchens” to be free from hunger, to attain clarity and limpidity  Stresses the importance of reciting the gathas everyday so that on has no need of nourishment for a period of one hundred days or longer  eliminates three poisons, take refuge in the Three Jewels, concentrate upon Amitābha….to gain merits

18  Performs meditation, drinks only cow’s milk and eats only jujubes or broth  Recites the names of the divinities of the Kitchens  Recites the Buddha’s “dhārani to invite the three meals of the Kitchens”  All in all, recitations of incantations, invocations of deities, and meditation to harmonize the physical and the mental are the main components of the Method of the Sutra

19  Assimilated Daoist “Method of the Kitchens” to the practices of qi for perfecting the self  a technique for rejuvenation  A means leading to attainment of wisdom and to meeting Amitābha, and even to immortality  Adopted Daoist dietary theory  Eat genuinely transcendent diet composed of “celestial aliments and beverages”

20 Daoist: The Scripture of the Five Kitchens  Full name: Miracle of the Disfigurement of The Scripture of the Five Kitchens, Revealed by Laozi  Possibly a reworked version of earlier scriptures such as the Scripture of the Traveling Kitchen and Scripture of the Kitchen Food of the Sun and the Moon  Supposedly produced in mid-eighth century as evidenced by later Daoist literature

21  Composed of twenty verse lines of five characters each, concerning the cosmic pneuma (qi)within the five viscera  Based on legendary Daoist methods of “Heavenly Kitchens,” a term derived from Buddhism which refers to “food of superior quality”  Quotes the Laozi and the Zhuangzi extensively  One commentary says that the goal is: harmonizing primordial qi with “supreme harmony” to attain to the Dao, while in concentration

22  Three Daoist traditions come into play  Theory of correlation between five phases and five directions  Theory of “abstinence from cereals/grains”  Alchemy and immortality techniques  Teaches the following:  the procedure to abstain from nourishment to become invisible to spirits and demons  Absorption of the yellow breath and replacement of refined breaths produced by nutrition with the pure and subtle breaths generated alchemically in the practitioner’s body

23  Practitioners are required to  recite the Five Kitchens poem  Know how to manipulate different types of qi in one’s body  Effects of the above practices, according the Fundamental Treatise for the Absorption of Pneuma:  Rejuvenation after three years of practice  Strong vitality and clairvoyance after six years  invulnerability and perfect control over the gods and spirits after nine years  Become the “perfected man” zhenren 真人

24  Attributes of the Daoist “Perfected Man”  Health: Never harmed by fire or water; never suffers from hunger or thirst, heat or cold  Longevity: Eternal youth and long life  Immortality: one never dies

25 Dunhuang

26 Competition in combating evils  Sorcerers, witchcraft, shamans are considered evils, sources of human illness  Methods for Confronting these evils developed in both Buddhsim and Daoism  Scriptures were created to deal with them:  Buddhist: The Sutra for the Conjuration of Bewitchments, Preached by the Buddha  Daoist: The Scripture for Unbinding Curses, Revealed by the Most High Lord Lao

27  While Daoist text emerged as a response to Buddhist text, Buddhist text had drawn some of its materials from still earlier medieval Daoist sources  It is more ideological than ritual text

28 The Sutra for the Conjuration of Bewitchments, Preached by the Buddha  The sutra aims to destroy the sorcerer, who was a woman, to free the faithful from torments conjured up by curses and to help the faithful attain happiness of paradise  Antidote to sorcery:  Dhāranis, murderous incantations, exorcism  evocations of bodhisattvas and other divinities  Paradoxical in its “use of evil against evil”

29  It was produced in keeping with Buddhist notion of mofa (the Latter Days of the Dharma, or the Decline of the Dharma) that had been discussed in earlier apocryphal and genuine sutras:  Apocryphal: Sutra of Consecration (Guanding jing)  Genuine: The Lotus Sutra  “If you are a victim of curses and poisons On the part of a being wishes to harm you Invoke the power of Guanyin And [the harm] will return to its instigator”

30  The Content of the Sutra  An old woman prepared bewitchment by burning animal fat in the middle of the night under the star  Made straw dolls, human effigies, talismans...imprecations and curses Used pins, needles, clods of yellow earth..  Soliloquized in a state of trance  Bewitched the cows, sheep, horses, chickens,, dogs, and pigs and bound their proprietors with curses...

31  The Buddha invites/calls upon the following divinities to come and devour the sorcerer:  divine kings of the Green Emperor of the East (belly)  the divine kings of the Red Eemperor of the South (feet)  divine kings of the White emperor of the West (head)  divine kings of the Black emperor of the North (eyes)  divine kings of the Yellow emperor of the Center (hands)

32  The Buddha also calls upon Celestial kings and other divinities to expel and cause evil spell to return against sorceress  devas of the four heavens (head)  a Brahman  the nāgarājas (dragon kings) of the four heavens  Bull-head Abang (Guardian of Hell) 

33  The Buddha also calls upon these bodhisattvas:  Bodhisattva Universal Virtue  Bodhisattva Changing Light  Bodhisattva Great Knowledge  Bodhisattva Delicate light  Bodhisattva Great Light  Bodhisattva Variegated Light  Bodhisattva Moon Light  Bodhisattva Drangon Light  Bodhisattva Venus  Bodhisattva T housand Yang  ….

34  The Buddha also calls the following to devour the sorcerers  Giant beast of the east (bodies)  Millipede and centipede of the south (eyes)  White elephants of the west (heads)  Black birds of the north (hearts)  Dragon-king of the Yellow Emperor of the center (bodies)  The text indicates that the Buddha knows their names, want them disappear, annihilated, their heads split into seven pieces..  It stresses the merits of recitation of the sutra, accumulation of good deeds and the fields of merit, incantations, and a six-syllable mantra

35 Daoism’s Attitude towards Sorcery  Why didn’t Daoists devote as much attention to it as Buddhism and produce scriptures earlier than Buddhism?  They didn’t believe that demonical possession or illness was due to curses of a few evildoers like shamans and sorcerers  Demons spread as a result of “blood sacrifices” rituals performed by masters of nameless, illicit, and perverse religions or cults  Or people’s belief in “heterodox” gods and the efficacy of the baleful spells taught by ritual masters representing these gods.

36 The Scripture for Unbinding Curses, Revealed by the Most High Lord Lao  This scripture aims to get rid of the scourge of witchcraft, which was, in Daoist view, instigated by “Barbarians of the West.” It is to help the faithful free from misfortune, attain harmony and health, happiness and longevity…  Daoist eschatology, which copied Buddhist mofa theory, underpinned the themes of the text  Combating sorcerers has to be done exclusively by rites and by writing, not by other means

37  The Content of the Scripture  The harmony of High Antiquity have given way to the moral decadence of the end of the world (moshi)  People of “intermediate age” propagated the practices of sorcery and did harm to good people  Victims of these bewitchments must install an alter and invite a Daoist of the Three Grottoes to recite this sutra to generate some merit and cure their illnesses.  To chase away evil spells and assure well-being and longevity, one must recite a special rhymed incantation: (see page78)

38  Lord Lao calls upon these divinities to help:  The Generals of the Three and the Five  The Emissaries of the Eight Winds  The Vassal Lord of the Nine Regions  Ten thousand general and tens of millions of troops  Stresses the recitation of the scripture for curing illnesses, and dissipating misfortunes and calamties

39  Lord Lao, in the text, says that he traveled to India and transmitted his teaching to people there.  Wherever the sutra is recited, people will gain longevity, be protected by thousand transcendent beings (immortals), and free themselves from diseases  Their happiness in this life is assured; their bodies are strong as gold and stone…

40  Recurrent themes in both texts  Use of the exorcistic formula “May their heads be broken in seven pieces!”  “May [three (earth’s) beams and six (sky’] pillars turn back against their instigators  invocation of exorcistic divinities such the Emperors of the Five Directions (found earlier in Daoist text)

41 Cloning Daoist Scripture  The Sutra to Increase the [Life] Account, or the Yisuan jing 益算經, produced by Chinese Buddhist monks, is an appropriation or even an outright copy of a Daoist scripture  The aim is to assure the health and welfare of the faithful so that they can reach the full term of existence—120 years, through invocation of the General of the Six jia (liujia jiangjun 六甲將軍 )

42  A life span of 120 years is known as “celestial longevity (tianshou 天壽 ) and one’s “life-capital” can be increased to reach this longevity or decreased to die prematurely  Directors of Destiny (siming 司命 ) survey one’s merits and demerits to decide one’s life span

43  The calculation of merits or demerits is based on Daoist system of justice that seeks balance between reward and punishment  Accumulation of good deeds is rewarded with prosperity, fortune and felicity for one’s whole family  Faults that exceed a certain quota bring about ill effects such as severe disease, bankruptcy, or even the death of the guilty party and the extinction of his family line

44  There are a number of different versions of Buddhist Yisuan Jing that bear different titles.  There are also two different Daoist Yisuan jing

45 Daoist Yisuan jing  Convention: respect the sutra  Addition/creation of new divinities:  Various celestial officers  Lords of the Five Peaks  Divinities of Six jia governing the account  generals of the five peaks  Creation of new talismans:  the Most High Divine Talismans (or Divine Talismans of the Six Jia)  Divine Talismans of the Great Dao 

46 Buddhist Yisuanjing jing:  New divinities: "seven thousand Buddhas" added to the title  Slapdash adjustments and noticeable substitution of Vocabulary used in the Daoist ogriginal:  Buddha replaced immortals  Bodhisattva for perfected man  way of the buddha replaced "orthodox way“  The Seven thousand buddhas for the Six Generals  Talismans were now called talismans for the thousand Buddhas. 

47  Method to increase life-capital  wear talismans  recite scripture  offering incense  respect three jewels and the precepts  The text is supposed to be used orally for ritual  part of it chanted  ritual components: Invocations of the Generals of the Six jia, the names of the seven stars of the Northern Dipper, the Three Terraces, and the Five Stars

48 Further Influence on Buddhism  The Cult of the Great Dipper (Beidou 北 斗 )  Expressed in the Daoist scripture called Supreme Scripture of the Great Dipper of Mysterious Power [Guiding Original] Destiny and Prolonging Life, or the Scripture of the Great Dipper (Beidou jing)

49  The core teaching of the scripture:  A family possessing the Scripture of the Great Dipper will be blessed its destiny, and its house will enjoy peace  Members of the family are required to worship the scripture and recite the incantations and vows that constitute the core of the teaching

50  The cult of the Great Dipper expressed in the text derives from Secret Instructions of the Seven Principles, which teaches honoring the Great Dipper to obtain longevity by:  Cereal offerings  Burning of the sacrificial paper money  Nightly cult of the stars of the Dipper  The rite of “personal destiny” (benming)  “Lying down in the Dipper” (on a map of the constellation and pronouncing “incantation of reclining”)

51  Also expressed in Shangqing Daoist writings such as Shangqing Golden Scripture with Jade Characters, which teaches adepts how to recline on the diagram of the constellation to  escape death after nine years of this practice  reach immortality afte eighteen years of this practice  Complementary instructions are expounded in several other texts including illustrated “Registers”, which conceived the Great Dipper’s divinities  each bearing the title of “lord” and is said to have “allure of Perfected Man”

52  Based on the same teaching, Buddhists monks created the Sutra on Prolonging Life through Worship of the Seven Stars of the Northern Dipper, Preached by the Buddha, or Great Dipper Sutra  First expressed in the treatise and liturgical text composed by Tantric Buddhist monks, for instance Yixing and Vajrabodhi, in early Tang times (7 th -8 th century).

53  Later incorporated in the Buddhist Great Dipper Sutra produced in the Yuan Dynasty (13 th -14 century)  The Daoist sources used in these works include Method of Sir Immortal Ge [Xuan] for Honoring the Great Dipper, which shows two popular and complimentary Daoist cults:  the Great Dipper  Original Spirits  Divinities in Daoist registers are replicated in Buddhist Great Dipper Sutra

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