Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The New Testament Canon ow We Got the ible. Outline of Study: 1.What is the Canon? 2.Why Study the Canon? 3.Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible?

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The New Testament Canon ow We Got the ible. Outline of Study: 1.What is the Canon? 2.Why Study the Canon? 3.Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Testament Canon ow We Got the ible

2 Outline of Study: 1.What is the Canon? 2.Why Study the Canon? 3.Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible? 4.Stages of Canonization 5.Evidence for a Closed Canon

3 ow We Got the ible What is the Canon?

4 “The list of books contained in scripture, the list of books recognized as worthy to be included in the sacred writings of a worshipping community...list of the writings acknowledged by the Church as documents of Divine revelation.” (F.F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture p. 17) 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 What is the Canon? What is the Canon? Greek: κανών - Reed or Measuring Rod

5 In reference to a set list of books the term first appears in the writings of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria around A.D Previously it referred to the summary of Christian Teaching and Doctrine 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 What is the Canon? What is the Canon? Greek: κανών – List of Accepted Books

6 ow We Got the ible Why Study the Canon?

7 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Why Study the Canon? Why Study the Canon? Reason 1: Not everyone accepts the same Canon Samaritans = 5 books (Pentateuch only) Nestorian Church (Syrian Church) = 22 books Ethiopian Orthodox Church = 81 books Catholic Canon = 66 plus Apocrypha Mormons = Bible plus Book of Mormon, Doc & Cov

8 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Why Study the Canon? Why Study the Canon? Reason 2: To Determine The Limits of Divine Revelation Does God Still Speak today? Does the Holy Spirit lead and guide in extra-Canonical ways today?

9 ow We Got the ible Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible?

10 Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible? 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 J.I. Packer – Noted Scholar The church no more “gave us” the canon than Sir Isaac Newton “gave us” the force of gravity. God gave us gravity by the work of His creation, and similarly, He gave us the New Testament canon by inspiring the original books that make it up. (God Speaks To Man, p. 81) Canonization Canonization

11 Did Scripture Mold the church? Did the “Church” Mold Scripture? 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 F.F. Bruce – Noted Scholar The books did not become authoritative for the church because they were formally included in a canonical list – but on the contrary, the church included them in her canon because she already regarded them as divinely inspired. (The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable, p. 27) Canonization Canonization

12 Did Scripture Mold the church? Did the “Church” Mold Scripture? 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization And they continued steadfastly in the APOSTLE’S DOCTRINE and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers. (Acts 2:42 NKJV)

13 ow We Got the ible Stages of Canonization

14 Stages of Canonization Stages of Canonization 1.Composition – gospel preached and epistles written 2.Community – writings read and circulated by the church 3.Compilation – letters collected and bound in codices 4.Canonization – ex post facto authority given to books 5.Criteria – determination of what writings were legitimate

15 The Word became flesh and dwelt among men (John 1:14) 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Jesus’ Birth Jesus’ Ministry – Oral Teaching Jesus’ Death, Burial, Resurrection Composition Composition The Role of Jesus

16 Holy Spirit Superintended Apostle’s Words 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 However, when He, the Spirit of truth, has come, He will guide you into all truth; for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come. (John 16:13 NKJV) Composition Composition The Role of the Holy Spirit

17 The first New Testament book was not written until perhaps 15 years after Jesus’ ascension. At first the gospel was passed on by “oral tradition.” 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Composition Composition JesusApostles Oral Tradition Epistles Gospels Letters The Role of Oral Tradition

18 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Composition Composition JesusApostles Oral Tradition Epistles Gospels Letters A.T. Robinson argued in his Redating the New Testament that the entire New Testament was written and in circulation between 40 and 65 A.D Such a short “Transmission Period” adds veracity to the reliability of the NT Canon. The Role of Time

19 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Community Community JesusApostles Oral Tradition Epistles Gospels Letters Letters were Written to Address Needs Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. (Jude 1:3 NKJV) Writings Needed

20 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Community Community Paul Peter Matthew Luke Laodicea Colosse Titus Galatia Churches Jewish Christians Gentile Christians Writings Written

21 Gospel of Luke Gospel of Matthew 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Community Community Laodicea Colosse Titus Book of Galatians Writings Circulated

22 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Compilation Compilation Early Church Collected Sacred Writings Now when this epistle is read among you, see that it is read also in the church of the Laodiceans, and that you likewise read the epistle from Laodicea. Colossians 4:16 NKJV Writings Collected

23 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Compilation Compilation Spiritual Gifts guided the Church until the Word could be fully Revealed and Compiled For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is complete is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. (1 Corinthians 13:9-10 KJV) Writings Compiled

24 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization “Ex Post Facto Authority” Canonization approved books already accepted Canonization approved books already used in worship Canonization approved books already known to be valid Writings Approved

25 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization Over Time 27 New Testament Books Were Accepted Clement of Rome – Recognized 8 Books (A.D. 95) Polycarp – Recognized 15 Books (A.D. 108) Irenaeus – Mentions 21 Books (A.D. 185) Muratorian Canon – All but Hebrews, James, 3 John (A.D. 170) Eusebius – Lists 22 Books (A.D. 275) Writings Recognized

26 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization Writings Standardized Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria First to list all 27 books of the NT (A.D. 367) Distinguished canonical from apocryphal Rejected “Shepherd of Hermas”

27 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization Letters “Officialized” The 27 books of the New Testament are formally confirmed as canonical by the Synod of Carthage in AD 397, thus recognizing three centuries of use by followers of Christ. Carthage

28 By AD 400, the standard of 27 New Testament books is accepted in the East and West as confirmed by:  Athanasius  Jerome  Augustine  Three church councils Augustine 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Canonization Canonization Letters Canonized

29 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria Why the Need for a Canon? Apostasy Heretics Competing Writings Persecution Gospel of Judas

30 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria Apostasy: Now the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons, (1 Timothy 4:1 NKJV)

31 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria Excommunicated in 144 A.D. Rejected OT God and OT Established his own church. Established own “canon of scripture.” Marcion’s Canon Luke Galatians 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Romans 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians Ephesians Colossians Philemon Philippians Marcion (c.144) Heretics: Also from among yourselves men will rise up, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after themselves. (Acts 20:30 NKJV)

32 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria Competing Writings Some produced by Heretical Groups Some by uninspired church leaders Some produced by Gnostics Scores produced in the 2 nd and 3 rd centuries. Various Examples Assumption of Moses Gospel of Thomas Gospel of James Epistle of Barnabus Apocalypse of Peter Apocalypse of Paul The Didache Shepherd of Hermas 1 and 2 Clement

33 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria Persecution For what “Truth” shall we die? Diocletian’s persecution of Christians from A. D included the confiscating and destroying of New Testament books. This persecution motivated the church to sort through and settle on which books were really Scripture and which books were worth suffering for.

34 Criteria for Books to be Accepted 1. Written by an Apostle (ex: Paul, Peter) 2. Written by a student of an Apostle (ex: Luke) 3. Must accord with known apostolic writings 4. Was it accepted by leading congregations 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Criteria Criteria

35 ow We Got the ible Evidence of a Closed Canon

36 The Apostles took part in setting the limits of Scripture 1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 We ask you not to be soon shaken in mind or troubled, either by spirit or by word or by letter, as if from us, as though the day of Christ had come. (2 Thessalonians 2:2 NKJV) The Apostle’s Warning The Apostle’s Warning Inspired Apostles

37 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Divinely Ordained Safeguards Divinely Ordained Safeguards Inspired Apostles Spiritual Gifts Pentecost c. 30 A.D. Completed Canon c. 95 A.D. “When That Which Is Complete is Come” 1 Cor 13:10

38 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 The Life of Paul The Life of Paul Paul’s Ministry Pentecost c. 30 A.D. Paul’s Epistles13 Book of Acts 1 Paul’s Epistles and other books about Paul written during his lifetime give evidence of a closed New Testament Canon

39 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Paul’s Ministry Pentecost c. 30 A.D. Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; As also in all his epistles... which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction. (2 Peter 3:15-16 KJV) Peter Regards Paul as Inspired Peter Regards Paul as Inspired Peter’s Influential Testimony

40 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Other Apostles Writings Other Apostles Writings Apostolic Authors Pentecost c. 30 A.D. John’s Writings 4 Peter’s Writings 2 The apostolic writings of John and Peter give evidence of a closed NT Canon

41 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Paul Quotes Matthew and/orLuke Paul Quotes Matthew and/or Luke Other Inspired Authors Pentecost c. 30 A.D. 1 Timothy 5:18 1 Timothy 5:18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward. Deut 25:4 Mt 10:10 or Luke 10:7

42 1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000 Internal Claims and Unity Internal Claims and Unity Other Inspired Authors Pentecost c. 30 A.D. Apostles guided into ALL truth – Jn 14:26 Jude says The Faith is delivered – vs. 3 Peter says we have ALL for Life – 2 Pet 1:3 Paul prohibits other Revelation – Gal 1:6ff The unity that Hebrews, Jude, James, and Mark has with other known apostolic books attest to a closed canon.

43 The Assumption of Scholars 1.The Canon process took several hundred years. 2.The Canon was not settled until long after Spiritual Gifts ceased. 3.The Canon came about via “natural means.” 4.The disputed books were unknown to “true believers.” 5.Those who disputed various books were “true believers.” Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; 2 Thess 2:3

44 If the Canon Is Not Closed... 1.Then Continual Revelation is Possible 2.Then Additional Guidance is Probable 3.Then Religious Chaos is Inevitable But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed. Jas 1:25


Download ppt "The New Testament Canon ow We Got the ible. Outline of Study: 1.What is the Canon? 2.Why Study the Canon? 3.Did the Catholic Church Give us the Bible?"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google