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Prepared by Sushil Silwal Malpi International School.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by Sushil Silwal Malpi International School."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Prepared by Sushil Silwal Malpi International School

3 General Description of Geography -Geography is the study of all aspects of the earth's surface including its natural and political divisions, the distribution & differentiation of areas and, often, man in relationship to his environment. -The word Geography is coined from two Greek words Geo = the earth Graphy = the description of the earth's surface in relation to human beings.

4 Branches of Geography Broadly Geography can be divided into two groups: Physical Geography Cultural Geography Physical geography is the descriptive study of the earth's surface, which was created naturally as man's physical environment. The sub-branches of physical geography are Mathematical, Oceanography, Geomorphology, Climatic, Geology, etc. Cultural geography deals only those parts of the earth's surface which was already modified by human beings Cultural geography also has several branches such as Political or Regional, Economical, Social Commercial, Historical, Recreational, etc. Geography of Tourism falls within the recreational geography.

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6 Locations, Extent and Boundary Nepal is located mostly on the Southern slope of central Himalayan in the continent of ASIA. Geographically, Nepal is elongated east to west (Mechi to Mahakali) with the length of 885 km. The north- south width varies from 145 to 241 km with the mean of 193 km. The shape of Nepal resembles roughly a narrow rectangle with an area off 147,181 sq. km. The Bay of Bengal of the Indian Ocean in the south is 1127 km far from the nearest boarder (southeast corner) of Nepal. Nepal lies within the 26 o 22' to 30 o 27' north latitudes and 80 o 4' to 88 o 12' east longitudes. By area Nepal is 65 and 22 times smaller than China and India respectively Nepal is situated between two big countries of political and cultural differences. It is bounded by China in the north and India in all three directions east, west and south (Buffer State). Being bounded by land on all sides Nepal is also known as Land-locked country.

7 Administrative Divisions Politically Nepal can be divided into five broad regions, which can be further sub-divided in several smaller units such as: Development Regions-5 Zonal Divisions-14 Districts-75 Municipalities-58 Village dev. Committee

8 The distribution of areas and populations by development regions are as follows:

9 Physical Features of Nepal Nepal is a small country in terms of area but presents a vast degree of geographical diversity within the width of nearly 80 km. Its surface configuration consists of mainly mountains, hills, plateaus, basins and valleys of varying altitude and magnitude. The elevation rises from 61m in the Terai belt on the south to highest altitude of Mt. Everest 8,848m. Physically Nepal can be divided into two broad divisions with several sub-units as noted below:

10 Physical Features of Nepal Sub-unitsBreadthElevation Range Percent Hills & Mountain Regions Tibetan Marginal Ranges 6,000-7,000m Inner Himalayas 24-48km ave. 4,000m25 % Greater Himalayas > 5,000m Midland Valleys ,800m Mahabharat Lekh km1,500-3,000m52 % Churia Range 750-1,500m Terai & Inner Terai Regions Inner Terai m Bhaber Zone40-56km m 23 % Main Terai < 100m

11 Hills & Mountain Regions The mountain region situated on the north of Nepal is the youngest and loftiest fold mountain of the world. Its tremendous height is supposed to be due to subsequent uplift during later periods of Tertiary Era. This mountain zone covers nearly 25 percent of the total area of the country. It extends in an east- west direction for about 850 km. Almost all the prominent rivers of Nepal are conceived to have originated from these mountain ranges. Though stretching for the entire length of north Nepal, the Himalayan Mountain is not a single continuous range. There are in total 28 Himalayan ranges in Nepal The Hilly Region located between south of the Himalaya and north of the Terai plain. A chain of massive mountains running from west to east is full of rolling hills and hillocks; wide and narrow valleys terrace slopes, tars and spurs. Extending parallel to the Himalaya this mountain consists of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The elevation ranges from 600m to 3,000m above sea level.

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14 Tibetan Marginal Ranges In the south of Tibetan Plateau, Nepal posses a chain of the Himalayas extending along the northern boarder particularly in the west. Structurally, it differs the main Tibetan Plateau of China. It has a gentle slope in the north. It is almost dry with some glaciers and screes. This is the cold mountain desert land of Nepal. LO Mantang of Mustang district presents a typical desert landscape in the north of the Himalayas. In the south of boarder Himalayas several pockets of Himalayan Valleys are existed

15 Inner Himalayas In between the boarder range in the north and main Himalaya in the south many valleys are existed in the inner part of the Himalayan region. These valleys are called 'Bhot Pradesh' in Nepal These valleys have Tibetan landscape, which are surrounded by ice-clad high Himalaya where glaciers and moraines are extended up to the valley floor. Most of these valleys are east-west extension except in Thak Khola area. Greater Himalaya is not the northern end point of the country because many high Himalayan peaks can be viewed in the south from within Nepalese land. This is the rain shadow region of Nepal. Therefore, this is also the driest as well as low productive land of Nepal.

16 Main or Greater Himalayas The Himalayan range with the glittering snow peaks of different altitudes elevated like towers up the northern parts of Nepal. Due to the highly dissected by mighty antecedent rivers several ranges are separated from one another. Out of the total ranges of the whole Himalayas 28 ranges lie within Nepal. The height of this region increases eastwards of the country The slope of this region is gentler in the northern side than southern one. Nepal Himalaya contains 8 out of the 10 lofty peaks. These are Mt Everest 8848m, Mt Kanchenjanga 8586m, Mt. Lhotse 8516m, Mt. Makalu 8463m, Mt. Cho yu 8201m, Mt. Dhaulagiri 8167m, Mt. Manaslu 8163m, and Mt. Annapurna 8091m. These mountain system posses numerous popular panoramic views of peaks.

17 Inner or Midland Valleys This region is extended from Mahabharat Lekh in the south to high Himalaya in the north. The elevation ranges from 900m to 1,800m ASL. This region provides wide possibilities of agriculture, horticulture, livestock and crop varieties. In the north of the Mahabharat range, the longitudinal valleys formed by the large rivers. Relatively eastern valleys are narrower with sharp slopes than western parts. The Mahabharat range encloses most of the large and small size valleys. The river valleys of the big rivers have enriched the settlements in the Midland Nepal. The important valleys like Kathmandu, Pokhara, Banepa, Panchkhal, Trisuli Bazaar Baglung etc. are located in this Midland zone. The flat upland areas locally known as tars along the river confluence add economic value of Nepal. Some of the important tars of Nepal such as Tumlingtar, Rumjatar, Mangaltar, Batar, Sallyantar, Palungtar, Khairenitar, and Bhorletar etc. are located in this region.

18 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

19 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

20 The Siwalik or Churia Range The Siwalik or Churia range, the foot hill of Mahabharat range rises abruptly in the north of the Terai plain. This is the southern most and the youngest mountain of the Himalayan system. It extends almost parallel to the Mahabharat range from Mahakali River in the west boarder up to the Koshi River in the east. Therefore, it is also known as the Outer Himalaya. Siwalik range presents a hogback landscape, which is steep in the south and gentle slope towards north. Hard and soft strata of coarser rocks like sandstone, pebbles clay, conglomerates, and sand etc. composition feature it. The elevation varies from 600m to 1,800m with the north south width 15 to 30 km. The altitude of the Churia Range decreases from west to east. The highest peak of the Churia Range is Garwa, which is located in Kailali district with the elevation of 1,872m.

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22 The Inner Terai The Inner Terai Region or locally also known as 'Bhitri Madhesh' is located in between two ranges the Mahabharat Range in the north and the Churia Range in the south. The breadth of the longitudinal valley varies from one place to another with the variation of altitude from 200m to500m. Rapti Doon and Dang Deokhuri are among the most popular as well as larger Inner Terai Region of Nepal whereas other smaller Inner Terai Regions are Udayapur, Sindhuli, Makawanpur, and Surkhet. Most of these Inner Terai Regions were formerly covered with thick forests, but at present the agricultural lands are increasing at the cost of forestlands particularly since the malaria eradication program lunched nearly five decades back.

23 The Bhaber Belt The Bhaber belt lies in between the Churia Range in the north and the Terai plain in the south. Generally this region is porous in nature with the thick coverage of big boulders, pebbles, gravels conglomerates, and sandy soils as well as the coverage of dense vegetation. The altitude varies from 100m to 200m with the maximum of 381m in Bahundangi of Jhapa district. Water percolates in this porous region and reappears again in the form of springs in the Terai plain. Except big rivers most of the small rivers and streams will be invisible while crossing this belt. The Bhaber belt contains dense forest, which is known as 'Char koshe Jhadi' or a belt of nearly 13 km broad forest.

24 Terai Plain The broad belt of low and level Terai Plain is located in the southern boarder side of Nepal. It is extended from the foothills of Churis range to Gangetic plain in the south. The main Terai plain is sub-divided into three regions due to the extends of Indian frontier up to the watershed for about 65 km and 80 km in two Churia ranges such as Someshwor in Chitwan district and Dunduwa in Dang district respectively. The Himalayan Rivers have deposited fertile alluvium in this belt. Soil is much more fertile from south to north and east to west. Therefore, northern part is useful for thick forest whereas southern one used for agriculture. Due to the high water table as well as high temperature this region provides ample opportunity to grow cereal crops and vegetables for the country. Therefore, it is known as the 'Grainary of Nepal'

25 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

26 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

27 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

28 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

29 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

30 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

31 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.

32 The Mahabharat Lekh (Middle or Lesser Himalaya). South of Inner Hill Region a chain of mountain (Mahabharat Range) runs continuously east to west, which is parallel to the main Himalayan range with steep relief features. The elevation of this region varies from 1,500m to 3,000m. Considering the slope aspect the southern side is comparatively steeper than the northern slopes. Most of the gentler and lower slopes are utilized for cultivation while higher elevation zones of this region are still covered with thick forests.


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