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Chapters 1-3 GEOGRAPHY. C.F.A. # 1 1.Geography is the study of a)Transportation systems throughout history. b)The land, its environment, resources and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 1-3 GEOGRAPHY. C.F.A. # 1 1.Geography is the study of a)Transportation systems throughout history. b)The land, its environment, resources and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 1-3 GEOGRAPHY

2 C.F.A. # 1 1.Geography is the study of a)Transportation systems throughout history. b)The land, its environment, resources and its peoples. c)Precipitation, wind and drought over a period of time. d)Migration patterns in rural areas. 2.What are the names of the four natural regions of Texas? a)Panhandle, Gulf Coast, East Texas, West Texas b)Mountains and Valleys, Great Plains, North Plains, Gulf Coast c)Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains d)Mountains and Basins, Valleys, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains

3 C.F.A. # 1 3.A key that explains symbols or colors on a map is a _____________. a)Legend b)Grid c)Compass d)Scale 4.This forms the boundary between Texas and Louisiana a)Gulf of Mexico b)Red River c)Sabine River d)Rio Grande

4 C.F.A. # 1 5.How does elevation affect climate in the Mountains and Basins region? a)Higher elevations have cooler temperatures. b)Lower elevations have cooler temperatures c)Higher elevations have strong hurricane force winds. d)Higher elevations have lots of humidity and rain.

5 climatedrought precipitationlandform Definition Draw a Picture Examples 1. 2.

6 regionlatitude longitudeplains Definition Draw a Picture Examples 1. 2.

7 Climate drought precipitation landform region latitude longitude plains Census Trend Migrate Vocabulary Define & Draw a picture

8 TEXAS HISTORY belongs to:___________ class period:__________ Fall 2013 1

9 GEOGRAPHY: The study of the land, its environment & resources, and the people who live in it. –Physical Geography: features such as landforms, elevation, water, climate & vegetation –Human Geography: How people change their environment. Ex: farming, mining, transportation, jobs

10 Knowing What to Expect The world is constantly changing. Knowing something about the past can make it easier to predict which trends will continue in the future. –A trend is a general movement toward change over the course of time. –A census is a periodic count of the population.

11 Geographers use a variety of tools to organize & analyze information. Tools such as graphs, charts and tables help geographers organize data.

12 A Line graph can show two things on a graph. This graph shows an amount and a span of time. What is a century? What trend does this line graph show?

13 Pie Charts are used to compare parts of a whole. Immigrants to Texas, 2001

14 Bar graphs use bars of different lengths to show & compare the relationship between two or more kinds of information. Four Largest Cities in Texas and the Population Density, 2000

15 Tables are used to compare several facts about many items. A table is like a grid which helps geographers organize many facts and numbers. U.S. Cities2009 Census Population New York, NY8,391,881 Los Angeles, CA3,831,868 Chicago, IL2,851,288 Houston, TX2,257,926 Top 4 U. S. Cities by Population

16 A timeline shows the sequence of events. Timelines are useful for studying how one event may have led to or caused later events.

17 Five Themes of Geography –Location: Position on the Earth’s Surface Relative Location (buildings / landmarks) Absolute Location (map location / coordinates) –Place: Physical environment –Human/ Environment Relationships: Shaping the Land (hills, bodies of water, leveling land etc) –Movement: Migration Migrate is to move from one place to another. –Regions: Geographers divide the world into geographic regions by areas that have certain features in common

18 How might you describe the relative location of the school in this illustration?


20 Human activities can have a significant impact on the environment. A lignite (coal) mine such as the one below can transform a landscape. What is one way humans are trying to limit the damage they do to the environment?


22 130 W120 W110 W100 W 90 W80 W70 W60 W 50 W 40 W 30 W 20 W 10 W O 10 E 20 E 30 E 40 E 50 E 60 E 70 E 80 E 90 E 100 E 110 E 120 E 130 E 110 N 100 N 90 N 80 N 70 N 60 N 50 N 40 N 30 N 20 N 10 N 0 10 S 20 S 30 S 40 S 50 S 60 S 70 S 80 S 90 S 100 S 110 S

23 5 Parts of a Map Flip Chart ► Title ► Legend ► Grid System ► Direction ► Scale

24 Map Legends: ► A legend is an explanation of a maps colors & scales. Legend

25 Latitude & Longitude Lines Make up a Grid System. ► Longitude lines run north and south. ► Latitude lines run east and west. ► These lines measure distances in degrees. Grid System:

26 Pg 31

27 Equator & Prime Meridian ► Equator: an imaginary line at 0° latitude ► Prime Meridian: an imaginary line at 0° longitude

28 ► Cardinal directions ► north, south, east, west ► Intermediate directions ► northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest southwest and northwest Directions describe the location of places in relation to other places. Directions:

29 Scale ► The relationship between a distance on a map and the actual distance it represents.

30 Warm-up Copy question and answer in 3-5 complete sentences. Why would you want to live near a River?

31 Activity 2: Label the Major Texas Rivers (Text. Pg.50) Activity 1: Create an acronym to help you locate major Texas rivers on a map. Rio Grande Pecos Nueces San Antonio Guadalupe Lavaca Colorado Brazos San Jacinto Trinity Neches Sabine Red Canadian Real people never say good luck charlie because sometimes they need some real cheese.

32 Major Texas Rivers

33 4 Regions of Texas Flipchart 1.Outside: Color & label 4 regions Label major cities 2.Inside: Climate Landforms Crops / Vegetation Businesses / Industry

34 Mountains & Basins Coastal Plains Great Plains North Central Plains

35 Texas Bus Tour

36 Welcome! Our tour guide today is Tumbleweed Tonya Fasten your seatbelts Enter and Exit through the aisle Take notes in your Texas Travel Guide as we make four stops, so hold on tight! By the way, tips for the tour guide are encouraged.

37 FIRST STOP Mountain and Basin Region

38 Our first stop is the Mountains and Basins region! The Mountains and Basins region is the most western region of Texas. It has many mountain ranges and is very dry. Mountains and Basins Region

39 A basin is a low, bowl-shaped land with higher ground all around it. The basins in this Texas region are deserts.

40 There are three mountain ranges in this part of Texas.

41 The mountains in Texas are part of the Rocky Mountains which stretch through the western United States from Mexico to Canada. The Texas Rocky Mountains are made up of many small mountain ranges. Mountains and Basins Region of Texas

42 The Davis Mountains are in the center of the Mountains and Basins region.

43 The Chisos Mountains are located in the Big Bend National Park.

44 The Guadalupe Mountains border Texas and New Mexico.

45 Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas at 8,749 feet above sea level.

46 The Chihuahuan Desert is located in this region. Prickly pear cactus grows here.

47 Big Bend National Park is located in a gigantic bend in the Rio Grande River. 99% of the park is desert!

48 Did you know the largest pterodactyl bone ever discovered was found right here in Big Bend National Park? It had a wingspan of 51 feet and was found by Douglas A. Lawson in 1971.

49 This is the city of El Paso. The name is Spanish for “The Pass”. El Paso is the largest city in this region of Texas.

50 Mountains and Basins Notes Landforms Desert-like to mountainous to forests Climate Higher elevation – cool Lower elevation – dry Extreme temperatures Little rainfall Vegetation and Crops Cactus and other desert plants Forests on mountains Cotton crops

51 Mountains and Basins Notes Businesses & Industry Oil & Gas Copper mining Salt mining International trade Major City El Paso

52 SECOND STOP! Coastal Plains Region

53 Our second stop is the Coastal Plains region! The Coast Plains are mostly flat land that lies alongside an ocean. Coast Plains cover near one third of the state of Texas! Coastal Plains Region

54 This the Piney Woods of East Texas. It was once the home of the Caddo Indians.

55 Our state bird, the Mockingbird, lives here. They got their name from their unique ability to copy or “mock” other birds. Another state symbol is found in abundance here. The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas. Pecan tree Mocking bird

56 Weather in the Coastal Plains region is usually mild. That means that winters are short and warm compared to other parts of the country. Summers are long, hot, and humid.

57 There are lots of rivers and lakes in this region. Perfect for fishing and water sports. Fishing in Texas

58 The Coastal Plains of Texas lie alongside an ocean. All rivers that flow west drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Many people visit the beaches that lie along Texas.

59 Shipping is a huge industry in this region. Corpus Christi and Houston have huge ports where ships from all over the world visit to load and unload goods. A cargo ship Corpus Christi Houston

60 Farming and ranching are important industries in the Coastal Plains region. In Kingsville, you will find King Ranch. It was started in the late 1800s by Captain Richard King and his wife Henrietta. It is still one of the largest cattle ranches in Texas today. In the southern most area of Texas known as “The Valley”, some crops are grown all year due to the warm weather. Crops include cotton, sugar cane, citric fruits, soybeans, and corn.

61 Oil is found in the Coastal Plains region. These tall structures are oil derricks. Many people call the oil found in Texas “Black Texas Tea”.

62 Many large cities are located in the Coast Plains including Dallas, Austin, and Houston. Although Austin is our state’s capital, Houston is the state’s largest city. Houston is also the fourth largest city in the U.S.! Austin Houston Dallas

63 Coastal Plains Notes Landforms Land varies from sea level to very hilly, small mountains to flat dry plains Climate Warm Mild Winters Humid Plentiful Rain Vegetation and Crops Prairie in the northeast Pine/Oak forests in Northwest Excellent ranch land in Coastal Prairie Long growing seasons Fruits, vegetables, corn, grain, cotton, rice

64 Businesses & Industry (variety) Lumber Oil & Gas NASA – space Fishing, Farming & Livestock Tourism Technology Government Major Cities Dallas Houston San Antonio Coastal Plains Notes

65 THIRD STOP! North Central Plains Region

66 Our third stop is the Central Plains Region! The Central Plains region is in the center of Texas. It has a little higher elevation than the Coastal Plains and is covered with rolling prairies. North Central Plains Region

67 The Central Plains Region is a rural area. This means a small population and a lot of open country. It has warm summers and cool winters. There are many cattle ranches and farms here.

68 This region does have some wild weather. During the spring there is a chance of tornados. These are funnel-shaped storms with swirling winds that do a lot of a damage to a community.

69 Fort Worth is one of the larger cities in the Central Plains region. It is known for its stockyards and cowboys.

70 Fort Worth was one of many stops along the famous cattle drive trail known as the Chisholm Trail. The Chisholm Trail was started by a Cherokee trader.

71 Cowboys and cowgirls in this region still work on cattle ranches. Many compete in rodeos around the country.

72 Did you know that after the Civil War, about one third of the Texas cowboys were African-American or Mexican-American? And several were women!

73 North Central Plains Notes Landforms Flat to gentle rolling land Climate Cool summers Cold winters Windy Good rainfall Vegetation & Crops Prairie in east and west separated by forests Rich soil Wheat, cotton, pecans, peanuts, corn, fruits and vegetables

74 North Central Plains Notes Businesses & Industry Agriculture Dairy farms Beef cattle Horses Sheep Goats Oil Manufacturing Major Cities Fort Worth Abilene

75 LAST STOP! Great Plains Region

76 Our last stop is the Great Plains Region! Most of the Texas Panhandle is located here. Great Plains Region

77 Land in the Great Plains region very high in elevation, but is still very flat.

78 In the southern part of the Great Plains is a landform called the Edwards Plateau. It’s very high and flat, like a table. The southern and eastern parts have hills though. This area of Texas is often called the “Hill Country”.

79 The Cap Rock Escarpment is in the Texas Panhandle. This is where the rolling Central Plains meet the high, flat land of the Great Plains.

80 In the southern part of the Great Plains is another escarpment called the Balcones Escarpment. Spanish explorers called it that because it looked like “balconies”

81 Palo Duro Canyon is the second largest canyon in the U.S. It is sometimes called the “Grand Canyon of Texas”. Palo Duro Canyon is located just south of Amarillo.

82 The Great Plains region is very dry and few water sources. Early settlers faced many droughts and sandstorms. However in the winter, the Panhandle will often get blizzards which are very harsh snow storm. Sandstorm in the Panhandle Blizzard in the Panhandle

83 Ranching is very popular in the Great Plains. Flat grassy land is perfect for raising cattle. What you don’t see are armadillos. It’s much too cold here! Not up in the panhandle! Longhorn cattle

84 Wheat and cotton are important crops in the Great Plains. Wheat can grow in areas with little water.

85 Two major cities in the Great Plains are Lubbock and Amarillo. Both cities grew after railroads were built in Texas. Railroads carried the cattle to markets back east.

86 Today, both Lubbock and Amarillo are home to many different industries, including farming, cattle ranching, gas, oil, health care, and tourism.

87 Great Plains Notes Landforms High flat land Climate Cool summers, cold winters Dry, but adequate rainfall Vegetation & Crops Grassland with few trees Wheat and cotton crops

88 Great Plains Notes Businesses & Industry Tourism Hunting Cattle Pecans Sheep, goats Farming Oil Cottonseed Helium Major Cities Amarillo, Lubbock, Midland

89 Texas Bus Tour Postcard Home Choose a region we just visited. Write to someone and tell them all about it.

90 Choose a region we just visited. Draw a picture to represent that region. You may use your notes. Make sure to include pictures of specific details we discussed.

91 Now, write a note to someone and tell him or her about your trip to one of the regions. Be sure to include the name of your region and two facts about the region (things you might see, etc.) TO: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

92 Imagine that you work for the Tourism Division of the Texas Department of Commerce. Create a tourism guide for a Texas region of your choice. Be sure to include the following in your tri-fold brochure: Front of Brochure: A title and a slogan for the region Illustration representing the environment or attractions in the region Inside Pages: 1.An introductory paragraph (4-5 sentences) that highlight why the particular region is a good tourist location 2.A calendar that shows significant events in the region (festivals, fairs, or other local events) 3.A description with illustrations of state and national parks in the region 4.A table that shows the average monthly temperatures and rainfall for the major cities in the region Regional Tourism Guide

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