2C.F.A. # 1 Geography is the study of Transportation systems throughout history.The land, its environment, resources and its peoples.Precipitation, wind and drought over a period of time.Migration patterns in rural areas.What are the names of the four natural regions of Texas?Panhandle, Gulf Coast, East Texas, West TexasMountains and Valleys, Great Plains, North Plains, Gulf CoastMountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal PlainsMountains and Basins, Valleys, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains
3C.F.A. # 1A key that explains symbols or colors on a map is a _____________.LegendGridCompassScaleThis forms the boundary between Texas and LouisianaGulf of MexicoRed RiverSabine RiverRio Grande
4C.F.A. # 1How does elevation affect climate in the Mountains and Basins region?Higher elevations have cooler temperatures.Lower elevations have cooler temperaturesHigher elevations have strong hurricane force winds.Higher elevations have lots of humidity and rain.
5climate drought precipitation landform Definition Draw a Picture Examples1.2.precipitationlandform
6region latitude longitude plains Definition Draw a Picture Examples 1. 2.longitudeplains
7VocabularyDefine & Draw a pictureClimate drought precipitation landform region latitude longitude plainsCensusTrendMigrate
8TEXAS HISTORY belongs to:___________ class period:__________ Fall 2013
9GEOGRAPHY:The study of the land, its environment & resources, and the people who live in it.Physical Geography: features such as landforms, elevation, water, climate & vegetationHuman Geography: How people change their environment. Ex: farming, mining, transportation, jobsGeography looks at where things are and why…. Why does it rain a lot in East Texas, but there are deserts around El Paso? This type of question deals with the land (physical geography). Why is the capital of Texas Austin rather than Dallas or Houston?..This deals with people (human geography)
10Knowing What to ExpectThe world is constantly changing. Knowing something about the past can make it easier to predict which trends will continue in the future.A trend is a general movement toward change over the course of time.A census is a periodic count of the population.What will Texas be like when you are an adult?Knowledge of geography tells you what nature has to offer and how people organize their environment and use its resources.
11Geographers use a variety of tools to organize & analyze information. Tools such as graphs, charts and tables help geographers organize data.
12A Line graph can show two things on a graph A Line graph can show two things on a graph. This graph shows an amount and a span of time.What is a century?What trend does this line graph show?What trend does this line graph show?If the trend continues, where will all of these new Texans live?
13Pie Charts are used to compare parts of a whole. Immigrants to Texas, 2001
14Four Largest Cities in Texas and the Population Density, 2000 Bar graphs use bars of different lengths to show & compare the relationship between two or more kinds of information.Four Largest Cities in Texasand the Population Density, 2000
15Tables are used to compare several facts about many items Tables are used to compare several facts about many items. A table is like a grid which helps geographers organize many facts and numbers.Top 4 U. S. Cities by PopulationU.S. Cities2009 Census PopulationNew York, NY8,391,881Los Angeles, CA3,831,868Chicago, IL2,851,288Houston, TX2,257,926
16A timeline shows the sequence of events. Timelines are useful for studying how one event may have led to or caused later events.
17Five Themes of Geography Location: Position on the Earth’s SurfaceRelative Location (buildings / landmarks)Absolute Location (map location / coordinates)Place: Physical environmentHuman/ Environment Relationships:Shaping the Land (hills, bodies of water, leveling land etc)Movement: MigrationMigrate is to move from one place to another.Regions:Geographers divide the world into geographic regions by areas that have certain features in commonGeography deals with not only the shape of the land (like landforms and other physical characteristics,) but also the study of people.To learn more about how people use the land, geographers break the study of geography into 5 parts (themes.)Human/Environmental…Petrochemical plants create jobs and important products. In what ways do you think the natural environment was changed in order to build petrochemical plants.
18How might you describe the relative location of the school in this illustration?
20Human activities can have a significant impact on the environment Human activities can have a significant impact on the environment. A lignite (coal) mine such as the one below can transform a landscape. What is one way humans are trying to limit the damage they do to the environment?
27Equator & Prime Meridian Equator: an imaginary line at 0° latitudePrime Meridian: an imaginary line at 0° longitude
28Directions:Directions describe the location of places in relation to other places.Cardinal directionsnorth, south, east, westIntermediate directionsnortheast, southeast,southwest and northwest
29ScaleThe relationship between a distance on a map and the actual distance it represents.
30Warm-up near a River? Why would you want to live Copy question and answer in 3-5 complete sentences.Why would you want to livenear a River?
31Activity 2: Label the Major Texas Rivers (Text. Pg.50) Create an acronym to help you locate major Texas rivers on a map.Rio GrandePecosNuecesSan AntonioGuadalupeLavacaColoradoBrazosSan JacintoTrinityNechesSabineRedCanadianReal people never say good luck charlie because sometimes they need some real cheese.
36Texas Bus Tour Welcome! Our tour guide today is Tumbleweed Tonya Fasten your seatbeltsEnter and Exit through the aisleTake notes in your Texas Travel Guide as we make four stops, so hold on tight!By the way, tips for the tour guide are encouraged.
38Mountains and Basins Region Our first stop is the Mountains and Basins region!The Mountains and Basins region is the most western region of Texas. It has many mountain ranges and is very dry.Mountains and Basins Region
39Mountains and Basins Region A basin is a low, bowl-shaped land with higher ground all around it. The basins in this Texas region are deserts.
40There are three mountain ranges in this part of Texas.
41The mountains in Texas are part of the Rocky Mountains which stretch through the western United States from Mexico to Canada. The Texas Rocky Mountains are made up of many small mountain ranges.Mountains and Basins Region of Texas
42The Davis Mountains are in the center of the Mountains and Basins region.
43The Chisos Mountains are located in the Big Bend National Park.
44The Guadalupe Mountains border Texas and New Mexico.
45Guadalupe Peak is the highest point in Texas at 8,749 feet above sea level.
46The Chihuahuan Desert is located in this region The Chihuahuan Desert is located in this region. Prickly pear cactus grows here.
47Big Bend National Park is located in a gigantic bend in the Rio Grande River. 99% of the park is desert!
48Did you know the largest pterodactyl bone ever discovered was found right here in Big Bend National Park? It had a wingspan of 51 feet and was found by Douglas A. Lawson in 1971.
49This is the city of El Paso. The name is Spanish for “The Pass” This is the city of El Paso. The name is Spanish for “The Pass”. El Paso is the largest city in this region of Texas.
50Mountains and Basins Notes LandformsDesert-like to mountainous to forestsClimateHigher elevation – coolLower elevation – dryExtreme temperaturesLittle rainfallVegetation and CropsCactus and other desert plantsForests on mountainsCotton crops
53Coastal Plains Region Our second stop is the Coastal Plains region! The Coast Plains are mostly flat land that lies alongside an ocean. Coast Plains cover near one third of the state of Texas!Coastal Plains Region
54This the Piney Woods of East Texas This the Piney Woods of East Texas. It was once the home of the Caddo Indians.
55Our state bird, the Mockingbird, lives here Our state bird, the Mockingbird, lives here. They got their name from their unique ability to copy or “mock” other birds. Another state symbol is found in abundance here. The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas.Pecan treeMocking bird
56Weather in the Coastal Plains region is usually mild Weather in the Coastal Plains region is usually mild. That means that winters are short and warm compared to other parts of the country. Summers are long, hot, and humid.
57There are lots of rivers and lakes in this region There are lots of rivers and lakes in this region. Perfect for fishing and water sports.Fishing in Texas
58The Coastal Plains of Texas lie alongside an ocean The Coastal Plains of Texas lie alongside an ocean. All rivers that flow west drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Many people visit the beaches that lie along Texas.
59Shipping is a huge industry in this region Shipping is a huge industry in this region. Corpus Christi and Houston have huge ports where ships from all over the world visit to load and unload goods.A cargo shipCorpus ChristiHouston
60Farming and ranching are important industries in the Coastal Plains region. In Kingsville, you will find King Ranch. It was started in the late 1800s by Captain Richard King and his wife Henrietta. It is still one of the largest cattle ranches in Texas today.In the southern most area of Texas known as “The Valley”, some crops are grown all year due to the warm weather. Crops include cotton, sugar cane, citric fruits, soybeans, and corn.
61Oil is found in the Coastal Plains region Oil is found in the Coastal Plains region. These tall structures are oil derricks. Many people call the oil found in Texas “Black Texas Tea”.
62Many large cities are located in the Coast Plains including Dallas, Austin, and Houston. Although Austin is our state’s capital, Houston is the state’s largest city. Houston is also the fourth largest city in the U.S.!HoustonAustinDallas
63Coastal Plains Notes Landforms Land varies from sea level to very hilly, small mountains to flat dry plainsClimateWarmMild WintersHumidPlentiful RainVegetation and CropsPrairie in the northeastPine/Oak forests in NorthwestExcellent ranch land in Coastal PrairieLong growing seasonsFruits, vegetables, corn, grain, cotton, rice
64Coastal Plains Notes Businesses & Industry (variety) Lumber Oil & Gas NASA – spaceFishing, Farming & LivestockTourismTechnologyGovernmentMajor CitiesDallasHoustonSan Antonio
66North Central Plains Region Our third stop is the Central Plains Region! The Central Plains region is in the center of Texas. It has a little higher elevation than the Coastal Plains and is covered with rolling prairies.North Central Plains Region
67The Central Plains Region is a rural area The Central Plains Region is a rural area. This means a small population and a lot of open country. It has warm summers and cool winters. There are many cattle ranches and farms here.
68This region does have some wild weather This region does have some wild weather. During the spring there is a chance of tornados. These are funnel-shaped storms with swirling winds that do a lot of a damage to a community.
69Fort Worth is one of the larger cities in the Central Plains region Fort Worth is one of the larger cities in the Central Plains region. It is known for its stockyards and cowboys.
70Fort Worth was one of many stops along the famous cattle drive trail known as the Chisholm Trail. The Chisholm Trail was started by a Cherokee trader.
71Cowboys and cowgirls in this region still work on cattle ranches Cowboys and cowgirls in this region still work on cattle ranches. Many compete in rodeos around the country.
72Did you know that after the Civil War, about one third of the Texas cowboys were African-American or Mexican-American? And several were women!
73North Central Plains Notes LandformsFlat to gentle rolling landClimateCool summersCold wintersWindyGood rainfallVegetation & CropsPrairie in east and west separated by forestsRich soilWheat, cotton, pecans , peanuts, corn, fruits and vegetables
76Our last stop is the Great Plains Region Our last stop is the Great Plains Region! Most of the Texas Panhandle is located here.Great Plains Region
77Land in the Great Plains region very high in elevation, but is still very flat.
78In the southern part of the Great Plains is a landform called the Edwards Plateau. It’s very high and flat, like a table. The southern and eastern parts have hills though. This area of Texas is often called the “Hill Country”.
79The Cap Rock Escarpment is in the Texas Panhandle The Cap Rock Escarpment is in the Texas Panhandle. This is where the rolling Central Plains meet the high, flat land of the Great Plains.
80In the southern part of the Great Plains is another escarpment called the Balcones Escarpment. Spanish explorers called it that because it looked like “balconies”
81Palo Duro Canyon is the second largest canyon in the U. S Palo Duro Canyon is the second largest canyon in the U.S. It is sometimes called the “Grand Canyon of Texas”.Palo Duro Canyon is located just south of Amarillo.
82Blizzard in the Panhandle Sandstorm in the Panhandle The Great Plains region is very dry and few water sources. Early settlers faced many droughts and sandstorms. However in the winter, the Panhandle will often get blizzards which are very harsh snow storm.Blizzard in the PanhandleSandstorm in the Panhandle
83Ranching is very popular in the Great Plains Ranching is very popular in the Great Plains. Flat grassy land is perfect for raising cattle. What you don’t see are armadillos. It’s much too cold here!Not up in the panhandle!Longhorn cattle
84Wheat and cotton are important crops in the Great Plains Wheat and cotton are important crops in the Great Plains. Wheat can grow in areas with little water.
85Two major cities in the Great Plains are Lubbock and Amarillo Two major cities in the Great Plains are Lubbock and Amarillo. Both cities grew after railroads were built in Texas. Railroads carried the cattle to markets back east.
86Today, both Lubbock and Amarillo are home to many different industries, including farming, cattle ranching, gas, oil, health care, and tourism.
87Great Plains Notes Landforms High flat land Climate Cool summers, cold wintersDry, but adequate rainfallVegetation & CropsGrassland with few treesWheat and cotton crops
89Texas Bus Tour Postcard Home Choose a region we just visited. Write to someone and tell them all about it.
90Choose a region we just visited Choose a region we just visited. Draw a picture to represent that region. You may use your notes. Make sure to include pictures of specific details we discussed.
91Now, write a note to someone and tell him or her about your trip to one of the regions. Be sure to include the name of your region and two facts about the region (things you might see, etc.)TO: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________
92Regional Tourism Guide Imagine that you work for the Tourism Division of the Texas Department of Commerce. Create a tourism guide for a Texas region of your choice. Be sure to include the following in your tri-fold brochure:Front of Brochure:A title and a slogan for the regionIllustration representing the environment or attractions in the regionInside Pages:An introductory paragraph (4-5 sentences) that highlight why the particular region is a good tourist locationA calendar that shows significant events in the region (festivals, fairs, or other local events)A description with illustrations of state and national parks in the regionA table that shows the average monthly temperatures and rainfall for the major cities in the region