Time: 41.7 days/batch Batch size: 3750 kg Spools per batch: 4,650 Spools per day: 100 Spool size: 250’ 1” PEEK electrical sleeving Time: 41.7 days/batch Batch size: 3750 kg Spools per batch: 4,650 Spools per day: 100 Spool size: 250’ 1” PEEK electrical sleeving Tank Size: 3,400 L Temperature: 90ºC Tank Size: 3,400 L Temperature: 90ºC
Polymethyl Methacrylate: PMMA Saijah Williams Mia Rodie
History and Markets Discovered in 1877 by Fittig and Paul
Uses and Properties 1972 Olympic Stadium- Munich, Germany (pontiacgrandprix.net) Edge-lighting.com Headlights made of PMMA Lighting Applications of PMMA LG LCD television
Polymer Chemistry PMMA is made of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is most commonly polymerized through free radical polymerization. The application of PMMA traces back to the type of polymerization used. Type of PolymerizationApplication BulkPlexiglas® SolutionAdhesives, paint resins SuspensionPMMA beads EmulsionPaper coating agents, paper processing agents, textile binders
Raw Materials and Production Process Hydrogen Cyanide Acetone Methyl formate Methyl methacrylate methyl a- hydroxyisobutyric Methyl formate a- hydroxyisobutyric acid amide Hydration of acetonecyanhydrin AcetonePrussic acid
Reactor Design Goal: 100 sheets of Plexiglas® per day Amount of PMMA per year: 800 metric tons Amount of time per batch: 5.6 minutes Equation 1 VariableMeaning K i, K p, K t Rate constants pPolydispersity [M]Concentration of monomer [I]Concentration of initiator
Results of Reactor Design Goal: 1,000 pairs of Kevlar gloves per day Total monomer: 835 moles Total solvent: 278 moles Total volume of tank: 150 Liters Time for one reaction: 9.7 seconds
By Sally Kramer Properties, Uses, and Production of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dr. Roy Plunkett
History, Discovery, Markets, Demand, Chemical Formula and Prices Teflon Roy Plunkett 1938 DuPont Company Production rate of 900 tons per year in 1948 will grow to 240,000 tons per year by 2017 Figure 2
Polymer Chemistry, Raw Materials, and Production Process CHCl 3 + 2HF CHClF 2 + 2HCl (1) 2CHClF 2 F 2 C=CF 2 + 2HCl (2) Fluorspar, water, sulfur, air, natural gas
Ethics and Safety Carcinogens and birth defects “Fracking” for natural gas Don’t leave an empty Teflon coated pot or pan over an open flame! If your pan starts to look like this, throw it away!
Reactor Design for Gaskets Goal: 10,000 Teflon gaskets per day, each 12.947g Ten hours per batch, two batches per day 24.399 kg dimethylamine oxide dihydrate 8.714 kg glacial acetic acid 87.14 kg TFE 26,142 kg water 64.725 kg PTFE
Producing Polylactic Acid By: Kevin Garcia and Janki Tailor
History/ Discovery/ Introduction O Similar to petroleum based plastics but its biodegradable O Lactic acid discovered in 1780 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele and PLA discovered in 1932 by Wallace Carothers. O First official PLA production plant launched in Blaire, Nebraska.
Markets/ Demand/ Prices O Used in fibers, packaging, and chemical products markets O Archer Daniels Midland Company, Cargill Inc., and Ecochem O 6.6 billion lbs. PLA produced annually $6 billion per year O Global lactic acid production: 40,000 tons per year Markets and Markets. http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market- Reports/polylacticacid-387.html (accessed July 9th, 2013), Global Lactic Acid & Polylactic Acid (PLA) Market by Raw Materials, Types, Applications, and Potential Opportunities (Forecast to 2016).
Uses/ Properties Rigids The Potential of Bio-Based Plastics. Steeman, A. http://bestinpackaging.com/2009/11/30/the-potential-of- bio-based-plastics/ (accessed August 7, 2013). Food Serviceware Excellent Packaging & Supply (EPS). http://www.packaging- int.com/suppliers/excellent-packaging-supply-eps.html (accessed August 7, 2013).
Polymer Chemistry O Monomer: L-Lactide (two lactic acids combined) Lactic Acid Intech. Jamshidian et al. http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegr adation-life-of-science/biodegradable- polymers (accessed July 23, 2013). L-Lactide Futerro. http://www.futerro.com/products_lactide.html (accessed August 7, 2013). O Most methods for making PLA are not economically viable O Methods to synthesis PLA: O Step Growth O Ring Open Polymerization
Raw Materials/ Production/ Safety O PLA is eco-friendly, and releases carbon dioxide and methane when it degrades Corn Starch Fermentation Lactic Acid PLA Step Growth Lactide Ring-open Polymerization
Batch Design O Task: To design a batch reactor to make these cups O Goal: Make 10,000 plastic cups/day O Bulk Reaction O Catalyst used for reaction: Tin Octoate Fabri-Kal. http://www.fabri-kal.com/product/greenware-cold- drink-cups/ (accessed August 6, 2013)
Results for our Batch Reactor O Time per batch: 200 hours O Batches per year: 44 batches O Cups produced per batch: 82,955 cups O Mass of monomer used per cup: 48.65 g O Volume of batch reactor: 3.16 cubic meters Lactide PLA
BY OLIVIA KAZIOR AND REECAN JUAREZ POLYOXYMETHYLENE (POM)
INTRODUCTION General molecular structure: H—(—O—CH 2 —) n —OH Discovered during the 1920’s by German chemist Staudinger Production began in the U.S. in 1959 when it was finally made thermally stable by chemical company DuPont
MARKETS Table 2. Percentage share of world POM consumption by market sector, 1999-2002 5 1999200020012002 Automotive 31.8% 32.0%31.8% Electrical & Electronics 23.1%23.3%23.0% Consumer Products 20.4%20.3%20.6%20.9% Industrial 17.1%16.9%16.4%16.2% Others 7.5%7.6%8.0%8.3% Table 1. POM consumption by region, 1999-2002 1999200020012002 Western Europe 28.8%29.5%29.6% North America 23.7%23.5%23.0% Japan 15.7%13.8%13.9% 13.1% Remainder of Asia Pacific 31.8%33.1%33.5% 34.3% Source: Platt, D. Engineering and High Performance Plastics Market Report; iSmithers Rapra Publishing, 2003; pp 43
PROPERTIES & USES Great mechanical strength, toughness, and resistance to impact electronic and engineering appliances Reduced wear and friction transfer device Resistance to moisture and shrink resistance paper Can modify toxicity of viruses medicines Image Source: DuPont Chemical Company
POLYMER CHEMISTRY formaldehyde + Distilled H2O + Heat Polymerization + Initiator Filtration + Finished Product Source: Schweitzer, C. E., Macdonald, R. N. and Punderson, J. O. (1959), Thermally stable high molecular weight polyoxymethylenes. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1: 158–163.
SAFETY & PRODUCTION Injection molding is commonly used to produce POM plastic. Formaldehyde (toxic) Methanol (toxic) POM is generally non- toxic to living things. Sources: DuPont. http://plastics.dupont.com/plastics/pdflit/americas/delrin/H76 836.pdf Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81-111/
REACTOR DESIGN To make 1000 POM guitar picks per 15 seconds, you would need: 100 metric tons of POM per year Time to make one batch of POM: ~40 hours Volume of reactor: 532 liters Moles of POM: 1445 moles per liter Image Source: Dunlop. http://www.jimdunlop.com/product/delrin