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AP Human Geography Week #12 Fall 2012. AP Human Geography 11/17/14 OBJECTIVE: Examine gender in America. APHugII-A.3 Language objective:

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Presentation on theme: "AP Human Geography Week #12 Fall 2012. AP Human Geography 11/17/14 OBJECTIVE: Examine gender in America. APHugII-A.3 Language objective:"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Human Geography Week #12 Fall 2012

2 AP Human Geography 11/17/14 OBJECTIVE: Examine gender in America. APHugII-A.3 Language objective: Write about gender. I. Administrative Stuff -attendance II. Film: “Boys will be Men”Boys will be Men 1.) Watch and take notes on the film. 2.) After the film write a summary answering the following question: “What does it mean to be a male in the United States?”

3 Homework Tonight Study for the Ch#5 Test.

4 AP Human Geography 11/18/14 OBJECTIVE: Examine the concepts in the first trimester of AP Human Geography APHug- Various Language objective: Write about various topics in Human Geography. I. Administrative Stuff -attendance & directions II. Final Exam Review Distribution NOTICE: Chapter#5 Test TOMORROW!

5 Homework Tonight Study for the Ch#5 Test.

6 Reminders & Announcements 1.)The Chapter#5 Test is Tomorrow (Nov 19 th ). 2.) Europe Map Test Friday Nov 21 st. 3.)Final Exams Hours 1,2,3 Monday Nov 24 th. 4.)Final Exams Hours 4&5 Tuesday Nov 25 th. 5.)No School Wednesday, Thursday, & Friday Nov 26-28 th.

7 AP Human Geography 11/19/14 OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate mastery of Chapter#5- Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality. APHugIII- B.2&3. Language objective: Write about Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality. I. Administrative Stuff -attendance & distribution of test II. Chapter#5 Test Practice Europe Map Test Homework: Read p.164-171

8 Homework Tonight Read p.164-171. Begin working on the Ch#6 Guided Reading. Study for the Final Exam.

9 AP Human Geography 11/20/14 OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of Language. APHugIII-B.1 Language objective: Write about language. I. Journal#35 pt.A -Watch the following: American Tongues II. Quiz#21 III. Return of Chapter#5 Test IV. Journal#35 pt.B -notes on language Homework: Read p.172-180 Europe Map Test TOMORROW!

10 Europe Map

11 Language Language – a set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication.

12 World Language Families

13 Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.

14 Major World Languages


16 Language v. Dialect It is difficult to classify languages and dialects. Some scholars treat Quebecan French as a separate language while others consider it a dialect. Many areas have a very complex linguistic geography- Africa-has perhaps 1,000 languages India has about 600

17 Language Terms Standard language-an official language sustained by the state in the form of state examination for teachers, civil servants and others. Dialect-regional variation of a standard language. Language family-a group of languages descended from a single, earlier tongue. Language subfamily-a further division of language groups. E.g. Romance language is a subfamily of Indo-European.

18 Regional differences in a standard language; –Syntax-the way words are put together –Vocabulary –Pronunciation –Cadence or rhythm –Accents can reveal the regional home of a person. Isogloss-a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature is found.

19 Examples Northern dialect and its subdivisions are found in New England and Canada, extending southward to a secondary dialect are centered on New York. Midland speech is found along the Atlantic coast from New Jersey southward to central Delaware, but spreads more extensively across the interior of the US and Canada. The Southern dialect dominates the East coast from the Chesapeake Bay south. Examples-NorthMidlands & South pailbucket brookrun or branch bossie to call cow Sook or Sookie or Sook cow co or come cowco-wench or co-inch or coo ee spiderskillet or frying pan

20 Dialect - variants of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines- vocabulary-syntax- pronunciation- cadence-pace of speech Isogloss -A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs



23 Homework Tonight Read p.172-180. Continue working on the Ch#6 Guided Reading. Study for the Europe Map Test.

24 AP Human Geography 11/21/14 OBJECTIVE: Continue examination of Language. APHugIII-B.1 Language objective: Write about language. I. Journal#36 pt.A -Watch the following: American TonguesAmerican Tongues pt.3 Deadly Delays, Newborn Screening II. Europe Map Test III. Quiz#22 IV. Journal#36 pt.B -notes on language NOTICE: Final Exam Monday & Tuesday!

25 Origin & Diffusion of Languages Mother Tongue-the first language spoken by Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago. Deep reconstruction-by studying sound shifts, linguists try to re-create an extinct language. Language divergence-the differentiation that takes place over time and distance. Language convergence-when long isolated languages make contact through diffusion. Language replacement-traditional languages of small groups of less advanced people were replaced or greatly modified by an invading tongue. Linguists can find linkages among languages by examining sound shifts – a slight change in a word across languages over time.

26 The vocabulary of a ancient language can reveal its cultural hearth. The Indo-European branches of the language tree at right illustrates the concept of language divergence. August Schleicher was the first to compare the world’s language families to the branches of a tree.

27 An example of sound shift: –Latin for milk is lacte –Italian is latta –Spanish is leche –French is lait Another example of sound shift is: –German vater –Dutch vader –English father Still another example is –Latin for eight is octo –Spanish is ocho –French is huit

28 Mutual Intelligibility- mMutual Intelligibility- means two people can understand each other when speaking. Problems: Cannot measure mutual intelligibility Many “languages” fail the test of mutual intelligibility Standard languages and governments impact what is a “language” and what is a “dialect” How are Languages Formed?

29 How do Languages Diffuse? human interaction-2,000 years ago-Han China, Roman Empire-spread languages over vast empires print distribution-Gutenberg’s movable type printing press (1452-first Gutenberg Bible) helped to diffuse, standardize & stabilize European languages Migration-ancient & more recent migration from 16 th century to now diffused languages e.g. Spanish, Portuguese, English & French Trade-encouraged the spread of goods & languages Rise of nation-states-stabilized & standardized languages Colonialism-mercantilism & colonies spread European languages in the Americas, Africa & Asia

30 Spatial Interaction helps create Lingua franca – A language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce. Pidgin language – a language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary. Creole language – a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people.

31 Examples of lingua franca First known lingua franca was a pidgin language created in the 1200s along the Mediterranean Sea-Southern France – Franks language mixed with Italian, Greek, Spanish and Arabic-came to be known as a Frankish language or lingua franca Arabic became a lingua franca during the Islamic expansion- English did so in the colonial period Swahili is the lingua franca of the East African coast-developed from African bantu mixed with Arabic & Persian-50 million speakers from southern Somalia to East African Lakes region. Creole-stems from a pidgin language formed in Caribbean from English, French & Portuguese mixed with African languages South East Asia-Bazaar Malay is spoken from Myanmar to Indonesia, Philippines to Malaysia-a lingua franca in the region.

32 Monolingual State a country in which only one language is spoken Multilingual State a country in which more than one language is in use Official Language should a multilingual state adopt an official language?

33 Examples Monolingual states-Japan, Uruguay, Venezuela, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, and Lesotho. Multilingual State-Canada, Belgium, India, Peru-with Indigenous languages Official Language-many former colonies adopted English, French, or Portuguese as official languages to tie people together: –Angola-Portuguese –Nigeria & Ghana-English –Ivory Coast-French –India-Hindi & English are official languages –Tanzania-English & Swahili


35 Language Family Trees

36 Homework Tonight Study for the Final Exam.

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