Presentation on theme: "The Effects of River Alteration and Restoration on Instream Biota and Human Needs By Ashley Koetsier, Kaylee Pollander, Lee Simard, Cole Talbot, and Zack."— Presentation transcript:
The Effects of River Alteration and Restoration on Instream Biota and Human Needs By Ashley Koetsier, Kaylee Pollander, Lee Simard, Cole Talbot, and Zack Theberge Adirondackexplorer.org
Goals Evaluate the impacts altered stream systems have on instream biota -Impact on human interests Determine restoration focuses that will increase instream biota -Minimize impact on other human needs
Objectives -Identify causes of stream alteration -Identify the impacts different types of stream alteration has on instream biota -Identify what impacts the loss of instream biota have on humans -Identify possible focuses of restoration that will benefit instream biota without negatively affecting human needs
Social EnvironmentalEconomic Sustainability What is our Endpoint?
Social Needs Must follow laws: 1. Water quality discharge 2. Fisheries habitat 3. Flooding fluvial erosion 4. Stream dynamic equilibrium Balance with Sustainability Model Does it hit the target?
Social Agenda People hear what they want to hear Cause and effect: o Get people to hear what you have to say Intellectual Quotient vs. Emotional Quotient Must account for people's emotions
Social and Economic Interaction People work to pay the mortgage connected to house, property Less expensive to not repair FEMA More funding than Insurance companies Few cases of abandonment roads relocations buyouts
Causes of Stream Alteration Prior land use Channelization Riparian land use http://www.mikehudak.com/PhotoEssays/Smithsfork2001/010918_11.8_17V2.jpg
Prior Land Use and Land Use History http://lynn.boston-baden.com/lvb/tc-pix/float.gif
Riparian Land Use http://www.usernetsite.com/photography/creative-photography-by-navid-baraty/house-near-river-by-navid-baraty.jpg http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x2505577/Cows_Standing_by_a_River_INGSEYFS0524.jpg
This is what happens when you channelize a stream and a thousand year flood happens... Let the kid represent biota and detritus... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAD0MAMZj gg
Impact on Fish Populations Impacts of altered streams: Environmental - Increased sedimentation -Faster currents -Changes in water temperature -Loss of physical structure and habitat -Loss of food sources Adirondackexplorer.org
Natural Stream Morphology...Why restore it? - Sinuosity Dynamic Equilibrium - Higher Retention - Increased Habitat For both fish and macro- invertebrates - Increased Aesthetics - Undisturbed complexity Image from Brown, Inc. 2010
Human Benefits of Instream Biota Restoration -Median cost $45,000/project -Over $1 billion spent annually on stream restoration (Bernhardt et al. 2005) -Is it worth it? www.nrcs.usda.gov
Restore Macroinvertebrates Environmental: -Allochthonous inputs main nutrient source in most small temperate forested streams -Little algal or macrophyte growth -Essential for breaking down inputs and releasing nutrients and energy downstream -Restoring streams increases downstream productivity woodswander.com
Improve Fish Populations Benefits of Restoration: Economic, Social, Environmental: -License sales, tackle, bait, gas, food, lodging, etc. -Commercial Fisheries -Pacific salmon -Return marine nutrients inland Moyle et al. 2011 (EPA.gov)
Intrinsic Benefits Social -Aesthetic values -Cultural values kjpermaculture.blogspot.com
Focuses of Restoration -Specific restoration objectives vary by situation -A manager can choose from several different overarching focuses for restoration, each with their own pros and cons -Evaluate each to decide which focus best meets our endpoint
Leave System as Is -Results dependent on system -Minimally degraded system could result in natural recovery -Less likely to recover in a highly degraded system -Is the stressor removed? -Eg. Removal of woody debris to accelerate drainage from an agricultural field
Focus Restoration on Stream Dynamics Pros: -Addresses all environmental needs -Surrounding landscape would be restored as well -Some social and economic needs met Cons: -Extremely expensive -Very complicated -Unrealistic in most cases to remove all human influences -May cause loss to infrastructure
Focus on Restoring Stream Dynamics Social EnvironmentalEconomic
Focus on Best Meeting Human Needs Pro: -Social circle addressed -Economic circle possibly addressed -Protect infrastructure, human investments Cons: -Fails to address environmental circle -Natural processes not enhanced -Potentially cost more in the long run?
Focus on Best Meeting Human Needs Social EnvironmentalEconomic
Focus on Instream Habitat Restoration Pros: -Provides foundation for natural processes to begin occurring around -Can be designed to meet human needs, both social and economic Cons: -More costly to undertake -May not include all necessary factors for processes to begin -Eg. Allochthonous inputs, water temperature and quality
Social EnvironmentalEconomic Focus on Instream Habitat Restoration
Focus on Restoring Instream Biota Pros: -Would ensure overall ecological integrity -Stressors would be removed from system -Can be designed to meet human needs, both social and economical Cons: -More costly to undertake -Have to have understanding of stream processes -May sacrifice some natural conditions to meet human needs
Focus on Restoring Instream Biota Social EnvironmentalEconomic
Recommended Focus... Focus on restoration of instream biota -Ensures ecological integrity -Can be easily adapted to meet human needs -Can be assessed quantitatively -Balances all three circles
Why Biological Monitoring? In-stream biota reflects... -Ecological integrity -Synergistic impacts -Dynamic changes over time -Non-point source stressors
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. William Bowden for his inspiring wisdom and beautiful mustache. Also, we would like to show our gratitude to Philip Halteman, who motivated us with his kind words and chic corduroys. We thank Todd Menees for the interview that helped to further our knowledge on stream restoration around the state of Vermont.
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