We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byFiona Greer
Modified about 1 year ago
Click Clack – Milk Attack?? Kristin Jenkins, NESCentGretchen A. Koch, Goucher CollegePaul Mangum, Midland CollegeDavid Matlack, Earlham College Results Methods Using Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) ©, we created a program that grouped the individuals based on language and phenotype. For example, if the individual was named “KEAA001” in the data set, “KE” indicates the country of origin to be Kenya, and “AA” indicates the language spoken to be the Afro-Asiatic language. The program surveyed all of the data presented and grouped the individuals according to the following categories, with the designations in the individual names shown in parentheses: LanguageLactose Tolerance Group Afro-Asiatic (AA)Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3 Nilo-Saharan (NS)Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3 Niger-Kordofanian (NK) Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3 Khoisan (SW and HZ)Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3 The results from this analysis were visualized using a three-dimensional pie chart to readily demonstrate the percentage of individuals in each language exhibiting the different phenotypes. Based on the results from the first analysis, we created another program in VBA that calculated the percentage of ancestral DNA in each language group. In order to complete this task, the number of individuals in each language group for which the genotypes were counted. The program then looked at whether or not the individual genotypes varied from the ancestral genotypes of CC at bp, TT at bp, and GG at bp. If the exact genotype at the specific position on the chromosome was unknown for an individual (indicated by “? ?”) in the data set, then that individual was not interpreted as having an SNP from the ancestral DNA. Hypotheses 1.The frequency of Lactase Non-Persistence (LNP) will be the greatest in the most ancestral language group. 2.The percentage of ancestral genotypes will be higher in the most ancestral language group. Introduction Lactate persistence (also known as lactose tolerance) refers to adult expression of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) enzyme controlled by the LCT gene. The selection for this trait in the human population appears to be correlated with the domestication of cattle and utilization of milk. SNP linked alleles have been identified for European and African populations. The data set presented by Tishkoff et al contained the genotype of the SNPs at 13907, 13915, and base pairs upstream from the LCT gene for 493 individuals. The data set further categorized each individual according to the country in which he or she resides as well as the language spoken. Based on the raw glucose rise after lactose digestion, each individual (for which measurements were available) was given a lactose tolerance phenotype. Those individuals that are lactose intolerant are Type 1; Type 2 individuals show a slight intolerance to lactose. Finally, individuals of Type 3 show a phenotype of lactose tolerance. The original research analyzed the data based on language spoken and country of origin. In contrast to the original paper, our analysis removed the geopolitical borders separating the sampled individuals and combined the samples as language groups. Alec Knight et al., 2003, used Y chromosome and mtDNA variation among African populations and concluded that the click (including Khoisan) languages are the most ancestral of the African languages groups. Conclusion As evident in Figures 1-4, the Afro-Asiatic speakers tested showed a higher proportion of the population with the lactose tolerant phenotype, and the Khoisan speakers showed a higher proportion of lactose intolerant phenotypes. This evidence, based on phenotypes, supports the hypothesis that LNP will be the greatest in the most ancestral language. To further explore this relationship, the second study of genotypes was undertaken. In all three positions, the Khoisan speakers show the highest percentage of the population possessing the ancestral genotype. The most compelling evidence comes from Figure 7, where the three other groups are all below 60% of the population having ancestral genotypes. In sharp contrast, nearly 84% of the Khoisan speakers have ancestral genotypes in the position of the third SNP. This supports the hypothesis expressed by Alec Knight et al., 2003, that the click languages are the most ancestral. References Knight, Alec, et al African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages. Current Biology, Volume 13, Issue 8, 15 April 2003, Page 705. Tishkoff, Sarah A, et al Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics, Volume 39, Number 1, Pages 31 – 40. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the organizers of the 2007 BioQUEST workshop for their dedication and support as well as NESCent, HHMI, Dr. Claudia Neuhauser, Goucher College, and Midland College for their financial support.
1 Design and Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Tasha E. Fingerlin Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics & Informatics Colorado School.
This demo will show the analysis functionality of Phenom-Networks based on a dataset generated in the Hebrew University, the Faculty of Agriculture in.
Tutorial - DNA Fingerprinting And Electrophoresis.
Continuous and discontinuous variation Genes in population.
Confounding from Cryptic Relatedness in Association Studies Benjamin F. Voight (work jointly with JK Pritchard)
Schedule 10-feb, (A1.14) Chapter 5 Genetic Variation, SNPs, Haplotype, Genetic Distance No computer practicum 11-feb, (C1.112)
Qualitative methods - conversation analysis Week 4: More information on writing up a qualitative method study.
1 SESSION 1 Basic statistics: points and pitfalls.
SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY and SKILLS. What is science? a body of knowledge and a way of knowing things.
Population structure. Population structure in case-control studies Population consists of underlying subpopulations. Disease prevalence different between.
Statistics. Be able to state the null and alternative hypotheses for testing the difference between two population proportions. Know how to examine.
The Robert Gordon University School of Engineering Dr. Mohamed Amish INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH & RESEARCH METHODS.
A quantitative trait locus not associated with cognitive ability in children: a failure to replicate Hill, L. et al.
ADI Argument Driven Inquiry Natural Selection. Science is based on evidence! 1.Develop a testable hypothesis. (claim) 2. Design a controlled experiment.
Z Test & T Test PRESENTED BY : GROUP 1 MD SHAHIDUR RAHMANROLL# 003 MD AMINUL ISLAMROLL# 007 MRS ROZINA KHANAMROLL# 038.
Analyzing Chi-Squares and Correlations Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos.
Essentials of Biology Sylvia S. Mader Chapter 10 Lecture Outline Prepared by: Dr. Stephen Ebbs Southern Illinois University Carbondale Copyright © The.
Quality Tools and Techniques in the School and Classroom.
Generalized Regional Admixture Mapping (RAM) and Structured Association Testing (SAT) David T. Redden, Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics,
AESuniversity Ad hoc Reporting. Ad hoc Reports What are ad hoc reports? Why would you use ad hoc reports? Creating an ad hoc report from a query Building.
1.Genetic Drift- loss of variation (allele frequencies) due to a sudden environmental act that reduces the population 2.Gene Flow – change in variation.
TEMPLATE DESIGN © Novice Programmer Planning: A Grounded Theory Approach Jonathan Wellons, Dr. Julie Johnson Dr. Renee.
Chapter 2 The Process of Experimentation 2.1 Designing and Conducting Agricultural Research.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Section 1: Applied Genetics Section 2: DNA Technology Section 3: The Human Genome.
Chapter 13 Patterns of Inheritance. Look around you. Variation can be seen everywhere you look. Your classmates have different color eyes, hair, and skin.
Changing the way undergraduates are taught in a research-oriented biology department Bill Wood Department of MCD Biology University of Colorado, Boulder.
BIOLOGY Topic 3 Topic 3. Topic Outline Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles and Mutations Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles and Mutations Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles.
Using EBSCOs Search Box Builder Tool Tutorial. Would you like to promote your EBSCOhost resources by adding an easy-to-use search box to your website?
End Show Slide 1 of 24 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.
Quality control tools Introduction Seven QC tools are fundamental instruments to improve the quality of the product. They are used to.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.