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General characteristics.  1066 - the beginning of a new social and linguistic era  Middle English runs from the beginning of the 12 th century until.

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Presentation on theme: "General characteristics.  1066 - the beginning of a new social and linguistic era  Middle English runs from the beginning of the 12 th century until."— Presentation transcript:

1 General characteristics

2  the beginning of a new social and linguistic era  Middle English runs from the beginning of the 12 th century until the middle if the 15 th  the Chancery Standard  the 1470s - the printing press introduced in England by William Caxton

3  THE SECOND DANISH INVASION  ETHELRED  CNUT  The council of wise men chose Edward (the Confessor)

4  Spent half his life in exile in Normandy (northern France) (while Cnut and sons ruled England)  Placed Norman friends in high offices in England  Had little interest in ruling the country  Moved the capital from Winchester to London  Died in 1066, leaving no children and no clear choice of heir

5  Harold  the Battle of Hastings

6  English and Scandinavian - related languages, diverged only a few hundred years before  a pidgin variety of speech  William of Normandy’s accession  French-speaking barons brought over their own retinues  French-speaking abbots and bishops

7  condition of a multilingual society in which different languages occupy different social niches - different functions:

8 French ‘High’ functions:  ‘high’ culture: government, law, religion, education, literature, science, the arts, ‘high society’ English ‘Low’ functions:  ‘common folk’: home speech, folk/popular songs, tales, everyday commerce

9 1. Language effects of the Scandinavian invasion. 2. Language effects of the Norman Conquest. 3. Middle English dialects.

10  South Western  South Eastern  Northern  West Midland  East Midland

11  King John of England  King Philip of France  the Hundred Years War ( )

12


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