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Plants and Environmental Toxicity al/photosvideos/photos/the-river-in-midland-now-has- a.jpg “The.

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Presentation on theme: "Plants and Environmental Toxicity al/photosvideos/photos/the-river-in-midland-now-has- a.jpg “The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants and Environmental Toxicity http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/image_full/internation al/photosvideos/photos/the-river-in-midland-now-has- a.jpg “The dose makes the poison” Range of growth inhibition varies with plant species – some more susceptible and others more tolerant

2 What are toxic environments? http://dcm2.enr.state.nc.us/ims/wetlan ds/salt_marsh.jpg Salt Marsh http://laser.cs.umass.edu:8000/~jc obleig/CrossCountry1/GreatSaltDe sert.jpg Great Salt Desert between Salt Lake City and Reno Nevada

3 What are toxic environments? http://forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu/smp/pho tos/ltsp_bc_calcareous_l.jpg Calcareous soil in British Columbia http://www.nor.com.au/environm ent/clarencecatchment/images/ soil3.jpghttp://www.nor.com.au/environm ent/clarencecatchment/images/ soil3.jpg Acidic granite soil in Australia

4 What are toxic environments? http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/pubs/Cor e_Slides/images/slide006.jpg Lead and copper smelter El Paso http://lamar.colostate.edu/~ippolito/bi osolids/byers/4.jpg Application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Colorado

5 What are toxic environments? http://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/ digital.img/2000/P6290030.jpg http://www1.crcsalinity.com/spa/ph otos.htm Puccinellia growing in waterlogged conditions in Australia

6 What are toxic environments? Air Pollution http://www.transsib.ru/Photo/Vsib/5349.jpg Paper mill in Romania SO 2 (sulfur dioxide) NO x (nitrogen oxides) CO CO 2 O 3 (ozone) Hydrocarbons Ethylene

7 Acid Rain http://www.dec.state.ny.u s/website/dar/ood/acidrai n.gif http://www.wwf.it/summit/imag es/19061_germany%20Acid% 20rain.jpg Acid rain damaged forest in Germany

8 What are toxic environments? Oxidative Damage H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide) O 2 - (superoxide)

9 What are the influences of toxins on plants? -inhibits acquisition of resources - water http://www.naturfoton.se/flora/flora/previous/Ch enopodiaceae/Suaeda-maritima-2.jpg Suaeda maritima Annual Sea Blight – halophyte (salt- tolerant plant) Water uptake is inhibited as Soil solutes increase Compensate by synthesizing compensating Solutes in roots and leaves

10 What are the influences of toxins on plants? -inhibits acquisition of resources – carbon/energy http://www.cbesurvey.org/aplv/panek/ozone.htm Ozone impacts woody species by increasing stomatal resistance and decreasing photosynthesis

11 What are the influences of toxins on plants? -inhibits utilization of resources 1.Inhibition of enzyme activity 2.Inhibition of cell division 3.Wasteful use of resources http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wheatpests.html Salt stress in wheat Plant roots produce ethanol under conditions of O 2 deficit (waterlogged soils)

12 Resistance to Toxicity Avoidance http://www.kulak.ac.be/facult/wet/bi ologie/pb/kulakbiocampus/images/r/ 1.Phenology – grow when stress is less 2.Timing – Limonium vulgare (Common Sea Lavender) – seeds germinates best when treated with sea water followed by fresh water

13 Resistance to Toxicity Avoidance – alter soil pH If plant takes up cations (NH 4 + ), soil solution becomes more acid If plant takes up anions (NO 3 - ), soil solution becomes more basic So, under conditions of mineral toxicity (e.g. Al +3 ), plants will favor NO 3 - uptake

14 Resistance to Toxicity Avoidance http://www.ars.usda.gov/images/docs/7647_7841/2005- X-PlantRoot.jpg Eastern Gama grass aerenchyma transports O 2 to the roots from the shoot when plants are flooded http://www.uri.edu/art sci/bio/plant_anatom y/26.html

15 Resistance to Toxicity Avoidance - exclusion http://www.plantstress.com/Articles/toxicity_m/Tolerance_files/ image010.jpg Presence of Al +3 in soil solution opens anion channels that export malate (anion) into rhizosphere – forms aluminum complex

16 Resistance to Toxicity Localization http://www.biologie.uni-regensburg.de/Botanik/Schoenfelder/ Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum Toxic minerals (Al, Cd) are accumulated in root vacuoles by halophytes to prevent dehydration of the cytoplasm, non- reactive solutes (amino acid proline) are synthesized

17 Resistance to Toxicity - Excretion http://plantpath.unl.edu/llane/text/sa ltglands.htmlChenopodium quinoa salt glands http://online-media.uni- marburg.de/biologie/nutzpflanzen/bilde r/vb/chenopodium_quinoa.jpg

18 Tolerance Great Dyke of Zimbabwe – exposed rock formation rich in platinum and chromium with distinctive vegetation not found elsewhere Indigenous vegetation http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/species data/image-display.php http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/

19 Phytoremediation Can plants be used to clean up contaminated soils? Succesful phytoremediation systems need plants that: 1.Can survive on contaminated soil 2.Can absorb toxins into roots 3.Can transport toxins to shoots for harvest and removal 4.Have a high growth rate for high efficiency clean-up http://www.wits.ac.za/museums/herbarium/students/sanwil.htm Berkheya coddii –hyperaccumulator of nickel

20 Phytoremediation http://www.landw.uni-halle.de/lfak/inst/iap/stockbuch/brsenf.jpg Brassica juncea – Cd and Au (gold) accumulator)


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