Canals for housing, leisure and recreation Water provides security Water cools in hot weather Reflected light Tow paths as pedestrian and cycle network
Railway cutting in Camden Town, by J. C. Bourne, 1839
Railways Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened 1830 Origins in industrial freight transport Higher speeds – faster journeys Radial network based on London Infrastructure capital-intensive, difficult to move
1872 map shows all the modern main line stations in place, liked by cut-and-cover underground lines. At this date, railways did not serve the suburbs (with the exception of Greenwich) Workman’s fares legislation in the 1870s led to large scale commuting by rail into London. Before that, people walked or took a horse-drawn bus.
Strand (Aldwych) Station, design by Leslie Green, c.1907
The ‘Deep Tube’ ran below the other services (pipes, sewers, rivers etc. Electric engines meant no smoke The early lines were not profitable London was the only city with no public investment in transport infrastructure.
Walking Improvements: The Walking Plan for London The Mayor is committed to making London one of the most walking friendly cities by 2015. During 2003, a Walking Plan for London was developed in consultation with the London boroughs and other organisations with an interest in walking. ‘Making London a walkable city – the Walking Plan for London’ was launched in February 2004. The Plan includes: *An assessment of the current extent of walking in London, including recognition of its social, physical and environmental benefits and an appreciation of the difficulties faced by pedestrians; *Identification of the key players and mechanisms to achieve objectives; *Advice on how to integrate walking within the wider context of planning and transportation policies; *Details of complementary measures that improve the pedestrian environment and promote walking; *The promotion of headline initiatives, including the completion and enhancement of the six strategic walking routes; *A monitoring, marketing and publicity plan. The ultimate goal is to increase walking as a means of transport by promoting it as a viable, alternative, healthy and environmentally friendly activity.
The new railway will bring major transport and economic benefits: *The new railway from St Pancras will be able to carry up to eight Eurostars per hour each way. *It will be possible to run twice the number of Eurostars to Paris and Brussels at peak times from St Pancras, because of the new railway's greater capacity. *Eurostar journey times between London and the Channel Tunnel will be halved. The current 70 minute journey from London Waterloo station has been be reduced by up to 15 minutes since the opening of Section 1, and when the new railway is completed through to St Pancras the journey to the Channel Tunnel will take only 35 minutes. *Paris will be 2 hours 15 minutes from St Pancras by non-stop Eurostar - today the journey time is about 2 hours 55 minutes from Waterloo. *Brussels will be 2 hours from St Pancras, instead of the previous journey time from Waterloo of about 2 hours 40 minutes. *Growth of the 'Thames Gateway' area will be boosted, by fostering additional development estimated to be worth about £500 million. Regeneration will be encouraged too in the St Pancras area, and in east London. *It will be possible to run more Channel Tunnel freight trains, serving the whole country, as the new railway releases capacity on the existing network. The new railway itself has been designed so that it could also be used by freight trains.
*The Channel Tunnel Rail Link is not just for London and the south east. A connection to the West Coast Main Line will be built near St Pancras so that it will be possible to run Regional Eurostar trains directly to and from the West Midlands and the North West*. From St Pancras, Regional Eurostars can reach the East Coast Main Line to serve Yorkshire, the North East and Scotland*. *As part of the revised arrangements for constructing the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. London & Continental Railways is reviewing the operation of Regional Eurostar services over the West and East Coast Main Lines, and no date has been set for the introduction of these services. *St Pancras is also well placed for easy interchange between British inter-city services and Eurostar. Midland Mainline services to the East Midlands and South Yorkshire will continue to operate from St Pancras, allowing easy interchange with adjacent platforms for Eurostar. In addition there will be new platforms at St Pancras for cross-London Thameslink services, and improved connections to London Underground lines. *Domestic passengers will experience high speed, high quality Kent express trains reducing journey times and offering a more reliable service. *The Channel Tunnel Rail Link's stations at St Pancras, Stratford, Ebbsfleet and Ashford will encourage local commercial development. The quality and speed of international and domestic travel for business and leisure will be transformed, offering a stimulus to many sectors of the local economy.