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Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005 Long & Slow vs. Short & Fast Norman W. Hein, Jr., P. E. – President & Managing Director Oil &

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Presentation on theme: "Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005 Long & Slow vs. Short & Fast Norman W. Hein, Jr., P. E. – President & Managing Director Oil &"— Presentation transcript:

1 Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005 Long & Slow vs. Short & Fast Norman W. Hein, Jr., P. E. – President & Managing Director Oil & Gas Optimization Specialists, Ltd. (OGOS), Midland, TX.

2 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS2 Let’s Vote How should pumping units be operated? Long & Slow? Short & Fast?

3 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS3 Is There a Preference? YES!

4 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS4 Content Speed Background –Acceleration Factor –Theoretical Max Speed Pumping Unit Rating –API Spec –Lufkin Recommendation Gear Box Pumping Unit Fatigue Effects Well Design Examples

5 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS5 Speed Background

6 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS6 Speed Background (con’t) Acceleration Factor C = (S * N 2 )/70,500 Don’t exceed free fall speed of the rods 1962 W. H. Ritterbusch “Petroleum Production Handbook” –“Always choose a speed below that maximum practical limit permitted by free-rod fall so that the polished-rod clamp and hangar bar will not separate on the downstroke.” –Recommended permissible speed of 70% of maximum free fall limit.

7 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS7 Speed Background (con’t) 1965 Bethlehem Steel published “Pumping Unit Selection Charts” –“Normally at speeds which exceed 0.7 of the free fall velocity, the polished rod begins to leave the carrier.” Lufkin in 1984-85 catalog supported 0.7 of free fall speed (for Conventional Unit geometries) –10% reduction if Air Balance –20% reduction if Mark II If well straight and pumping fresh water, C = 0.417 –But seldom is well straight –Typically pumping other than fresh water

8 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS8 SPM vs. S S (in.)SPM @70%SPM @C=0.3Velocity PR (fpm) 1642.936.497 243529.7119 3031.326.6133 3628.624.2145 4226.522.7157 4824.721168 5423.319.8178 6421.418.2194 7419.916.9208 8618.515.7225 10017.114.5242 12015.713.3266 14414.312.1291 16813.211.2315 19212.410.5336 21611.79.9356 24011.19.4376 3009.98.4420

9 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS9 Speed Background (con’t) Gipson & Swaim recommended for design: 0.225 < C < 0.3 (Shallow wells) > 0.225 optimize equipment (not too large) < 0.3 to stay less than free fall speed N/No’ <0.35 (Deeper wells) Gipson & Swaim has always recommended designing PU based on middle stroke for unit. In real world operating situation, the free fall speed of the rods and the gear box capacity determine maximum pumping speed.

10 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS10 Pumping Unit Rating API Spec 11E “Pumping Units” covers –Gear Reducer (Box) –Unit Structure Gear Reducer performance based on AGMA Standard 422.02 Originally based on 20 SPM for all gear reducers IN 1981, API revised reducer rating for 456 & larger units

11 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS11 Pumping Unit Rating (con’t) API larger unit speed rating: Peak Torque Rating (in-lbs)SPM 456,00016 640,00016 912,00015 1,280,00014 1,824,00013 2,560,00011

12 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS12 Pumping Unit Rating (con’t) Lufkin Hi-Q Herringbone Gear Speed Reducers – Double Reduction Units –Assume operation ~1150 rpm prime mover –~30 to 1 ratio D4025.1D320252 D5740.4D456353 D8055.8D640432 D11487.3D912441 D160115D1280590 D228160D1824853 D25601456 *assumes prime mover speed of 870 rpm

13 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS13 Pumping Unit Rating w/Structure Pumping Unit Size Max. SPMPU SizeMax. SPM C912-365 (305)-16813.2C160-173-6421.4 C640-365 (305)-16813.2C80-119-6421.4 C456-305-16813.2C114-173-5423.3 C912-427-14414.3C57-76-5423.3 C320-256-14414.3C80-133-4824.7 C640-305-12015.7C40-76-4824.7 C228-213-12015.7C57-89-4226.5 C456-256-10017.1C40-89-4226.5 C160-173-10017.1C40-89-3628.6 C320-246-8618.5C25-56-3628.6 C114-119-8618.5C25-67-3031.3 C320-246-7419.9C25-53-3031.3 C114-143-7419.9

14 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS14 Pumping Unit Rating w/Structure Pumping Unit SizeMax. SPMPU SizeMax. SPM M1824-427-2169.3M320-305-10013.7 M912-365-2169.3M228-173-10013.7 M1280-427-1929.9M228-246-8614.8 M456-305-1929.9M114-143-8614.8 M912-427-16810.6M228-200-7415.9 M456-305-16810.6M114-173-7415.9 M912-365-14411.4M114-173-6417.1 M320-256-14411.4M114-143-6417.1 M456-365-12012.5 M228-213-12012.5

15 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS15 Pumping Unit Rating w/Structure Pumping Unit SizeMax. SPMPU SizeMax. SPM A2560-470-24010.0A912-427-14412.9 A912-470-24010.0A456-305-14412.9 A1824-427-21610.5A640-365-12014.1 A912-427-21610.5A320-256-12014.1 A1824-427-19211.1A320-305-10015.4 A912-427-19211.1A228-173-10015.4 A1280-305-16811.9A160-200-7417.9 A640-305-16811.9A114-173-6419.3

16 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS16 Pumping Unit Rating w/Structure In real world operating situation, the free fall speed of the rods and the Pumping Unit Stroke Length determine maximum pumping speed.

17 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS17 Fatigue Effects (F. V. Lawrence)

18 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS18 Fatigue Effects (Con’t)

19 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS19 Fatigue Effects (Con’t) API RP 11BR discusses Modified Goodman Diagram (MGD) –Based on R. R. Moore fatigue (1920s) –Assumed 10 Million Cycles life (10spm*24hr/day) = 23 months ~2 years) 1993 Hein & Hermanson published SPE 26558 “New Look at Sucker Rod Fatigue Life” –Provided history of development of MGD –RP 11BR MGD conservative –Non-linear approach (Gerber Parabolic Relation) may be more appropriate Overloaded rods (~125%) 50,000,000 Cycles (10spm *24hr/day = 115 months ~10 years)

20 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS20 Fatigue Effects (con’t) API RP 11L “Design Calculations for Sucker Rod Pumping Systems: PPRL = Wrf + [(F1/Skr) * Skr] MPRL = Wrf – [(F2/Skr) * Skr] PT = (2T/S 2 kr) * Skr * S/2 * Ta

21 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS21 6 Basic Loads & Load Range LOAD RANGE represents the load range between the peak and minimum polished rod loads. Load ranges are used in calculating max and min sucker rod stresses.

22 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS22 Fatigue Effects (con’t) Load Range (PPRL – MPRL) thus effects cumulative stress (strain) damage Smaller load range –Longer fatigue life –Less work –Less HP Larger load range –Shorter fatigue life –More work –More HP

23 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS23 Well Design Example One main criteria for rod string design is to match pump displacement to well production capacity. PD = 0.1166 * S * N * D 2 WC/0.85 < PD < WC/0.65 OR PD = ~120% to ~150% * WC

24 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS24 Well Design Example Used Beam Pump Program Assumed Well: H=L= 5000’ TAC @ 4940’ D = 1.5” 65 - D grade rods G = 1.0 0 sinker bars

25 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS25 Well Example – results summary SNFo/SKRN/No'SpPDSVTVPPRLMPRLPTprHPpr 747.70.28680.141456.0113.15852967710,9924,714135.44.5 9.80.28680.180058.4150.15852967711,3364,190147.76.0 12.30.28680.231560.8200.95852967711,8503,605165.28.7 866.40.24670.117667.0113.25852967711,0024,914138.14.5 8.30.24670.152569.2150.65852967711,3584,446174.76.1 10.60.24670.194772.1200.55852967711,8013,792196.48.5 1005.30.21220.097381.3113.05852967711,0015,055182.04.4 7.00.21220.128682.6151.75852967711,3894,660201.66.1 9.00.21220.165384.7200.05852967711,8254,049228.68.4 1682.90.12630.0532148.0112.85852967710,6625,407268.04.5 3.90.12630.0707148.9150.45852967711,0645,169286.76.0 5.10.12630.0938149.8200.95852967711,5674,821317.48.4

26 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS26 Well Example (constant production) SNFo/SkrN/No'SpPDPPRLMPRLLoad RangePTprHPpr 749.80.28680.180058.4150.111,3364,1907,146147.76.0 868.30.24670.152569.2150.611,3584,4466,912174.76.1 1007.00.21220.128682.6151.711,3894,6606,729201.66.1 1205.60.17680.1030101.9149.911,3044,8976,407229.16.0 1444.60.14730.0839125.2150.111,1805,0526,128257.56.0 1683.90.12630.0707148.9150.411,0645,1695,895286.76.0

27 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS27 Summary Long & Slow has been sold as way to reduce fatigue failures due to less cycles. Short & fast vs. long & slow are relative terms. Fatigue theory shows load range most important to fatigue life. 1920’s fatigue life of 10,000,000 cycles not represent current rod manufacturing and well optimization. 50,000,000 cycles should be obtainable. (FF ~0.10) Typically for same production, same work required to lift to surface, so ~PPRL and HPpr same until very long stroke.

28 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS28 Summary (con’t) As S increases MPRL increases due to dynamic effects which reduce load range. While longer/slower may reduce load range, PTpr and required PT for unit increased. Slowing down long S design may be problematic since efficiency reduces for smaller sheaves. Jack shaft may be used to provide additional speed reduction, but further reduces power transmission efficiency and increases costs. Sinker bars will provide same dynamic effect of increasing MPRL and reducing load range for shorter/faster operation. Optimization of pumping equipment might say ‘shorter/faster’ w/ sinker bars is more operational effective.

29 Beam Pumping Workshop Houston, Texas October 4 - 7, 2005 Long & Slow vs. Short & Fast Norman W. Hein, Jr., P. E. – President & Managing Director Oil & Gas Optimization Specialists, Ltd. (OGOS), Midland, TX. nwhein@cox.net 432.694.3678

30 Oct. 4 - 7, 2005 2005 Beam Pumping Workshop - ©OGOS30


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