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Written Elements Word: Phrase: Clause: Sentence: Paragraph: “Atomic” level of writing Group of related words Subject and verb Independent expression Unity.

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Presentation on theme: "Written Elements Word: Phrase: Clause: Sentence: Paragraph: “Atomic” level of writing Group of related words Subject and verb Independent expression Unity."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Written Elements Word: Phrase: Clause: Sentence: Paragraph: “Atomic” level of writing Group of related words Subject and verb Independent expression Unity and coherence

3 In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.* * All examples are quoted or adapted from Richard Wassersug’s “On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica” in American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 86, No. 1. (Jul., 1971), pp

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5 In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

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10 While the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

11 In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

12 Eight Parts of Speech Nouns: Pronouns: Verbs: Adjectives: Adverbs: Prepositions: Conjunctions: Interjections: Name things, persons, events, concepts Replace nouns Express doing or being Modify nouns or pronouns Modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs Relate a noun to rest of sentence Connect other words Express emotion directly

13 In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack. Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

14 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

15 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

16 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

17 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

18 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

19 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

20 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

21 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack. Yuck!

22 Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections In conclusion, data presented here for tadpoles support the general rule that the most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack. Yuck!

23 Using Nouns Subject: Complement: Object: Appositive: Direct address: Identifies who or what the sentence is about Says something about the subject Identifies who or what is acted on Explains or identifies other nouns Identifies who or what is being addressed

24 Noun as subject Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

25 Noun as subject Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

26 Noun as complement They are the most palatable organisms.

27 Noun as complement They are the most palatable organisms.

28 Noun as object Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

29 Noun as object Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

30 Noun as appositive Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

31 Noun as appositive Data presented here for tadpoles, figure 1, support the general rule.

32 Noun as direct address Dear Editor: I am submitting to you my research paper entitled “On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica,” for publication in your journal, American Midland Naturalist…

33 Noun as direct address Dear Editor: I am submitting to you my research paper entitled “On the Comparative Palatability of Some Dry-Season Tadpoles from Costa Rica,” for publication in your journal, American Midland Naturalist…

34 Using Pronouns Kinds: personal, interrogative, relative, demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive, intensive Cases: subjective, possessive, objective

35 Using Verbs Agreement Transitive vs. intransitive Tense Voice Mood Verbals

36 Agreement Singular: A tadpole was rinsed in fresh water. Plural: The tasters were asked to rate the palatability of each tadpole's skin.

37 Transitive vs. Intransitive Verbs Intransitive: The palatability of the tadpoles falls as the temperature of the water rises. Transitive: The palatability of the tadpoles falls as we raise the temperature of the water.

38 Verb Tense Present: The tasters place the tadpoles into their mouths. Past: The tasters placed... Future: The tasters will place … Perfect: The tasters have placed... Past perfect: The tasters had placed... Future perfect: The tasters will have placed...

39 Verb Voice Active: We directed the participants not to swallow the tadpoles. Passive: The participants were directed not to swallow the tadpoles.

40 Verb Mood Indicative: The tasters bit firmly and fully into the body of the tadpole. Imperative: Bite firmly and fully into the body of the tadpole. Conditional: The tasters would not experience the full flavor if they did not bite firmly and fully into the body of the tadpole.

41 Verbals Participle: The standardized tasting procedure included several steps. Gerund: The tasters placed the tadpole into their mouths and held it for 10 to 20 seconds without biting into it. Infinitive: Participants were directed to rinse their mouths out at least twice with fresh water before proceeding to the next tadpole.

42 Using Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives vs. adverbs Positive, comparative, superlative

43 Adjectives: The most distasteful tadpole was clearly Bufo marinus. Adverbs: The body cavity of tadpoles is almost entirely occupied by gut in which tadpoles process large volumes of detritus. Adjectives and adverbs

44 Positive: Standing water is likely to be stagnant. Comparative: Standing water is more likely to be stagnant. Superlative: Standing water is most likely to be stagnant. Degrees of Adjectives and Adverbs

45 Using Conjunctions Coordinating (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) Subordinating (if, because, although, etc.) Independent vs. dependent clauses

46 Coordinating Conjunction The most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, and the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

47 Coordinating Conjunction The most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, and the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

48 Subordinating Conjunction The most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.

49 Subordinating Conjunction The most palatable organisms are those least vulnerable to predator attack, while the most distasteful are those most susceptible to such an attack.


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