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Derivatives Mishaps and What We Can Learn From Them Chapter 34 1 Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 7th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 2008
2 Big Losses by Financial Institutions Allied Irish Bank ($700 million) Amaranth ($6 billion) Barings ($1 billion) Daiwa ($1 billion) Kidder Peabody ($350 million) LTCM ($4 billion) Midland Bank ($500 million) National Westminster Bank ($130 million) Societe Generale ($7 billion) Subprime Mortgages (up to $40 billion)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 7th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull Big Losses by Non-Financial Corporations Allied Lyons ($150 million) Gibsons Greetings ($20 million) Hammersmith and Fulham ($600 million) Metallgesellschaft ($1.8 billion) Orange County ($2 billion) Procter and Gamble ($90 million) Shell ($1 billion) Sumitomo ($2 billion)
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 7th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull Lessons for All Users of Derivatives Risk must be quantified and risk limits defined Exceeding risk limits not acceptable even when profits result Do not assume that a trader with a good track record will always be right Be diversified Scenario analysis and stress testing is important
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 7th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull Lessons for Financial Institutions Do not give too much independence to star traders Separate the front middle and back office Models can be wrong Be conservative in recognizing inception profits Do not sell clients inappropriate products Liquidity risk is important There are dangers when many are following the same strategy Do not finance long-term assets with short-term liabilities Market transparency is important
Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 7th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull Lessons for Non-Financial Corporations It is important to fully understand the products you trade Beware of hedgers becoming speculators It can be dangerous to make the Treasurer’s department a profit center
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