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Chapter 35 Derivatives Mishaps and What We Can Learn From Them Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull 20121
Big Losses by Financial Institutions Allied Irish Bank ($700 million) Amaranth ($6 billion) Barings ($1 billion) Daiwa ($1 billion) Enron Counterparties (Several over $1 billion) Kidder Peabody ($350 million) LTCM ($4 billion) Midland Bank ($500 million) Société Générale ($7 billion) Subprime Mortgages (up to $40 billion) Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
Big Losses by Non-Financial Corporations Allied Lyons ($150 million) Gibsons Greetings ($20 million) Hammersmith and Fulham ($600 million) Metallgesellschaft ($1.8 billion) Orange County ($2 billion) Procter and Gamble ($90 million) Shell ($1 billion) Sumitomo ($2 billion) Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
Lessons for All Users of Derivatives Risk must be quantified and risk limits defined Exceeding risk limits not acceptable even when profits result Do not assume that a trader with a good track record will always be right Be diversified Scenario analysis and stress testing is important Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
Lessons for Financial Institutions Do not give too much independence to star traders Separate the front middle and back office Models can be wrong Be conservative in recognizing inception profits Do not sell clients inappropriate products Liquidity risk is important There are dangers when many are following the same strategy Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
Lessons for Financial Institutions continued Beware of potential liquidity problems when long-term funding requirements are financed with short-term liabilities Market transparency is important Mange incentives Never ignore risk management, even when times are good Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
Lessons for Non-Financial Corporations It is important to fully understand the products you trade Beware of hedgers becoming speculators It can be dangerous to make the Treasurer’s department a profit center Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright © John C. Hull
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