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Reservoir Characteristics and Gas Production Potential of Woodford Shale in the Southern Midcontinent John B. Comer Indiana Geological Survey Indiana University.

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Presentation on theme: "Reservoir Characteristics and Gas Production Potential of Woodford Shale in the Southern Midcontinent John B. Comer Indiana Geological Survey Indiana University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reservoir Characteristics and Gas Production Potential of Woodford Shale in the Southern Midcontinent John B. Comer Indiana Geological Survey Indiana University 812-855-2687 jcomer@indiana.edu John B. Comer Indiana Geological Survey Indiana University 812-855-2687 jcomer@indiana.edu

2 Distribution of Devonian Black Shale Modified from Juergen Schieber, 2004

3 Woodford Lithofacies in the Southern Midcontinent Black shale Siltstone Dolostone Chert Sandstone Mudstone Black shale Siltstone Dolostone Chert Sandstone Mudstone Bypassed settings Proximal and basin centers Distal to open ocean Proximal and locally derived Local Bypassed settings Proximal and basin centers Distal to open ocean Proximal and locally derived Local

4 Log Characteristics Texas and New Mexico Reference log from Ellison (1950) Comer (1991) Fig. 7 Shell No. 5 Pacific Royalty Pan American No. 1 Walker Mobil No. 1918 Parks Unit 2 Shell No. 1 Chriesman

5 Fractured Woodford Shale Reservoirs Southeast Joiner City Field Carter County, Oklahoma California No. 1 Mullen, 29-5S-2W Comer (1992) location A21; Comer (1987) Fig. 5a 0.2 mm 1.0 mm North Aylesworth Field Marshall County, Oklahoma Texaco 1-K Drummond, 11-6S-6E Comer (1992) location A33; Comer (1987) Fig. 5e 8,983 ft 5.5 % TOC 3,065 ft 7.8 % TOC fracturesstylolites Tension gash Radiolaria Vertical fractures and stylolites filled with bitumen Tension gash filled with chert Recrystallized Radiolaria

6 Fractured Woodford, Anadarko Basin Columbia Fuel #1 Rainy Mountain, Kiowa County, Oklahoma, 23-6N-15W, 760 ft Comer (1992) location A25; Comer (1987) Fig. 4a-d 8.1 % TOC 0.61 % R o Columbia Fuel #1 Rainy Mountain, Kiowa County, Oklahoma, 23-6N-15W, 760 ft Comer (1992) location A25; Comer (1987) Fig. 4a-d 8.1 % TOC 0.61 % R o BitumenBitumen Core diameter = 2 inches CalciteCalcite 1 mm

7 1 cm CalciteCalcite Humble No. 43 Yarborough & Allen, Ward County, Texas, Section 66, E. J. Brady Survey Comer (1991) location C2, sample C2-5 Humble No. 43 Yarborough & Allen, Ward County, Texas, Section 66, E. J. Brady Survey Comer (1991) location C2, sample C2-5 0.2 mm Fractured Woodford, Permian Basin 10.1 % TOC 0.55 % R o Type II Kerogen 10.1 % TOC 0.55 % R o Type II Kerogen 7175 ft

8 Arbuckle Mountain Uplift outcrop, Murray County, Oklahoma, 1-2S-2E Comer (1992) location OK26, Hwy 110 2 miles north of Dougherty; Comer (1987) Fig. 7a Arbuckle Mountain Uplift outcrop, Murray County, Oklahoma, 1-2S-2E Comer (1992) location OK26, Hwy 110 2 miles north of Dougherty; Comer (1987) Fig. 7a ChertChert Black Shale ChertChert ChertChert ChertChert Interbedded Black Shale and Chert Lithofacies, Southern Oklahoma 0.2 m

9 Black Shale Highly compacted Flattened Tasmanites spores (T) Amorphous Type II organic matter (AOM) Little or no chert Black Shale Highly compacted Flattened Tasmanites spores (T) Amorphous Type II organic matter (AOM) Little or no chert Chert Tasmanites spores (T) uncompacted or slightly flattened (early chert (CT) cementation) Amorphous Type II Organic Matter (uncompacted) Well indurated, brittle, and tightly sealed Chert Tasmanites spores (T) uncompacted or slightly flattened (early chert (CT) cementation) Amorphous Type II Organic Matter (uncompacted) Well indurated, brittle, and tightly sealed 0.2 mm Black Shale and Chert Petrology, Southern Oklahoma Up to 35 % TOC Up to 6.4 % TOC Comer (1992) location OK35 Arbuckle Mtn Uplift 25-2S-1E; Comer (1987) Fig. 7c Comer (1992) location OK35 Arbuckle Mtn Uplift 25-2S-1E; Comer (1987) Fig. 7c Comer (1992) location OK 55 Ouachita frontal zone 4-2N-15E; Comer (1987) Fig. 7b Comer (1992) location OK 55 Ouachita frontal zone 4-2N-15E; Comer (1987) Fig. 7b

10 Chattanooga Shale, Ozark Uplift, Belle Vista, Benton County, Arkansas Boone Formation St. Joe Member (Mississippian) Boone Formation St. Joe Member (Mississippian) Chattanooga Shale (Devonian) Chattanooga Shale (Devonian) 2.1 % TOC 1.11 % R o Mixed marine/terrestrial kerogen 2.1 % TOC 1.11 % R o Mixed marine/terrestrial kerogen US 71 12-20N-31W Comer (1992) location AR1

11 Black Shale – Sandstone Association, Ozark Uplift Sylamore Sandstone Type Area, 21-15N-11W, Stone County, Arkansas 0.75 mm 0.2 mm Quartz Phosphate Black Shale 3.5 % TOC (avg) 0.83 % R o (avg) Black Shale 3.5 % TOC (avg) 0.83 % R o (avg) Black Shale Oil Residue Interbedded black shale and medium-grained supermature quartzarenite 8.5 ft thick; Quartz inherited from Middle Ordovician sandstones Comer (1992) location AR9 Comer (1987) Fig. 3a-c Interbedded black shale and medium-grained supermature quartzarenite 8.5 ft thick; Quartz inherited from Middle Ordovician sandstones Comer (1992) location AR9 Comer (1987) Fig. 3a-c Black Shale consists of zones of (1)amorphous marine Type II kerogen (2)terrestrial Type III kerogen (3)mixed marine and terrestrial kerogen Black Shale consists of zones of (1)amorphous marine Type II kerogen (2)terrestrial Type III kerogen (3)mixed marine and terrestrial kerogen

12 Black Shale Characteristics Parallel laminae Abundant pyrite Fine grain size Black color High radioactivity Abundant organic carbon Amorphous (marine) type II kerogen Parallel laminae Abundant pyrite Fine grain size Black color High radioactivity Abundant organic carbon Amorphous (marine) type II kerogen 3 mm 1 cm Mobil No. 1918 Parks Unit 2, Midland County, Texas, Section 14, Block 40, C. F. O’Neal Survey 11,544 ft, 3.1 % TOC Comer (1991) location C1, sample C1-5 Mobil No. 1918 Parks Unit 2, Midland County, Texas, Section 14, Block 40, C. F. O’Neal Survey 11,544 ft, 3.1 % TOC Comer (1991) location C1, sample C1-5 11,555 ft 4.2 % TOC Comer (1991) location C1, sample C1-10, Fig. 4a 11,555 ft 4.2 % TOC Comer (1991) location C1, sample C1-10, Fig. 4a

13 1 cm Shell A No. 1 Williamson, Gaines County, Texas, Section 110, Block H, D&WRR Survey, 13,064 ft Shell A No. 1 Williamson, Gaines County, Texas, Section 110, Block H, D&WRR Survey, 13,064 ft Siltstone Characteristics Black Shale Bioturbated Siltstone Pyrite Comer (1991) location C11, sample C11-10

14 Siltstone Characteristics Shell A No. 1 Williamson, Gaines County, Texas, Section 110, Block H, D&W RR Survey, 13,064 ft Comer (1991) location C11, sample 11-10, Fig. 5h Shell A No. 1 Williamson, Gaines County, Texas, Section 110, Block H, D&W RR Survey, 13,064 ft Comer (1991) location C11, sample 11-10, Fig. 5h Siltstone Characteristics Subequal random mixture of detrital dolomite (48%) and quartz (52%) Median grain size is 0.05 mm (coarse silt) for both dolomite and quartz Dolomite is angular and abraded with random orientations and uniform texture Siltstone is dense and well indurated Siltstone Characteristics Subequal random mixture of detrital dolomite (48%) and quartz (52%) Median grain size is 0.05 mm (coarse silt) for both dolomite and quartz Dolomite is angular and abraded with random orientations and uniform texture Siltstone is dense and well indurated 0.1 mm

15 3 mm Humble No. 1 A. E. State, Lea County, New Mexico, 16-15S-33E, 13,768 ft Comer (1991) location C3, sample C3-5, Fig. 5e Humble No. 1 A. E. State, Lea County, New Mexico, 16-15S-33E, 13,768 ft Comer (1991) location C3, sample C3-5, Fig. 5e Siltstone Depositional Processes Bouma Sequence A (Graded) B (Flat) C (Rippled) Scoured Base Ripple wavelength ~ 1.5 cm Silt was deposited by bottom flows

16 Lithologic Variations, Texas and New Mexico Modified from Comer (1991) Fig. 9 Lithologic Variations, Texas and New Mexico Modified from Comer (1991) Fig. 9

17 Woodford Resource Potential Modified from Comer (2005)

18 Woodford Resource Potential TOTAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL Total Estimated Oil-in-Place130 x 10 9 bbl Total Estimated Gas-In-Place600 x 10 12 ft 3 TOTAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL Total Estimated Oil-in-Place130 x 10 9 bbl Total Estimated Gas-In-Place600 x 10 12 ft 3 60 x 10 9 bbl 4.4 x 10 12 ft 3 60 x 10 9 bbl 4.4 x 10 12 ft 3 600 x 10 12 ft 3 70 x 10 9 bbl 0.24 x 10 12 ft 3 70 x 10 9 bbl 0.24 x 10 12 ft 3 In-Place Estimates Based On Hydrogen Mass Balance Modified from Comer (2005)

19 Woodford Resource Potential Modified from Comer (2005)

20 TOTAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL Total Estimated Oil-in-Place120 x 10 9 bbl Total Estimated Gas-In-Place230 x 10 12 ft 3 TOTAL RESOURCE POTENTIAL Total Estimated Oil-in-Place120 x 10 9 bbl Total Estimated Gas-In-Place230 x 10 12 ft 3 35 x 10 9 bbl 0.11 x 10 12 ft 3 35 x 10 9 bbl 0.11 x 10 12 ft 3 220 x 10 12 ft 3 84 x 10 9 bbl 9.0 x 10 12 ft 3 84 x 10 9 bbl 9.0 x 10 12 ft 3 In-Place Estimates Based On Hydrogen Mass Balance Woodford Resource Potential Modified from Comer (2005)

21 Conclusions Unconventional gas discoveries in Woodford Shale are likely in both the Anadarko and Permian Basins and adjacent provinces where –Woodford Shale is thermally mature –Fractures are common –Competent lithofacies (chert, siltstone, dolostone, sandstone, silty black shale) are abundant Areas having greatest gas production potential and most prospective lithologies are the –Anadarko Basin in Oklahoma (siltstone and silty black shale) –Arkoma Basin in Oklahoma and Arkansas (silty black shale) –Frontal zone of Ouachita fold belt in Oklahoma (chert) –Delaware Basin in Texas and New Mexico (siltstone and silty black shale) –Val Verde and Midland Basins in Texas (siltstone and silty black shale) Unconventional gas discoveries in Woodford Shale are likely in both the Anadarko and Permian Basins and adjacent provinces where –Woodford Shale is thermally mature –Fractures are common –Competent lithofacies (chert, siltstone, dolostone, sandstone, silty black shale) are abundant Areas having greatest gas production potential and most prospective lithologies are the –Anadarko Basin in Oklahoma (siltstone and silty black shale) –Arkoma Basin in Oklahoma and Arkansas (silty black shale) –Frontal zone of Ouachita fold belt in Oklahoma (chert) –Delaware Basin in Texas and New Mexico (siltstone and silty black shale) –Val Verde and Midland Basins in Texas (siltstone and silty black shale)

22 Key References Comer, J. B., 1991, Stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Devonian Woodford Formation, Permian Basin, West Texas and southeastern New Mexico: Austin, Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 201, 63 p. Comer, J. B., 1992, Organic geochemistry and paleogeography of Upper Devonian formations in Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas, in K. S. Johnson, and B. J. Cardott, eds., Source Rocks in the Southern Midcontinent, 1990 Symposium: Norman, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 93, p. 70-93. Comer, J. B., 2005, Facies distribution and hydrocarbon production potential of Woodford Shale in the southern Midcontinent, in B. J. Cardott, ed., Unconventional Energy Resources in the Southern Midcontinent, 2004 Symposium: Norman, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 110, p. 51-62. Comer, J. B., and H. H. Hinch, 1987, Recognizing and quantifying expulsion of oil from the Woodford Formation and age-equivalent rocks in Oklahoma and Arkansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, p. 844-858. Ellison, S. P., 1950, Subsurface Woodford black shale, west Texas and southeast New Mexico: Austin, Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 7, 20 p. Comer, J. B., 1991, Stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Devonian Woodford Formation, Permian Basin, West Texas and southeastern New Mexico: Austin, Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 201, 63 p. Comer, J. B., 1992, Organic geochemistry and paleogeography of Upper Devonian formations in Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas, in K. S. Johnson, and B. J. Cardott, eds., Source Rocks in the Southern Midcontinent, 1990 Symposium: Norman, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 93, p. 70-93. Comer, J. B., 2005, Facies distribution and hydrocarbon production potential of Woodford Shale in the southern Midcontinent, in B. J. Cardott, ed., Unconventional Energy Resources in the Southern Midcontinent, 2004 Symposium: Norman, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 110, p. 51-62. Comer, J. B., and H. H. Hinch, 1987, Recognizing and quantifying expulsion of oil from the Woodford Formation and age-equivalent rocks in Oklahoma and Arkansas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, p. 844-858. Ellison, S. P., 1950, Subsurface Woodford black shale, west Texas and southeast New Mexico: Austin, Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 7, 20 p.


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