Presentation on theme: "Citizen Participation Public Policy Group April 20, 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Citizen Participation Public Policy Group April 20, 2007
Contents ExercisesIntroduction Midland case T. N. T Conclusion 5
Why does Citizen Participation matter? Represent the public better Reduce the possibility of corruption by increasing transparency Know the interests of the people better Empower and educate people Enhance legitimacy, thus, compliance, and implementation (effectiveness) Resolve public dispute better Correct injustice situations Hold public institutions more accountable Use local, indigenous knowledge from citizens
Definition of Citizen Participation Sherry R. Arnstein The redistribution of power that enables the have-not citizens to be deliberately included in the future. - "A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners James V. Cunningham The process of exercising power on decision making in the regional community by non-experts/citizens - "Citizen Participation in Public Affairs" Public Administration Review
Concepts related (Amsler) Civic engagement: All the many roles and activities through which people take an active part in community life Public participation: Subset of civic engagement that informs the public and involves residents in shaping the policies that affect them Collaborative governance: Subset of public participation that involves the general public and others in informed and reasoned discussions that seek to influence public sector decision-making
The Ladder of Citizen Participation (Arnstein) Citizen Control Delegated Power Partnership Consultation Informing Therapy Manipulation Placation 8 Nonparticipation Tokenism Citizen Power
The Key: Understanding the Levels of Public Participation InformInvolveCollaborateConsult Empower Increasing Level of Participation in Decision Making
Democracy Cube (Archon Fung) How could we sort out various practical citizen participation methods?
Participant Selection Methods
Modes of Communication and Decision
Extent of Influence and Authority
Why Engage The Publics? (Peter Sandman) You need the help of the publics You need the advice of the publics You need the buy-in of the publics ☞ Consensus Building to prevent & address conflicts
Consensus Process A process in which stakeholders engage in discussions and negotiations The purpose of consensus process is reaching a decision that everyone can live with * Source: Center for Public Policy Dispute Resolution, “ What is Negotiated Rulemaking? “, The University of Texas School of Law
Consensus Building Process (Susskind) Conveningresponsibility Clarification DeliberationDecisionMaking Agreement Initiate discussion Specify roles of each stakeholder Strive for Transparency Unanimity on package of gains Ratification by constituencies Issue assessment & Identify stakeholders Set agenda and ground rules Use expert, professional neutral Adhere to decision- making process Present approved proposal Decide to commit to a process Assess optionsSeek to maximizing joint gains Keep a record of commit Monitoring of implementation
Recommendations for effective public participation (Widditsch) Start early & Plan carefully Know what you want, Be flexible Know who is doing what Provide useful information Make meetings convenient Get lots of publicity
Sewage Treatment Conflict: Conflict Overview (Wagen & Pfeffer) Onondaga County recommended the construction of a Regional Treatment Facility (RTF) to be located in the Midland Avenue Southside community. When discharges occur from this facility they will flow into Onondaga Creek and eventually into Onondaga Lake. A small group of citizens in the neighborhood have resisted the County’s attempts to construct the RTF. Local citizens object to many proposed features of the facility.
1991 County Swirler (sewage technology) plans originated 1998 Amended Consent Judgment sets milestone dates for the County to meet 1998 Public Participation begins after firms had been contracted for the project and key plans developed and submitted to the county Residents request details of location - Community already burdened and disrupted by multiple industrial facilities in addition to public and private projects 1999 Oxford and Blaine residents organized themselves as Citizens for Fair Treatment Timeline of Events Syracuse University Public Interest Law Firm
2000 Southside advocacy organization Syracuse United Neighbors helped form the Partnership for Onondaga Creek (POC) County supports planning storage system in Schiller Park as alternative. City of Syracuse Common Council voted to refuse to sell necessary City-owned and controlled land to the County U.S. District Court rules that Onondaga County may condemn property owned by the City that is needed for the Midland project. Timeline (cont’d) Onondaga County Dept of Water Environment Protection
Engineers begin preliminary design for the County’s preferred option Revised and updated facilities plan submitted to NYSDEC for the Midland Avenue RTF project. Onondaga County Legislature authorized acquisition of property for construction, operation, and maintenance of Phase II Midland Avenue RTF Federal district court judge supported Onondaga County's right to use eminent domain with just compensation to acquire a City-owned property. City files appeal. County proceeded to purchase needed private properties and assisted property owners in finding new homes and provided compensation for moving. Timeline (cont’d) Lane and Heath
2003 NYSDEC approved updated facilities plan and engineering design report Demolition contract awarded. Site demolition begins County officials meet with area residents at a meeting of SUN-Tallman Action Council. Questions are asked and responded to regarding construction and the proposed schedule of construction activities. Currently in Phase II of construction. Timeline (cont’d) Lane and Heath
The Partnership for Onondaga Creek (POC) “The Partnership for Onondaga Creek is a voice for the Midland Community and the environment advocating for better, non- polluting solutions for Onondaga Creek.” - POC website
POC (cont’d) Helped to bring about negotiations which created 2 viable alternatives (Peace Council) – Meetings took place from December 2001 – August 2002 – City of Syracuse, Onondaga County, NYSDEC, Atlantic States Legal Foundation, the Onondaga Nation, and POC were all “at the table” – Consensus on alternatives was nearly reached but unilateral decisions spurred controversy
Title VI Administrative Complaint Filed in April 2004 on behalf of POC by SU – to challenge the collective actions of Onondaga County and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (“DEC”) in selecting and approving the placement of an above ground, regional treatment facility on Syracuse’s Southside.
Administrative Complaint (cont’d) Also addressed claims of inadequate public participation – Offered only after a method had been selected – Comment occurred on uncertain phases of the project – Timeframe for comment and search for alter- natives was shortened by County – Information was presented in a confusing manner
“Environmental Justice for All Tour” Took place in Syracuse Sept. 24 – Oct. 1, 2006 Led a tour of the Midland area highlighting the environmental injustice, including lack of public participation. “All levels of government must make it their number one priority to include members of affected com- munities in the planning and design of new projects prior to completion of the planning and design phases.” (Poindexter of POC)
Tomorrow’s Neighborhoods Today (TNT) Official citizen participation process in the City of Syracuse Divides the City into eight neighborhood planning areas Each area has an assigned staff person, but the meetings are completely citizen driven City officials from various operational depart- ments attend to address questions and concerns
TNT (cont’d) Each planning commission maintains a 5-year neighborhood plan Commissions submit annual requests for Capital Improvements Projects (CIP) A small amount of CDBG money is set aside for escrow projects Spin-off - Syracuse Neighborhood Initiative
TNT Strengths Fosters relationships Identifies community needs Increases accountability – “We turned the lights on … and we turned the heat up for everyone else.” - Peg Stroman, TNT founder Provides an outlet for community dialogue Institutionalized by City Ordinance
TNT Weaknesses Self-selecting - not representative of the public at large Community divided by arbitrary lines Inadequate staffing/resources No guarantee that ideas will be implemented Not well designed to withstand changes in administration – Currently underutilized
Sample: Southside TNT Agenda Call to Order Review/Accept Minutes Questions for city officials Midland RTF – Generate criteria to evaluate recommendations – Brainstorm ideas that the negotiation team can take to the DEC led meetings – Evaluate ideas based on pre-determined criteria Announcements Adjourn
Questions to Consider What concerns you about the RTF? What solution would you like to see implemented and why? Determine the best solution from your group and nominate a representative report back to the class.
Conclusions Citizen participation and conflict prevention – Raises critical concerns during the early stages of a project or policy – Provides mutual understanding of community needs and goals Citizen participation and conflict management – Redirects focus to interests rather than positions – Corrects misunderstandings in policy and process – Generates creative solutions to public policy problems