Presentation on theme: "FOCUS: 1.Compare and Contrast the settlements in Virginia with the settlements in New England (motives, political institutions, religion, society, relations."— Presentation transcript:
FOCUS: 1.Compare and Contrast the settlements in Virginia with the settlements in New England (motives, political institutions, religion, society, relations with natives, economics, etc.).
I. Early Chesapeake D. Bacon’s Rebellion –Western Expansion & Berkeley’s Rule
I. Early Chesapeake D. Bacon’s Rebellion Grievances We cannot in our hearts find one single spot of rebellion or treason or that we have in any manner aimed at subverting the settled government…. Let truth be bold and all the world know the real foundations of pretended guilt…. Let us trace…[the], men in authority and favor to whose hands the dispensation of the countr[y’s] wealth has been committed. Let us observe the sudden rise of their estates…[compared] with the quality in which they first entered this country. Let us consider their sudden advancement. And let us also consider whether any public work for our safety and defense or for the advancement and propagation of trade, liberal arts or sciences is in any [way] adequate to our vast charge. Now let us compare these things together and see what sponges have sucked up the public treasure and whether it has not been privately contrived away by unworthy favorites and juggling parasites whose tottering fortunes have been repaired and supported at the public charge. Bacon’s “Manifesto,” justifying his rebellion against Virginia Governor Berkeley in 1676
I. Early Chesapeake D. Bacon’s Rebellion Immediate Causes & Significance
I. Early Chesapeake E. Maryland Origins Religious Toleration ….And be it also further Enacted by the same authority advise and assent that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth uppon any occasion of Offence or otherwise in a reproachful manner or Way declare call or denominate any person or persons whatsoever inhabiting, residing, traffiqueing, trading or comerceing within this Province or within any the Ports, Harbors, Creeks or Havens to the same belonging an heritick, Scismatick, Idolator, puritan, Independant, Prespiterian popish prest, Jesuite, Jesuited papist, Lutheran, Calvenist, Anabaptist, Brownist, Antinomian, Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, or any other name or terme in a reproachfull manner relating to matter of Religion shall for every such Offence forfeit and loose the somme of tenne shillings sterling or the value thereof to bee levyed on the goods and chattells of every such Offender and Offenders… The Maryland Toleration Act, 1649
II. Colonial South A. Carolinas Economy & Slavery Indian Relations
II. Colonial South B. Georgia Purpose Development
III. Growth of New England A. Plymouth 1. Puritans & Separatists (Pilgrims) –a. Puritans –Beliefs = Calvinism = Predestination –God guides those who are to be saved = already “predestined” who goes to heaven and who goes to hell –No one could be certain of their spiritual status –Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion” –“Puritan Work Ethic” = attempt prove to self and others that one of chosen –Fundamentalists = believe every word in Bible was word of God & had to be followed –Wanted to reform/”purify” Church of England
III. Growth of New England A. Plymouth 1. Puritans & Separatists (Pilgrims) –b. Separatists –Puritans who believed only “visible saints” = those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their “elect” status = should be admitted to church membership –Church of England enrolled all king’s subjects in church = Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned” –want break from church = “separate”
III. Growth of New England A. Plymouth 2. Migration –a. Migrate to Holland –b. 1620 = Mayflower –102 Puritans (less than ½ Separatists/Pilgrims)
III. Growth of New England A. Plymouth 3. Mayflower Compact
III. Growth of New England A. Plymouth 4. Relations w/ Indians (early) –Early hardships/first year (44 of 102 survived) –Fall 1621 = First “Thanksgiving” 5. Leadership = William Bradford –Chosen Gov. 30 times –Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby & corrupting Puritan society
III. Growth of New England B. Massachusetts Bay Colony 1. Motives/Reasons 2. 1630s: Great Migration –John Winthrop & 1,000 people establish colony –Covenant Theology –“A Modell of Christian Charity” 3. Theocratic Society: Politics & Religion = “Massachusetts Bible Commonwealth” –“freemen” & Congregational Church –Townhall Meetings We shall be as a city on a hill..
III. Growth of New England C. Dissent in Puritan Community 1. Roger Williams –Controversial Views –Providence (Rhode Island) –Separate Church & State –Religious Freedom –Puritans see it as “sewer”, liberal colony
III. Growth of New England C. Dissent in Puritan Community 2. Anne Hutchinson –Antinomianism [“against the law”, direct revelation] –Put on Trial –Banished
III. Growth of New England C. Dissent in Puritan Community 3. Connecticut –Rev. Thomas Hooker –Fundamental Orders
III. Growth of New England D. Settlers & Native Americans 1. Changing Attitudes 2. Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 –Overall Indians weakened in N.E.=epidemics wiped out ¾ of native pop. –Whites, w/ Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village –Set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors –Pequot tribe virtually annihilated=uneasy peace for 40 yrs. 3. New England Confederation
III. Growth of New England D. Settlers & Native Americans 4. King Philip’s War: 1675-1676 –Only hope for Indians to resist white settlers was to UNITE –Metacom [King Philip] –United Indians & coordinated attacks on white settlements –Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston –Ends in Failure for Indians –Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered –His son and wife sold into slavery –Never serious threat in N.E. again!
IV. Settling Middle Colonies A. Characteristics B. New York & New Jersey C. Pennsylvania 1. Quakers/Society of Friends 2. William Penn & “Holy Experiment”
V. Evolution of British Empire A. Reorganization 1. Mercantilism 2. Navigation Acts B. Dominion of New England C. “Salutary Neglect” D. Rebellions 1. Leisler’s Rebellion 2. Coode’s Rebellion