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Chapter 8 The Early Republic: Conflicts at Home and Abroad, 1789–1800

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1 Chapter 8 The Early Republic: Conflicts at Home and Abroad, 1789–1800

2 Ch. 8: The Early Republic, 1789–1800
Expecting consensus with in new government, Americans shocked when debates widen Disagree on domestic (esp. economic) policy foreign policy Factions (not yet parties) develop All see factions as negative Key era of defining Constitution How much central authority does Republic need to survive

3 George and Deborah Logan, whose activities caused so much political controversy in Their elegant house, Stenton, where Jefferson visited her in her husband’s absence, is still preserved as a historic site. Fig. 8-CO, p. 192

4 p. 194

5 I. Building a Workable Government
Almost all US Government members = Federalists Madison (House) again key Revenue Act (1789): tariff on some imports Bill of Rights (1791) reduce opposition Organize executive branch with War, State, Treasury, etc. Allow president to dismiss appointees Judiciary Act (1789) allow appeal of some state cases to new federal courts

6 II. Debate over Slavery Quaker petitions force US Government to discuss Southerners adamantly defend slavery A few northerners (Franklin) contest South Majority decide to avoid issue Accept report that slave imports and emancipation remains with “States alone.”

7 III. Domestic Policy Under Washington and Hamilton
Presidency created with Washington in mind Aware of precedents, Washington cautious: form cabinet wary of veto Tour nation in elaborate, nationalistic rituals Treasury Secretary Hamilton brilliant, ambitious Assume people driven by self-interest Not tied to any state Seek to consolidate power at national level

8 When George Washington toured the nation during his first term in office, he was greeted by local leaders in elaborately orchestrated rituals. The organizers of the ceremony at Providence, Rhode Island, on August 17, 1790, issued this broadside to inform participants of their plans for a formal procession. While some Americans gloried in such displays of pomp, others feared they presaged the return of monarchy. p. 197

9 Alexander Hamilton, by James Sharpless, about 1796
Alexander Hamilton, by James Sharpless, about This profile of Hamilton, painted near the end of Washington’s presidency, shows the secretary of the treasury as he looked during the years of his first heated partisan battles with Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. p. 198

10 IV. National and State Debts
Hamilton push assumption of both create sound credit tie wealthy to new US Government Opposed by states that paid their debt Madison reject help to speculators Compromise: Hamilton’s plan accepted (1790) US capital located on Potomac

11 V. First Bank of the United States (1791)
Hamilton push charter of private/public bank to solve exchange shortage Use bank notes as nation’s currency Madison and Jefferson: no authorization in Constitution = strict construction Hamilton counter with broad construction If end (goal) constitutional and means not banned, then can do it Washington agree

12 The First Bank of the United States, constructed in the mid-1790s, as the building looked in Philadelphia in Its classical solidity visually concealed its contentious political origins. p. 199

13 Although Congress did not react positively to the arguments in Hamilton’s Report on Manufactures, the owners of America’s burgeoning industries recognized the importance of the policy Hamilton advocated. Ebenezer Clough, a Boston maker of wallpaper, incorporated into his letterhead the exhortation “Americans, Encourage the Manufactories of your Country, if you wish for its prosperity.” p. 200

14 VI. Report on Manufactures (1791) by Hamilton
Assumption of state debts and national bank contribute to economic stability and growth Propose protective tariffs cut dependence on European imports foster domestic manufacturing Opponents argue small farmers = mainstay of republic US future agrarian, not industrial Defeat Hamilton’s tariffs

15 VII. Whiskey Rebellion (1791–1794)
To fund state debt assumption, Hamilton get Congress (1791) to tax whiskey production Affect farmers on frontier Protest; some violent (1794) Washington send in militia Fear another Shay’s Rebellion Not allow extralegal acts of 1760s-1770s Protest should come via political system

16 VIII. Development of Partisan Politics (1792-94)
Hamilton’s opponents begin to coalesce Call themselves Republicans Fear Hamilton’s support of commerce will create corrupt, aristocratic government Hamilton and allies then form Federalists Each accuse other of being illicit faction out to destroy republican ideals and USA Partisan newspapers key

17 A Federalist political cartoon from the 1790s shows “Mad Tom” Paine “in a rage,” trying to destroy the federal government as carefully constructed (in classical style) by President Washington and Vice President Adams. That Paine is being aided by the Devil underscores the hostility to a partisanship common in the era. p. 201

18 IX. French Revolution Foreign policy divisions magnify tension
Americans initially praise 1789 Revolution As executions mount, some (Federalists) fear disorder Republicans more sympathetic Dilemma with France and England war (1793) allied with France depend on trade with England

19 The violence of the French Revolution, especially the guillotining of King Louis XVI, shocked Americans, causing many to question whether the United States should remain that nation’s ally. p. 202

20 IX. French Revolution (cont.)
Genet raise possibility of US intervention Washington decide on neutrality Democratic societies form (1793) grassroots sympathy for France support Jefferson and Madison oppose Federalists see parallels with 1760s resistance 1st organized political dissenters Washington horrified by organized dissent

21 X. Partisan Politics and Relations with Great Britain
USA want England to respect neutral rights evacuate frontier posts compensate for slaves freed sign commercial treaty Jay has little to offer 1795 treaty evacuate forts some trade protection Many Americans, esp. in South, upset Federalists assert treaty averts war

22 XI. Partisan Divisions in Congress
In debate with House, Washington establish executive privilege (withhold information) By 1794, congressional votes display emerging partisanship (voting as a group) Republicans strong in southern/middle states; with non-English and small farmers Federalists support = New Englanders, Anglo-Americans, and merchants

23 XI. Partisan Divisions in Congress (cont.)
Republicans optimistic on future and want expansion west Federalists stress order and stability Federalists more pro-English for protection Republicans lean more to France Washington’s Farewell: principle of unilateralism in foreign policy attack legitimacy of Republicans

24 XII. Election of 1796 1st contested presidential election
Adams and Pinckney (Federalists) vs. Jefferson and Burr (Republicans) Adams win (electoral college) Jefferson become VP Constitution not expect party slates

25 Visualizing the Past: Newspapers of the Early Republic.

26 Visualizing the Past: Newspapers of the Early Republic.

27 XIII. Quasi-War with France (1798-99)
In response to Jay Treaty, France seize US ships on way to England XYZ Affair (1798) increase anger at France Undeclared war start in Caribbean USA dominate by 1799 Federalists label Republicans traitors because oppose war see chance to destroy opponents

28 This cartoon drawn during the XYZ affair depicts the United States as a maiden being victimized by the five leaders of the French government’s directorate. In the background, John Bull (England) watches from on high, while other European nations discuss the situation. p. 206

29 XIV. Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
because immigrants favor Republicans, lengthen residency for citizenship Allow detention and deportation To suppress dissent, Sedition Act ban most criticism of government or president 10 Republicans convicted 1 a House member most newspaper editors Press very partisan by 1798 Attacks on Mr. and Mrs. Logan

30 XV. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798)
Jefferson and Madison protest via states Claim states can void an act of Congress Raise constitutional questions More immediate result = label Federalists as tyrants Convention of 1800 end conflict with France Create divisions with in Federalists

31 XVI. War in the Northwest Territory
Miami Confederacy resist Score early victories (1790–91) Defeated at Fallen Timbers (1794) Treaty of Greenville (1795) give USA right to settle most of Ohio 1st formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty Southwest Ordinance/ Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain (1790, 1795) organize Old Southwest

32 The two chief antagonists at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and negotiators of the Treaty of Greenville (1795). On the left, Little Turtle, the leader of the Miami Confederacy; on the right, General Anthony Wayne. Little Turtle, in a copy of a portrait painted two years later, appears to be wearing a miniature of Wayne on a bear-claw necklace. p. 209

33 The two chief antagonists at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and negotiators of the Treaty of Greenville (1795). On the left, Little Turtle, the leader of the Miami Confederacy; on the right, General Anthony Wayne. Little Turtle, in a copy of a portrait painted two years later, appears to be wearing a miniature of Wayne on a bear-claw necklace. p. 209

34 XVII. “Civilizing” the Indians
By 1800, Indians east of Mississippi very influenced by USA Trade and Intercourse Act (1793) try to convert Indians to Anglo-American culture Ignore differences in property concepts sexual division of agrarian labor Some Iroquois adopt new farming ideas in hope of preserving group identity

35 In 1805, an unidentified artist painted Benjamin Hawkins, a trader and U.S. agent to the Indians of the Southeast, at the Creek agency near Macon, Georgia. Hawkins introduced European-style agriculture to the Creeks, who are shown here with vegetables from their fields. Throughout the eastern United States, Indian nations had to make similar adaptations of their traditional lifestyles in order to maintain their group identity. p. 210

36 XVIII. Fries’s Rebellion (1798-1799)
Tax resistance by farmers/vets in PA See taxes to fund Quasi-War with France as parallel to 1765 Stamp Act Non-violent protest Claim right to resist unconstitutional laws US Government see it as “treason” Fries sentenced to death Adams pardon him just before execution Participants join Republicans

37 XIX. Gabriel’s Rebellion in VA (1800)
Influenced by Revolution’s ideas/group protest Enlist skilled slaves and rural slaves Plan attack on Richmond Undone when some slaves inform planters After Gabriel’s execution, slavery laws more severe less talk of emancipation = slavery more entrenched in South

38 Richmond, Virginia, at the time of Gabriel’s Rebellion
Richmond, Virginia, at the time of Gabriel’s Rebellion. This was the city as Gabriel knew it. The state capitol, the rebels’ intended target, dominates the city’s skyline as it dominated Gabriel’s thinking. p. 211

39 XX. Election of 1800 Hotly contested election decided in House
Jefferson and Burr tie in electoral votes Jefferson win after 1 Federalist shift vote to avoid “civil war” One result = 12th Amendment Republicans win majorities in Congress Before leaving, Adams appoint many Federalists (including Marshall) to judiciary Hope to block Jefferson and Republicans

40 A free woman of color in Louisiana early in the nineteenth century, possibly one of the refugees from Haiti. Esteban Rodriguez Mir, named governor of Spanish Louisiana in 1782, ordered all slave and free black women to wear head wraps rather than hats—which were reserved for whites—but this woman and many others subverted his order by nominally complying, but nevertheless creating elaborate headdresses. p. 212

41 Summary: Discuss Links to the World and Legacy
Link of Haitian Revolution ( )? Why European-Americans uncomfortable? 1st refugee crisis Many free people of color Link with Gabriel’s Rebellion Legacy of suppression of dissent from Quasi-War with France? How repeated in Civil War, WWI, WWII, Vietnam, current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan? Why wartime dissent contentious?

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