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The Great War 1914-1918 Total War and the Homefront Dealing With Dissent The Russian Revolution and Civil War.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War 1914-1918 Total War and the Homefront Dealing With Dissent The Russian Revolution and Civil War."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War 1914-1918 Total War and the Homefront Dealing With Dissent The Russian Revolution and Civil War

2 A War on Many Fronts Italy sides now with the Allies and attacks Austria Italy sides now with the Allies and attacks Austria Romania and Greece side with the Allies Romania and Greece side with the Allies The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers The Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers

3 A World At War

4 The Ottoman Empire and The Middle East Theater The Ottoman Empire stops Ally supplies from using the Suez and Dardanelles in the Middle East The Ottoman Empire stops Ally supplies from using the Suez and Dardanelles in the Middle East The British send New Zealand and Australian troops to seize Gallipoli with disastrous results The British send New Zealand and Australian troops to seize Gallipoli with disastrous results The ANZAC forces eventually seize Baghdad in 1917 The ANZAC forces eventually seize Baghdad in 1917

5 War at Sea German’s submarines employ unrestricted warfare on the British and Allied shipping German’s submarines employ unrestricted warfare on the British and Allied shipping To combat submarines depth charges and destroyer convoys are used with success To combat submarines depth charges and destroyer convoys are used with success Both Britain and Germany will not engage in large naval battles because of submarine torpedoes Both Britain and Germany will not engage in large naval battles because of submarine torpedoes

6 Total War and The Home Front Total War, the concept of government control over war production and dedication from a nation’s people to total victory Total War, the concept of government control over war production and dedication from a nation’s people to total victory Government controlled labor, production of war material, mobilized citizens for the military, regulated wages and prices to achieve victory Government controlled labor, production of war material, mobilized citizens for the military, regulated wages and prices to achieve victory

7 Total War and The Home Front Women severed in war production industries and did work held exclusively for men Women severed in war production industries and did work held exclusively for men The United States allowed women to begin enlisting as nurses in the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard The United States allowed women to begin enlisting as nurses in the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard In Russia women worked in war production and served as soldiers In Russia women worked in war production and served as soldiers

8 Total War and The Home Front Governments seized control of supplies needed for the war effort and changed industries to produce war materials Governments seized control of supplies needed for the war effort and changed industries to produce war materials Food rationing was used because of low agriculture production and government seizures of food stuffs Food rationing was used because of low agriculture production and government seizures of food stuffs The British issued ration books for meat, cheese and sugar The British issued ration books for meat, cheese and sugar

9 The Battle of The Somme 1916 June 24, 1916, British General Douglas Haig orders a massive bombardment on German trenches June 24, 1916, British General Douglas Haig orders a massive bombardment on German trenches The Germans are protected in their trench lines The Germans are protected in their trench lines July 1, 1916, 100,000 British troops attack the Germans July 1, 1916, 100,000 British troops attack the Germans Over 20,000 are killed in one day Over 20,000 are killed in one day The British and Germans will now dig in and wait The British and Germans will now dig in and wait

10 The Battle of The Somme 1916

11 Dealing With Dissent All governments begin to crackdown on dissenting voices by censorship, removing civil liberties and enforcing martial law All governments begin to crackdown on dissenting voices by censorship, removing civil liberties and enforcing martial law Critics and pacifists were grouped together Critics and pacifists were grouped together The U.S. passed the Espionage Act 1917 and Sedition Acts 1918 to silence opposition The U.S. passed the Espionage Act 1917 and Sedition Acts 1918 to silence opposition Union leader Eugene Debs was charged with sedition for speaking against the draft Union leader Eugene Debs was charged with sedition for speaking against the draft

12 The Red Scare The Russian Revolution of 1917 scares Americans who believe it will spread to the U.S. The Russian Revolution of 1917 scares Americans who believe it will spread to the U.S. There was also a fear that anarchists and communists are within unions There was also a fear that anarchists and communists are within unions April 1919, 40 mail bombs are intercepted by the USPS April 1919, 40 mail bombs are intercepted by the USPS Americans fear that a revolution is being planned by labor unions, anarchists and immigrants Americans fear that a revolution is being planned by labor unions, anarchists and immigrants

13 The Red Scare U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer appoints Herbert Hoover to lead the Office of General Intelligence U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer appoints Herbert Hoover to lead the Office of General Intelligence Mitchell believes that a revolution is being planned and begins raids and deportations over 6,000 foreigners are arrested and 556 are deported Mitchell believes that a revolution is being planned and begins raids and deportations over 6,000 foreigners are arrested and 556 are deported The revolution feared by Palmer does not happen and this ends the Red Scare The revolution feared by Palmer does not happen and this ends the Red Scare

14 The Red Scare Immigrants escaping the poverty from Europe are banned entry into the United States Immigrants escaping the poverty from Europe are banned entry into the United States Quotas will be set to keep immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe by Congress in 1929 Quotas will be set to keep immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe by Congress in 1929 The main target of distrust and suspicion are Jews The main target of distrust and suspicion are Jews

15 Dealing With Dissent Germany encouraged The Easter Rebellion in Ireland in 1916 Germany encouraged The Easter Rebellion in Ireland in 1916 It also returned revolutionary Vladimir Lenin to Russia to cause revolution It also returned revolutionary Vladimir Lenin to Russia to cause revolution The British promised Jews a homeland in Palestine and the Arabs independence from the Turks The British promised Jews a homeland in Palestine and the Arabs independence from the Turks

16 1917 A Year of Turing Points Russia removes itself from the war and signs a separate peace with Germany Russia removes itself from the war and signs a separate peace with Germany Germany now can concentrate its army on the Western Front but, lacks material to sustain a long offensive Germany now can concentrate its army on the Western Front but, lacks material to sustain a long offensive

17 The Western Front 1918 March-July 1918 Germany advances from its trenches and moves into French territory March-July 1918 Germany advances from its trenches and moves into French territory German introduces stromtroopers, flamethrowers and rolling barrages German introduces stromtroopers, flamethrowers and rolling barrages Germany will exhaust itself and the Allies will now advance into German territory Germany will exhaust itself and the Allies will now advance into German territory

18 The Western Front 1918

19 1917 A Year of Turing Points Germany seeks an ally in Mexico and promises support if it wages war against America Germany seeks an ally in Mexico and promises support if it wages war against America The Zimmerman Telegram promise aide to Mexico and the Southwest The Zimmerman Telegram promise aide to Mexico and the Southwest April 1917 America declares war on Germany and 2 million soldiers now side with the Allies April 1917 America declares war on Germany and 2 million soldiers now side with the Allies

20 Americans at War

21 Germany Defeated Germany launches the Ludendorff Offensive and meets with limited success Germany launches the Ludendorff Offensive and meets with limited success Unable to break the Allied trenches now reinforced with Americans Unable to break the Allied trenches now reinforced with Americans The Germans sue for peace because it is losing more men that it can recruit and train per year The Germans sue for peace because it is losing more men that it can recruit and train per year

22 Germany Defeated The Council of Four will decide fate of Europe The Council of Four will decide fate of Europe Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd George David Lloyd George Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Orlando Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau Losing countries have no say in treaty Losing countries have no say in treaty Wilson proposes Fourteen Points which includes free trade, self- determination, disarmament and a League of Nations Wilson proposes Fourteen Points which includes free trade, self- determination, disarmament and a League of Nations

23 Germany Defeated Clemenceau wants to punish the Germans and gets Germany to disarm, it also gets the Rhineland and buffer states in the Alsace- Lorraine Clemenceau wants to punish the Germans and gets Germany to disarm, it also gets the Rhineland and buffer states in the Alsace- Lorraine The Treaty of Versailles, 1918, officially ends the war and imposes reparations for the destruction of property and loss of life The Treaty of Versailles, 1918, officially ends the war and imposes reparations for the destruction of property and loss of life Germany will want revenge later Germany will want revenge later

24 Revolution in Russia 1917-1920 Tsar Nicholas II entered the WWI to avoid revolution at home but seeds had been planted… Tsar Nicholas II entered the WWI to avoid revolution at home but seeds had been planted… Bloody Sunday, January 1905, 500 laborers protesting their working and living conditions at St. Petersburg are gunned down by Tsar’s personal troops Bloody Sunday, January 1905, 500 laborers protesting their working and living conditions at St. Petersburg are gunned down by Tsar’s personal troops To quell the people the Tsar creates the Duma, a parliament, but it is oppressive and angers the laborers To quell the people the Tsar creates the Duma, a parliament, but it is oppressive and angers the laborers

25 Revolution in Russia 1917-1920 Overtaxed and overburden by the war Russians seize the Tsar family in March 1917 Overtaxed and overburden by the war Russians seize the Tsar family in March 1917 Peasants and Russian soldiers begin to take over government lands Peasants and Russian soldiers begin to take over government lands Vladimir Lenin introduces the April Theses which promises the people with bread, land and peace Vladimir Lenin introduces the April Theses which promises the people with bread, land and peace Lenin seizes power in November 1918 Lenin seizes power in November 1918

26 Revolution in Russia 1917-1920 Lenin is able to seize power because of support from the Red Army and the Bolsheviks Lenin is able to seize power because of support from the Red Army and the Bolsheviks Bolsheviks believed in the necessity of violent revolution Bolsheviks believed in the necessity of violent revolution Lenin will however seize power without spilling blood but the Tsar family will be executed Lenin will however seize power without spilling blood but the Tsar family will be executed

27 Revolution in Russia 1917-1920 Russia will leave WWI when it signs the Brist-Livosk Treaty with Germany Russia will leave WWI when it signs the Brist-Livosk Treaty with Germany Loyalists, the White Army seeking a return to Tsarist rule will fight the Red Army who is loyal to Lenin Loyalists, the White Army seeking a return to Tsarist rule will fight the Red Army who is loyal to Lenin The country of Russia will be devastated by this fighting The country of Russia will be devastated by this fighting Its industry, agriculture and population will be on the brink of death Its industry, agriculture and population will be on the brink of death


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