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Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR. A New World Power F American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901- 1920) was aggressive.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR. A New World Power F American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901- 1920) was aggressive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR

2 A New World Power F American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson (1901- 1920) was aggressive & nationalistic F US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam F Built a large navy to protect the colonial empire, estab’d US Army War College F More & more involved in economic ventures abroad p.691

3 "I Took the Canal Zone" F TR wanted a canal to link the Atlantic & Pacific oceans across the isthmus connecting N Am & S Am –It would be open to ships of all nations F Desired route was in Panama, a Columbian possession ~ Columbia said “no deal” –TR considered seizing the area, but settled for encouraging a revolution & then sent US forces to prevent Colombia from putting down the revolt F The new, independent Panama permitted construction to begin in 1904 –1914 ~ Panama Canal opened p.691-692

4 The Panama Canal Zone p.691

5 The Roosevelt Corollary F US treated Latin America as a protectorate F “Roosevelt Corollary” ~ Warned Latin Am countries to keep their affairs in order or face US intervention F Intervention occurred in… – Dominican Republic – Panama – Cuba p.692

6 Ventures in the Far East F 1905 ~ Roosevelt mediated the Russo-Japanese War (Russia losing/Japan bankrupt) F Taft-Katsura Agreement (Taft Sec of War) – Korea under Japanese influence – Japan to respect US control of Philippines F 1907 ~ ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration F 1908 ~ (Sec State) Root-Takahira Agreement –Maintain status quo in Far East –Accept Open Door & Chinese independence F 1915 ~ Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China p.692-693

7 Taft & Dollar Diplomacy F Taft substituted economic force for military F American bankers assumed Honduran debt to English bondholders, took over assets of the Natl Bank of Haiti & Nicaragua’s Natl Bank F Taft's support for US economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia F Generally speaking, Dollar Diplomacy promoted US financial & business interests abroad p.693-694

8 Foreign Policy Under Wilson F Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy, yet he faced crisis after crisis foreign affairs, including the outbreak of WWI F Conducted his own diplomacy, composing diplomatic notes on his own typewriter F “The force of America is the force of moral principle.” –Militarism, colonialism & war must be brought under control –“Extend the blessings of democracy” p.694

9 Conducting Moral Diplomacy F Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try & settle disputes without war F Resorted to military force in Latin America –Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

10 Troubles Across the Border F 1913 ~ Gen Victoriano Huerta led coup in Mexico (Francisco Madero) F Wilson denied Huerta recognition – Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just govt based upon law” F Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico F 1914 ~ US seized Vera Cruz F 1916 ~ US Army pursued “Pancho” Villa p.695-696

11 Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930 p.695 Several Americans killed

12 Toward War F War in Europe –Large armies dominated Europe & a web of alliances entangled nations, maximizing risks –June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne in Austria-Hungary assassinated by Bosnian linked to Serbia F Central Powers ~ Germany, Austria- Hungary, & Turkey F Allied Powers ~ Eng, France, Italy, & Russia F Wilson sympathized with Allies, but sought US neutrality p.696

13 The Neutrality Policy F Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational F Suspicion that business sought war for profit F Immigrants preferred US neutrality F A long tradition of US neutrality F Americans saw little national stake in war p.696-697

14 Freedom of the Seas F England blockade of Germany F US ships to Germany seized by English F Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end F Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies F US trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks F Allies owed US banks $2B by 1917 p.697-698

15 The U-Boat Threat F German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning F Wilson was urged to ban travel, but he refused F 1915 ~ Lusitania sunk by U-Boat –Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships & pay for losses F April, 1916 ~ Wilson issued ultimatum: Call off attacks on cargo & passenger ships or US-German relations would be severed F May, 1916 ~ Sussex Pledge—Germany pledges to honor US neutrality p.698-699

16 "He Kept Us Out of War" F 1915-16 ~ Wilson campaigned for peace & “preparedness” ~ Growing U-Boat threat F Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany F Wilson won close election – Won large labor, progressive vote – Won majority of women’s vote p.699-700

17 p.700

18 The Final Months of Peace F Feb 1917 ~ Germany renewed U-Boat attacks F The British govt provided a copy of an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico ~ The (Arthur) Zimmerman Telegram –Wanted Mexico to enter the war against the US F Wilson’s response – Ordered US merchant vessels armed – Ordered US Navy to fire on German U-Boats F April 6, 1917 ~ War declared on Germany p.700-701

19 US Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916–1918 p.701

20 Over There F Allies were in danger of losing the war –Germans sunk 881,000 T of Allied shipping during April, 1917 –Mutinies in French army –British drive in Flanders stalled –Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West –Italian army routed on southern flank F Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive p.701

21 Mobilization US Not Prepared F Wilson placed John J. “Black Jack” Pershing in command of the Am Expeditionary Force F No US contingency plans for war –300k old rifles, 1.5k machine guns, 155 out of date airplanes, 2 field radio sets –200k troops at war’s beginning F Congress ~ Selective Service Act – Conscripted 2.8M by war’s end –African Americans drafted as well p.701-702

22 European Alliances & Battlefronts, 1914–1917 p.702

23 War in the Trenches F Teaming of US, English navies reduced Allied losses to submarines by half F June, 1917 ~ US troops arrived in France F Spring, 1918 ~ US forces helped halt final German offensive – Battle of Chateau Thierry – Battle of Belleau Wood F September ~ Germans out of St. Mihiel F First use of poison gas & tanks p.702-703

24 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918 p.703

25 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918 p.703 Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918 Note: 11 th Hour, 11 th Day, 11 th Month Veterans’ Day

26 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918 p.703 Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918 Note: 11 th Hour, 11 th Day, 11 th Month Veterans’ Day 112k Americans Died

27 Over Here F Victory on front depends on mobilization at home –War financed primarily by the sale of “Liberty Bonds” F Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production & distribution F Wilson campaigned for American mind’s, the “conquest of of their convictions,” was as vital as events on the battlefield p.706

28 The Conquest of Convictions F Wartime laws to repress dissent – Espionage Act ~ Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty – Trading with the Enemy Act ~ Govt can censor foreign language press – Sedition Act ~ Criticism of the war made a crime – 1.5k dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs – Numerous atrocities (lynching, etc.) F Summer, 1918 ~ Anticommunism prompts deployment of US troops to Russia to “protect US supplies from the Germans” –1917 Bolshevik Revolution ~ Vladimir Lenin –Wilson feared the communist idea would spread p.706-709

29 A Bureaucratic War F War Industries Board & other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort F Govt seized some businesses to keep them running F Cooperation between govt & business the norm F Business profits from wartime industry 709-710

30 Labor in the War F Union membership swells F Labor shortage prompts – Wage increase – Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force F Labor saw a chance to “trade labor peace for labor advances” p.710-712

31 African American Migration Northward, 1910–1920 p.711

32 Labor in the War F 200k blacks served in France – 42k combat troops – Expected to find better conditions when they returned F Great Migration to northern factories – Blacks must adjust industrial work pace – Encounter Northern racism F 1917–1919 ~ Race riots in urban North F Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance to discrimination p.711-712

33 The Treaty of Versailles Official end to WWI F Common concern about Bolshevik revolution F Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non- punitive settlement F England & France balk at Fourteen Points –Want Germany disarmed & crippled –Want Germany’s colonies –Skeptical of principle of self-determination p.712-713

34 The Treaty of Versailles Near Paris, France

35 A Peace at Paris F Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty F Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations – Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity F League's jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs p.713-715

36 p.713

37 Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919 p.715

38 Rejection in the Senate F William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any grounds –14 Republican senators against every aspect of the League of Nations F October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson –November: Treaty fails in Senate F January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty F July, 1921: US peace declared by joint Congressional resolution p.715-716

39 Rejection in the Senate F Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations F Landslide for Republican Warren Harding F Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit p.715-716

40 The Election of 1920 p.716 See picture p.708 James M. Cox

41 Postwar Disillusionment F To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful F The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support F Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy” p.717

42 Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR End

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