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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR

2 A New World Power American foreign policy pursued by Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, & Wilson ( ) was aggressive & nationalistic US left the Span-Am War peace table (1898) possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam Built a large navy to protect the colonial empire, estab’d US Army War College More & more involved in economic ventures abroad p.691 2

3 "I Took the Canal Zone" TR wanted a canal to link the Atlantic & Pacific oceans across the isthmus connecting N Am & S Am It would be open to ships of all nations Desired route was in Panama, a Columbian possession ~ Columbia said “no deal” TR considered seizing the area, but settled for encouraging a revolution & then sent US forces to prevent Colombia from putting down the revolt The new, independent Panama permitted construction to begin in 1904 1914 ~ Panama Canal opened p 3

4 The Panama Canal Zone p.691

5 The Roosevelt Corollary
US treated Latin America as a protectorate “Roosevelt Corollary” ~ Warned Latin Am countries to keep their affairs in order or face US intervention Intervention occurred in… Dominican Republic Panama Cuba p.692 4

6 Ventures in the Far East
1905 ~ Roosevelt mediated the Russo-Japanese War (Russia losing/Japan bankrupt) Taft-Katsura Agreement (Taft Sec of War) Korea under Japanese influence Japan to respect US control of Philippines 1907 ~ ”Gentleman’s Agreement” Japan promises to stop immigration 1908 ~ (Sec State) Root-Takahira Agreement Maintain status quo in Far East Accept Open Door & Chinese independence 1915 ~ Japan seized German colonies in China and claimed authority over China p 5

7 Taft & Dollar Diplomacy
Taft substituted economic force for military American bankers assumed Honduran debt to English bondholders, took over assets of the Natl Bank of Haiti & Nicaragua’s Natl Bank Taft's support for US economic influence in Manchuria alienated China, Japan, Russia Generally speaking, Dollar Diplomacy promoted US financial & business interests abroad p 6

8 Foreign Policy Under Wilson
Wilson inexperienced in diplomacy, yet he faced crisis after crisis foreign affairs, including the outbreak of WWI Conducted his own diplomacy, composing diplomatic notes on his own typewriter “The force of America is the force of moral principle.” Militarism, colonialism & war must be brought under control “Extend the blessings of democracy” p.694 7

9 Conducting Moral Diplomacy
Wilson negotiated “cooling-off” treaties to try & settle disputes without war Resorted to military force in Latin America Intervened there more than Roosevelt or Taft

10 Troubles Across the Border
1913 ~ Gen Victoriano Huerta led coup in Mexico (Francisco Madero) Wilson denied Huerta recognition Revolutionary regimes must reflect “a just govt based upon law” Wilson blocked arms shipments to Mexico 1914 ~ US seized Vera Cruz 1916 ~ US Army pursued “Pancho” Villa p 8

11 Activities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898–1930
Several Americans killed p.695

12 Toward War War in Europe
Large armies dominated Europe & a web of alliances entangled nations, maximizing risks June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne in Austria-Hungary assassinated by Bosnian linked to Serbia Central Powers ~ Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Turkey Allied Powers ~ Eng, France, Italy, & Russia Wilson sympathized with Allies, but sought US neutrality p.696 9

13 The Neutrality Policy Progressives saw war as wasteful, irrational
Suspicion that business sought war for profit Immigrants preferred US neutrality A long tradition of US neutrality Americans saw little national stake in war p 10

14 Freedom of the Seas England blockade of Germany
US ships to Germany seized by English Wilson accepted English promise of reimbursement at war’s end Germans used U-boats to interrupt trade with Allies US trade with Allies boomed, but was increasingly financed by loans from American banks Allies owed US banks $2B by 1917 p 11

15 The U-Boat Threat German submarines violated international law by shooting without warning Wilson was urged to ban travel, but he refused 1915 ~ Lusitania sunk by U-Boat Wilson demanded Germans protect passenger ships & pay for losses April, 1916 ~ Wilson issued ultimatum: Call off attacks on cargo & passenger ships or US-German relations would be severed May, 1916 ~ Sussex Pledge—Germany pledges to honor US neutrality p 12

16 "He Kept Us Out of War" ~ Wilson campaigned for peace & “preparedness” ~ Growing U-Boat threat Republican Charles Evans Hughes campaigned on tougher line against Germany Wilson won close election Won large labor, progressive vote Won majority of women’s vote p 13

17 p.700

18 The Final Months of Peace
Feb 1917 ~ Germany renewed U-Boat attacks The British govt provided a copy of an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico ~ The (Arthur) Zimmerman Telegram Wanted Mexico to enter the war against the US Wilson’s response Ordered US merchant vessels armed Ordered US Navy to fire on German U-Boats April 6, 1917 ~ War declared on Germany p 14

19 US Losses to the German Submarine Campaign, 1916–1918

20 Over There Allies were in danger of losing the war
Germans sunk 881,000 T of Allied shipping during April, 1917 Mutinies in French army British drive in Flanders stalled Bolsheviks signed separate peace with Germany; German troops to West Italian army routed on southern flank Allies braced for spring, 1918 offensive Lftoff hre p.701

21 Mobilization US Not Prepared
Wilson placed John J. “Black Jack” Pershing in command of the Am Expeditionary Force No US contingency plans for war 300k old rifles, 1.5k machine guns, 155 out of date airplanes, 2 field radio sets 200k troops at war’s beginning Congress ~ Selective Service Act Conscripted 2.8M by war’s end African Americans drafted as well p 15

22 European Alliances & Battlefronts, 1914–1917

23 War in the Trenches Teaming of US, English navies reduced Allied losses to submarines by half June, 1917 ~ US troops arrived in France Spring, 1918 ~ US forces helped halt final German offensive Battle of Chateau Thierry Battle of Belleau Wood September ~ Germans out of St. Mihiel First use of poison gas & tanks p 16

24 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918

25 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918
Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918 Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day p.703

26 The Western Front: U.S. Participation, 1918
Armistice (Peace) Treaty signed on November 11, 1918 Note: 11th Hour, 11th Day, 11th Month Veterans’ Day 112k Americans Died p.703

27 Over Here Victory on front depends on mobilization at home
War financed primarily by the sale of “Liberty Bonds” Wilson consolidates federal authority to organize war production & distribution Wilson campaigned for American mind’s, the “conquest of of their convictions,” was as vital as events on the battlefield p.706

28 The Conquest of Convictions
Wartime laws to repress dissent Espionage Act ~ Outlawed acts to aid the enemy, even encouraging disloyalty Trading with the Enemy Act ~ Govt can censor foreign language press Sedition Act ~ Criticism of the war made a crime 1.5k dissenters imprisoned, including Eugene Debs Numerous atrocities (lynching, etc.) Summer, 1918 ~ Anticommunism prompts deployment of US troops to Russia to “protect US supplies from the Germans” 1917 Bolshevik Revolution ~ Vladimir Lenin Wilson feared the communist idea would spread p 17

29 A Bureaucratic War War Industries Board & other agencies supervised production, distribution to maximize war effort Govt seized some businesses to keep them running Cooperation between govt & business the norm Business profits from wartime industry 18

30 Labor in the War Union membership swells Labor shortage prompts
Wage increase Entry of Mexican Americans, women, African Americans to war-related industrial work force Labor saw a chance to “trade labor peace for labor advances” p 19

31 African American Migration Northward, 1910–1920

32 Labor in the War 200k blacks served in France
42k combat troops Expected to find better conditions when they returned Great Migration to northern factories Blacks must adjust industrial work pace Encounter Northern racism 1917–1919 ~ Race riots in urban North Wartime experience prompted new surge of black resistance to discrimination p 20

33 The Treaty of Versailles Official end to WWI
Common concern about Bolshevik revolution Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for non-punitive settlement England & France balk at Fourteen Points Want Germany disarmed & crippled Want Germany’s colonies Skeptical of principle of self-determination p 21

34 The Treaty of Versailles
Near Paris, France 21

35 A Peace at Paris Wilson failed to deflect Allied punishment of Germany in treaty Treaty created Wilson’s League of Nations Article X of League charter required members to protect each others’ territorial integrity League's jurisdiction excluded member nations’ domestic affairs p

36 p.713

37 Europe after The Treaty Versailles, 1919

38 Rejection in the Senate
William Borah (R-ID) led “irreconcibles” who opposed treaty on any grounds 14 Republican senators against every aspect of the League of Nations October, 1919: Stroke disables Wilson November: Treaty fails in Senate January, 1920: Final defeat of Treaty July, 1921: US peace declared by joint Congressional resolution p 22

39 Rejection in the Senate
Wilson hopes democratic victory in 1920 election would provide mandate for League of Nations Landslide for Republican Warren Harding Defeat of League of Nations brought defeat of Progressive spirit p 23

40 The Election of 1920 James M. Cox See picture p.708 p.716

41 Postwar Disillusionment
To the next generation the war seemed futile, wasteful The progressive spirit survived but without enthusiasm or broad based support Americans welcomed Harding’s return to “normalcy” p.717

42 Chapter 24 THE NATION AT WAR
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