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12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1 Organizational Theory, Design, and Change Sixth Edition Gareth R. Jones Chapter 12 Decision Making, Learning, Knowledge Management, and Information Technology
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2 Organizational Decision Making Organizational decision making: the process of responding to a problem by searching for and selecting a solution or course of action that will create value for organizational stakeholders Programmed decisions: decisions that are repetitive and routine Nonprogrammed decisions: decisions that are novel and unstructured
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3 Models of Organizational Decision Making The rational model: decision making is a straightforward, three-stage process Underlying assumptions Decision makers have all the information they need Decision makers can make the best decision Decision makers agree about what needs to be done
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4 The Carnegie Model Introduces a set of more realistic assumptions about the decision-making process Satisficing: limited information searches to identify problems and alternative solutions Bounded rationality: a limited capacity to process information Organizational coalitions: solution chosen is a result of compromise, bargaining, and accommodation between coalitions
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 Table 12.1: Differences Between the Rational and Carnegie Models
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6 Models of Organizational Decision Making (cont.) The incrementalist model: managers select alternative courses of action that are only slightly, or incrementally, different from those used in the past Perceived to lessen the chances of making a mistake Called the science of “muddling through” They correct or avoid mistakes through a succession of incremental changes Tries to explain how organizations improve their programmed decisions over time
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7 Models of Organizational Decision Making (cont.) The unstructured model: describes how decision making takes place in environments of high uncertainty Unstructured model recognizes uncertainty in the environment Managers rethink their alternatives when they hit a roadblock Decision making is not a linear, sequential process Tries to explain how organizations make nonprogrammed decisions
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8 Models of Organizational Decision Making (cont.) The garbage can model: a view of decision making that takes the unstructured process to the extreme Decision makers are as likely to start decision making from the solution side as the problem side Create decision-making opportunities that they can solve with ready-made solutions based on their competencies and skills Different coalitions may champion different alternatives Decision making becomes a “garbage can” in which problems, solutions, and people all mix and contend for organizational action Selection of an alternative depends on which person’s or group’s definition of the current situation holds sway
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9 The Nature of Organizational Learning Organizational learning: the process through which managers seek to improve organization members’ desire and ability to understand and manage the organization and its environment Creates an organizational capacity to respond effectively to the changing business environment Types of organizational learning Exploration: organizational members search for and experiment with new kinds or forms of organizational activities and procedures Exploitation: organizational members learn ways to refine and improve existing organizational activities and procedures
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Nature of Organizational Learning (cont.) Learning organization: an organization that purposefully designs and constructs its structure, culture, and strategy so as to enhance and maximize the potential for organizational learning to take place 4 level of organizational learning 10
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11 Levels of Organizational Learning Individual-level learning: managers need to facilitate the learning of new skills, norms, and values so that individuals can increase their own personal skills and abilities Group-level learning: managers need to encourage learning by promoting the use of various kinds of groups so that individuals can share or pool their skills and abilities
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12 Levels of Organizational Learning (cont.) Organizational-level learning: managers can promote organizational learning through the way they create an organization’s structure and culture Interorganizational-level learning: organizations can improve their effectiveness by copying and imitating each others’ distinctive competences
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13 Figure 12.2: Levels of Organizational Learning
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14 Knowledge Management and Information Technology Knowledge management: the sharing and integrating of expertise within and between functions and divisions through real-time, interconnected IT Has important implications for both organizational learning and decision making Codification approach: knowledge is carefully collected, analyzed, and stored in databases where it can be retrieved easily by users Results in a collection of standardized organization best practices, rules and SOPs Personalization approach: IT designed to identify who in the organization might possess the information required for a custom job More reliance on know-how, insight, and judgment to make decisions
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Factors Affecting Organizational Learning (cont.) Cognitive structure: system of interrelated beliefs, preferences, expectations, and values that predetermine responses to and interpretations of situations These shape the way managers make decisions and perceive environmental opportunities and threats Cognitive biases: systematically bias cognitive structures to cause misperception and misinterpretation of information, thereby affecting organizational learning and decision making Many types of biases Cognitive dissonance, illusion of control, frequency, representativeness, projection, ego-defensiveness, escalation of commitment 15
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16 Figure 12.3: Distortion of Organizational Decision Making by Cognitive Biases
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17 Improving Decision Making and Learning Adopting strategies for organizational learning Listening to dissenters Converting events into learning opportunities Experimenting Game theory: tool to help managers improve decision making and enhance learning Interactions between organizations are viewed as a competitive game Nature of the top-management team The way the top management team is constructed and the type of people who are on it affect organizational learning
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18 Improving Decision Making and Learning (cont.) Devil’s advocate: a person who is responsible for critiquing ongoing organizational learning A method for overcoming cognitive biases and promoting organizational learning by institutionalizing dissent Dialectical inquiry: teams of decision makers generate and evaluate alternative scenarios and provide recommendations Collateral organizational structure: an informal organization of managers that is set up parallel to the formal organization structure to “shadow” the decision making and actions of managers in the formal organization
12- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19 Figure 12.6: How Devil’s Advocacy and Dialectical Inquiry Alter the Rational Approach to Decision Making
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3- Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1 Organizational Theory, Design, and Change Sixth Edition Gareth R. Jones Chapter.
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