Presentation on theme: "What Are We Learning Today? 2.9 Evaluate ideological systems that rejected principles of liberalism."— Presentation transcript:
What Are We Learning Today? 2.9 Evaluate ideological systems that rejected principles of liberalism.
Why Would a Country Reject Liberalism? There are multiple reasons that countries have varied the extent to which they have adopted the principles of Classical Liberalism. These include cultural, historical, and spiritual considerations. Text pg 166
If YOU were to reject liberalism, how would YOU do it?
Group Questions: 1. Do you feel that things were better in the far past (reactionary), or do we need a new world order (radical)? 2. Are people all equal, or do we have inherent classes via ability and purpose? 3. Should a person work to get ahead, or solely for the greater good? 4. How will you organize employment? 5. How will you organize societal structure (gender roles, etc)? 6. How will you organize your government? 7. What are the three top required qualities for your leader(S)? 8. How will you create laws? 9. How will you enforce laws? 10. How will you ensure compliance? 11. What will you do to address dissenters/critics? 12. What will you do if a government policy or initiative is seen negatively, or doesn’t work? 13. Who will have information in your society? 14. How will you educate, if at all? 15. What are your policies on ownership?
Two Most Influential Ideologies To Reject Liberalism: COMMUNISM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hH5atzhoyQ4 (DevinWarzone; 7:19) FASCISM (Definition and video 1:17)
Both Communism and Fascism Used Totalitarian Gov’ts Totalitarianism: use of gov’t to exert complete control over EVERY aspect of its citizen’s lives On the USSR’s flag hammer = industrialization scythe = collectivized agriculture On the Nazi’s flag swastika = ancient symbol denoting luck Since Hitler, to most Westerners it denotes evil
Both Used a Hierarchical Structure Single charismatic party leader Top party members (national) Lower party members (regional & local) Masses of people in the nation Obedience to and support for the party was not- negotiable
Totalitarian Tactics Conformity to the state ideology is demanded, and is achieved through such measures as: Extensive local, regional, and national organization. Youth, professional, cultural, and athletic groups (often forced participation). A secret police using terror. Indoctrination through education. Censorship of the media. Redirecting popular discontent (use of scapegoats).
Commonalities Turned away from the individual and away from limited democratic governments. New technologies made totalitarianism possible and allowed rulers to maintain an extreme degree of control over their populations. Both had one party rule (no other political parties allowed). Both favored a collective, all-powerful state.
Control of the Masses FEAR TERROR INTIMIDATION INDOCTRINATION PROPAGANDA COERCIVE POWER NKVD GESTAPO
INDOCTRINATION IS BRAINWASHING & THOUGHT CONTROL Indoctrination
The Nature of Totalitarian Regimes Totalitarian regimes are responding to what they see as dangerous and destabilizing changes. They consider the existing society in need of a complete transformation. This transformation may be: Radical, as in the Soviet Union, where the change is a move toward the FAR LEFT side of the economic spectrum (a classless society with public ownership of property) and a complete REJECTION of the political and economic traditions of the past. Reactionary, as in Nazi Germany, where the change desired is a move toward an idealized past and an ACCEPTANCE of economic inequality (accepting the belief that some people are naturally better than others). FAR RIGHT.
How did Russia move from liberalist to Communist, via the Revolution? What factors (historical, social, political, economic, geographic) shaped this movement? Booklet: Communism as a rejection of liberalism: Communism in the 20 th Century Reading: “Destruction of the Old Order: 1. Background of the Russian Revolution”
Russia Late 19 th Century Many people in Russia were receptive to the ideas for social reform that sprang up in Europe. 80% of Russians were peasants. Population doubles from 50 to 100 million. Classical liberal policies were adopted and rapid industrialization occurred that was similar to, but far behind, what was already happening in many European countries. However, the Russian political structure remained autocratic (dictatorial), ruled by a monarchy that did not want to give up control of the country.
Nicholas II (Ruled ) Russia ruled by a monarchy: Czar Nicholas II, who was an absolutely dreadful leader.
The Reign of Nicholas II Food shortages in the cities were commonplace due in part to a poorly organized transportation system. The czar had resisted almost all suggestions for change, whether from the middle class seeking to introduce liberal concepts such as a constitutional monarchy, free speech, and free assembly; from the peasants demanding land of their own; or from the industrial worker demanding unions. The czar’s secret police persecuted dissenters of every kind. Discontent and chaos were rife and punishments were severe. Quote pg. 170
The Rise of Revolution Since Russian workers were subject to difficult social and economic conditions many of the workers gave their support to revolutionary groups. Many of these groups assassinated high-ranking politicians in the czar’s government. In 1905, Russia was defeated in a war against Japan which only contributed to the citizens’ dissatisfaction with their gov’t. What resulted was the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Readings: Communism as Rejection booklet: 2. Russo-Japanese war 3. Karl Marx and theory of Communism –Questions 4. Politics after the 1905 Revolution
Ineffectual Reforms Although the 1905 revolution was eventually suppressed, the czar was forced to allow some reforms, including: - basic civil rights (freedom of expression/assembly) - universal suffrage (right to vote) - creation of elected legislative assembly (Duma) These reforms proved ineffective. Nicholas II limited the powers of the Duma before its first session. Every law had to be approved by him and he had the power to dismiss the Duma and call new elections.
Russian Attitudes toward the Czar: Bartok the bat: (0:12) Text pgs Questions 1-6 (booklet)
Russia Russia had been at war for 3 years fighting WW I and was experiencing massive losses due to poorly led and poorly fed troops. Food shortages and strikes were common. Czar Nicholas II, unable to rule the Russia Empire effectively or deal with the uproar among the population, was overwhelmed by the pressures of war. The Russian people’s discontent grew until February 1917, when mass demonstrations and strikes coalesced into an outright revolution…
The Formation of the USSR Lenin’s slogan of “Land, Peace, Bread” seemed to win over most of the Russian people. However, taking power in a time of chaos was easier than keeping it. A bloody civil war raged for the next five years between the Red Army of Lenin’s Bolsheviks and the White Army, a loose coalition of forces including supporters of the old regime and reformers opposed to the Bolsheviks. By 1922, the civil war was over, and communism was established in Russia.
Communism booklet: 5. Effects of the Great War Upon Russia 6. the Two Revolutions of 1917 –Questions The Soviet Union during the Interwar Years Text pgs –questios
Joseph Stalin and Totalitarianism Soviet Propaganda: (propaganda: one-sided information designed to persuade an audience) Readings: “Joseph Stalin”; “Focus on USSR” Questions: “Soviet Totalitarianism as a Rejection of Liberalism: 7 Aspects…”
Communism in Practice Stalin’s Reign and Successive Dictators –Questions
Germany Post WW I Pg. 172 Germany, along with allied Austro-Hungarian Empire, had been defeated in WW I. The principle treaty that ended the war, the Treaty of Versailles, was negotiated by the victors of the conflict without German participation. The terms of this treaty provoked a lasting resentment among many Germans.
Fascism as a Rejection of Liberalism Fascism under Mussolini: See Fascism as a Rejection of Liberalism: “Crisis Theory…”
What do you know about Nazi Fascism? Why would Germany choose to reject Classical Liberalism?
Treaty of Versailles Terms The “war guilt clause” which said that Germany accepted sole responsibility and was thus responsible for all damage caused by the war. Reparation payments in the amount of US $33 billion. The Rhineland, an area of western Germany, was to be demilitarized.
Various European territories that Germany had annexed were given to other countries. (Alsace- Lorraine)
More Treaty of Versailles Terms Germany army was limited to no more than 100,000 troops. The German navy was limited to no more than 15,000 men, with a limited number of vessels. The manufacture, import, and export of weapons and armaments, including tanks, subs, aircraft, and artillery, were prohibited.
Why Were Germans Anti-Liberalist? Germany’s new liberal democratic gov’t had no choice but to accept Treaty of Versailles conditions, however much of the German populace blamed the gov’t for the humiliation and economic hardship the treaty would cause for years afterwards. This resentment would undermine many voters’ confidence in their liberal democratic gov’t. Furthermore, Germans associated liberalism with their WW I enemies – Britain, France, and the US – which made many against liberalism in all its forms.
Economic Turmoil In the years following WW I, the German economy was in ruins. In 1923, Germany declared it could not continue to make reparation payments imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. In response, France & Belgium invaded Germany’s industrial region hoping to claim reparations from the profits of the businesses in that region. The German workers then responded with general strikes, manufacturing came to a halt, causing inflation to skyrocket.
DateAmount of Canadian $ for Each American $ Today1.00 October 24, October 24, October 24, October 24, April , July million August billion September billion October billion An Inflation Analogy
German Inflation According to our analogy, if you had 1 billion dollars and it underwent the degree of inflation that the German mark did from , your fortune would be worth two tenths of a cent American. Figure 5-7 & 5-8 pg. 173
Nazis Take Advantage of Economic Struggles From 1923 to 1929, the situation in Germany stabilized to some extent. American banks lent money to the German gov’t to make reparation payments but this left Germany with a large debt. Added to this problem was the occurring of the Great Depression. Hitler and his Nazi Party would eventually take advantage of the widespread unemployment and desperation of the German ppl by declaring it was the responsibility of the state to provide every citizen with an opportunity to earn a living.
Handouts and Readings Text pgs –Activity pg 176: Questions 1-3 Exploring Nazi Fascism –30-1: read –30-2: read; complete questions 1-3 Fascism as a Rejection of Liberalism (30-1) –read; complete reflection questions
ADOLF HITLER Führer The Leader of the NAZI Party Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party Video: BBC – Inside the Mind of A. Hitler (46:56) 0:00 to 18:40, and 31:36-end usn8Ws4
Nazi Propaganda One sided information designed to persuade an audience. Text pg. 178 AND Activity (do questions to Guide first)
Nazism: Why Was It Embraced? Hitler promoted absolute nationalism, which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples, the use of private paramilitary organizations to stifle dissent and terrorize opposition, and the centralization of decision making in a single leader, to whom everyone owed loyalty. Rejection of Liberalism: Fascism: The Third Reich, – Primary Sources and Questions
The nationalism of the Nazi Party appealed to many Germans. Some other countries had significant German- speaking populations. Many German nationalists believed these countries should be part of a larger German-speaking nation. Germany
Other Appeals of Nazism Germany had a long military tradition. Many Germans wanted for militarism to continue to remain a dominant force in Germany. Nazi law and order appealed to many Germans who were tired of years of instability and politically motivated violence. They wanted a strong gov’t to control the lawlessness. Ironically, much of the political violence was instigated by the Nazi Party’s paramilitary organization, the SA, or stormtroopers. Figure 5-9 pg. 174
Demonstration of support for the party, controlled participation, and absolute loyalty.
Anti-Semitism in Germany Pg. 177
Text pgs –make a list of progression for Nazi laws –What do you think, in comparison with Canada’s War Measures Act, and also Aktion T4, and Cardinal vonGalen’s reaction? Text pgs –Pg 194 #1-3 –Pg 195 #1a, 3, 4 No tes (in booklet): –Nazism in Practice –Nazism: Economic System
Assignment: “Nazi Totalitarianism as a Rejection of Liberalism: 7 Aspects…” Review: – Venn Diagram – compare Communism to Fascism –Crossword –Quiz