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Student name: Radu Ana-Maria Professor Coordinator: Arkadiusz Kotli ṅ ski Poland,Polkowice 2013
The Cold War
The Cold War ( ) was a open, limited and nonmilitary confrontation that developed after World War II between two groups of countries that were diametrically opposed ideologies and political systems.
The two groups were: USSR and its allies, U.S.A. and its allies, who are also called called the Western Bloc Eastern Bloc.
Causes of the Cold War A potential conflict there since before the Second World War but was kept in silence due to non-involvement policy of the U.S.A. and USSR concern for its internal problems, which meant that Europe continues to be the main arena of political disputes. Then, during the war, the U.S.A. and USSR fought together against Nazi powers. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, Europe was in ruins and it soon became clear that European countries could no longer compare with the U.S.A. or the USSR became known worldwide as “superpowers”. Cordiality between wartime allies quickly disappeared, especially when Soviet ambitions in Eastern Europe became apparent.
Churchill was one of the first supporters of the Cold War, but in 1947 Truman, U.S.A. president was concerned about the security of Greece and Turkey announced, the “Truman Doctrine”. U.S.A. agreed to support free nations which were " fighting against the attempts of subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures. "This meant that the U.S.A. will act to restrict the expansion of communism: non- communist dictatorships on,” free peoples” were tolerated and indeed were often supported by the U.S.A. during the Cold War, especially in poor countries, where policies democracy could bring to power a communist or pro-communist government.
Warsaw Pact W. ChurchillArticle published on March 6, 1946
Evolution communist states
The Marshall Plan U.S.A. came to help war-torn Europe, with a program of aid (the Marshall Plan, ) to speed up the post-war recovery and made it less likely communist exploitation of the discontent. Countries that have benefited from the Marshall Plan
Moments of War: -Stalin did not allow communist states to join the Marshall Plan and so, in 1948 Berlin blockade place Stalin blocked access roads to West Berlin.
-Communist states were controlled politically by Cominform (1947) and economically by CAER (1949) -The division of Germany-FRG and GDR -1948
But there was never the problem to be abandoned CMEA and the Warsaw Treaty Organization. Romania has decided, in 1964, to limit the Soviet interference in the internal affairs of other Communist countries, amid disagreements between the Soviets and the Chinese. Also in 1964, Romania has condemned the plan Valev, economic integration of the socialist countries, which proposed that areas of south-eastern Romania, Bulgaria and northeastern parts of the USSR to specialize in agricultural production. Our country began, after 1960, to develop relations with Western democracies to import technology for industrialization. Solving the Soviet missile crisis in Cuba (1962), which brought mankind on the nuclear conflict was followed by a period of detente in international relations and peaceful coexistence between countries with different social and political systems (communism and democratic). At this stage, Romania, after coming to power of Nicolae Ceausescu in 1965, continued the policy begun during Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the Soviet line spacing, but maintaining the communist camp.
The Romanian government has continued to expand cooperation with Western states and established diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic of Germany (1967). Romanian leader visits conducted in different countries like USA, France, Germany, Britain and so on, and many Heads of State (President of France Charles de Gaulle, Richard Nixon, U.S.A. president) visited Romania. Nicolae Ceausescu was praised for his attitude, especially after the 1968 Romanian leadership condemned the military intervention of Warsaw Pact troops in Czechoslovakia, the communist leadership to remove adherent of internal reforms. Romania became a member of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in 1972 and signed in 1975, the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Helsinki. In the 80s, changing international political climate (especially after 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev took over the USSR), the opening of East-West dialogue, and rigid and abusive domestic politics promoted by Nicolae Ceausescu Romania led to the isolation of externally. Only after 1989, the Romanian state could resume normal relations with Western countries.
The increasing social discontent caused internal crisis, the cult of personality exacerbated driver demographic policy and attitude towards the villages have led to the collapse of the Ceausescu regime, and with it, communism in Romania. Events at the end of 1989 will bring Romania between democratic states of the world. With only a relatively weak industrial economy Romania remained firmly enmeshed in both political and economic treaties with the Soviet Union and its eastern allies. By the early 1960s, Romania's communist government began to assert some independence from the Soviet Union. Ceauşescu became head of the Communist Party in 1965 and two years later head of state. In 1968 Ceauşescu denounced the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. This was followed by some relaxation of internal state repression. These two events helped to win Ceauşescu friends in the West who saw in him a more independent and liberally minded leader. Sadly he was far from the picture he liked to portray and during the 1970s his regime cracked down hard on any dissent within the country. A period of rapid economic growth fuelled by foreign credits gave way to crippling austerity and severe political repression. As the 1970s moved into the 1980s Ceauşescu’s regime became more and more autocratic and out of touch with the population.
Increasing public dissent spilled out onto the streets in late The events surrounding a mass rally summoned in support of Ceauşescu on 21 December 1989 are now unclear. Clear vocal dissent in the crowd followed by some shooting may well have been the work of the secret police clearly indicating their withdrawal of support for the president. Whatever the truth Ceauşescu and his wife were forced to flee by helicopter. They were soon captured and after a kangaroo court were put up against a wall and shot. A National Salvation Front coalition was formed. This outlawed the Communist Party and removed a number of unpopular measures. Presidential and parliamentary elections were held on 20 May The National Salvation Front won these elections however the government consisted mainly of former communist officials. Anti-communist protesters objected to the former communists. In the middle of 1990 the government brought in miners to brutally crush this public protest. However by September 1991 the very same miners brought down the government when they returned to Bucharest demanding higher wages. In December 1991, a new constitution was drafted and subsequently adopted, after a popular referendum. However international observers accused the government of manipulating the population and even of outright fraud in the poll.
The first years of the Ceausescu regime brought a period of relative relaxation and an increase in political distancing from Moscow. Culture and people need Knowledge, extending the horizon were treated differently. Communist ideology isn't freedom of expression, opinion against the communist system is punishable by prison or even death. The masses were manipulated by the cult leader, limited acces to information, censorship and the media and the arts had the sole purpose of promoting Ceausescu regime.
The increasing social discontent caused internal crisis, the cult of personality exacerbated driver demographic policy and attitude towards the world villages led to the collapse of the Ceausescu regime, and with it, communism in Romania. Events at the end of 1989 will bring Romania between democratic states of the world. Map of Romania during the communist
Bessarabia and Quadrilateral Bessarabia was too long a time under Russian rule and the Ukrainian. In the 200 years since 1812 until now, it was only 25 years within the borders of Romania. Is less. In those years, Romanian governments have done very little to Bessarabia. Memberships province in Romania is not recognized by the great powers of the world (primarily the U.S., the USSR and Germany). For 27 years Romania has mastered a territory which had then to give it without a fight, along with Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, Herta and northwestern Transylvania in Quadrilateral with its two counties Durostor and Kaliakra was part of Greater Romania. Oddly, in Romania today, even the most ardent nationalists don’t seem to remember this. One reason seems to be that in the four decades of communism any reference to territories lost to the Russians and Bulgarians was silenced.
During , about 10,000 women died in Romania because of abortions illegally inflicted or done by different people. Abortion was legal in Romania in Banned Nicolae Ceausescu in 1966, he was again legalized after the revolution of 1989.
Communism led to Romania's situation today, a Romania without industry, agriculture undeveloped, forced to import large external loans and became a colony of the multinationals of all kinds. Our descendants become modern slaves over a long period because our politicians have personal interests. Nowadays Romania’s politicians
After 1989 many companies were closed, a total of 1,256 companies. In 1989 Romania was the fourth country in the world to try to produce it internally and when you try to produce everything you can to make them efficient. The electronics industry in Romania was the first to disappear after 1989, a year that came Sony, Philips, Panasonic with lower prices and higher quality and laughed throughout. Platform tubes from Piper and others have disappeared. We do not take into account the costs until 1989 and did not have a competitive market. Us hit us stronger than other countries such as the Czech Republic or Poland, because their economies had some open before market liberalization. We had plans to do five Cernavoda nuclear power plant. After 1990, investment money has been wasted, went on welfare and others in place to make railways, metro and give it to people. There were three Metro stations in 23 years. We wanted to be unique and do it when all the investments they have made since 1989 had to be in harmony with Europe and around the world.
Companies that have closed after 1989
Things haven't changed too much since Romanian society still not calmed down, it wasn't held, didn't recover. In literature only after 2000 began to write as they did 50 years already Wastern authors. We can't ask whether blockade imposed by Russia during the long Cold War ever be exceeded. Certainly made the gap between East and West is greater.
For example, a building built in the communist regime in Romania's Parliament Palace or House of the People. Parliament House is located in Bucharest and is the largest civilian administrative building for use as a surface in the world, most expensive administrative building in the world and the heaviest building in the world, falling three times in the Guinness Book of Records.
Freedom in Romania after 1989 Freedom of speech, "the most precious asset gained after the revolution." Freedom of expression is an inalienable right of the people, especially in the world of media whatsoever now in a free society that is characterized by openness, pluralism and tolerance. Freedom of expression is a key issue and vital in a democratic society. This is the difference between a state that wants one principled, firm in which power is held by the people, and state censorship, which took the point of order (reference) cult of personality. After 1989, people have claimed rights, which occurred only at the customs, the unwritten laws of the community, but were certified as constitutional decrees. Therefore, any person has the right to express their opinions, ideas, criticisms, attitudes and censorship is unbounded, especially in the mass media.
After 1989, Romania's borders were opened and many romanians have gone abroad. Many Romanians have left in order to work and have a better life after communism. Romanian women working abroad
Corruption In Romania corruption is in power. Corruption is found in works involving the use misuse of public power in order to obtain for himself or for others an unfair gain.
The end of Cold War In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became president of the USSR, with decisive consequences of the Cold War. Concentrate on internal reform Gorbachev realized that the Soviet Union could no longer cope burdening arms race. In 1987, after the acceptance of significant concessions provided the first reduction of nuclear weapons. The Soviet economy undergoing a rapid decline, Gorbachev decided to terminate aid and withdrawal of political support for Eastern European communist regimes, which in 1989 began to collapse. The Soviet Union had taken the road of democracy, control of the Communist Party became increasingly weaker and the economy was down, the Soviet Union became a friend who needs help, in 1989 the Gorbachev announced the end of the Cold War and George Bush.
Countries in eastern camp were: -USSR -Albania -Bulgaria -Czechoslovakia -Poland -German Democratic Republic (East Germany) -Romania -Hungary Countries participating in the Cold War: Neutral countries were as follows: - Austria -Switzerland -Finland -Yugoslavia -Sweden Countries of western camp were: -USA -Iceland -Norway -Netherlands -Portugal -Spain -Turkey -Belgium -Denmark -France -Greece -Ireland -Italy -Federal Republic Germany (West Germany)
Cold War Map
Conclusion I would argue that the Cold War was a natural consequence of WWII. In WWII you have three primary players; ie. Liberal Democracy (US, UK, Canada, Asutralia, et al.), Fascism (Germany, Italy, Japan and Spain) and Communism (Soviet Union). At the end of the war, only Liberal Democracy and Communism remained (Franco's Spain not being large enough to be of 'global' consequence), so the temporary alliance between the two to defeat Fascism naturally broke down leading, quite naturally to the Cold War. In my opinion among the consequences of the Cold War was a huge fiscal mortgage placed on many domestic economies. Financial obligations included those necessary to avoid further dislocations while the change took place from a wartime footing to a peacetime environment. National military establishments and alliances had to be reconfigured. Highly dependent institutional frameworks were to be restructured, and new obligations were acquired by nations that were once bystanders to the East- West confrontation. In the wake of the Cold War, freed or newly founded nations inherited expenses, commitments, and resources for which they were not prepared. The successor states also found themselves with contemporary national-security burdens and substantial environmental contamination legacies, all to be financed while new or revised civilian economies had to be instituted. Since the superpowers carried much of the confrontational burden, both Russia and the United States ended up with substantial economic liabilities.