3Asch Experiment – Conformity types Distortion of Perception: “The others are right and I’m wrong.”Distortion of Judgment: “I think I’m right, but everyone else is saying otherwise, so I must be wrong.”Distortion of Action: “I know I’m right, but I don’t want to go against the group, so I’ll conform.”
4What is conformity? Less sole responsibility conformity – behavior that matches group expectations.Is decision making easier alone, or with a group?People often make riskier decisions when with a groupLess sole responsibilityGroupthink: poor decisions that result from discouraging dissent.
6What are some of the characteristics of leaders What are some of the characteristics of leaders? Are some people natural leaders? Explain.
7LeadershipLeadership is best understood as a characteristic of social structure, rather than an attribute of particular individuals.
8Leaders do share certain characteristics: Original problem-solvers who are comfortable acting on their own initiative.Self-confidentGood at living under stressMore talkative than followersTallerPerceived as more attractive
9All small groups tend to develop two distinct leaders. Instrumental: Primarily concerned with making decisions that will help the group achieve its goals.Expressive (socioemotional): Concentrates on keeping the group’s morale high.
10What rules encourage conformity? Norms: rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Norms are expected behaviorFolkways: norms that lack moral significance. Violation of folkways do not bring serious consequences.Mores: Norms that have moral importance and that should be followed by members of a society.Taboos: The most serious mores. It is a norm that is so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group (or some think, the supernatural).Law: Norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. Some mores become laws.
11Within any culture, people are expected to follow certain behaviors What is Deviance:Make a short list of what you consider to be deviant behavior.
12Deviance: behavior that departs from societal or group norms. It can include many types of behavior.It can vary from group to group, or society to society.
13There are two types of deviance: Negative Deviance: involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms. i.e. criminal behavior.Positive Deviance: overconformity to norms. i.e. perfectionism, or anorexiaHow is deviance controlled?
14Social ControlInternal social control: This is like your conscience. You do something because you know it is right, or don’t do something because you know it is wrong. This is known as internalization of norms.External social control: behaving in a specific way because of pressure from an outside source or authority.This pressure can be in the form of punishment or a reward. Similar to what psychologists might call positive or negative reinforcement.In Sociology, these outside pressures are called social sanctions.
15Social SanctionsPositive sanctions: rewards, praise, smiles of approval, increases in allowance, promotionsNegative Sanctions: criticism, fines, imprisonmentFormal Sanctions: come from an officially recognized authority such as the government, police, or school.Examples include speeding tickets or detention (negative), or an award (positive).Informal Sanctions: come from informal social groups like friends or family.Examples would be getting grounded or gossiped about (negative), or smiled at (positive).
16Aim: What is Deviance? Do Now: Analyze this statement: “Deviance, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder.”Use the following terms to formulate questions to your partners:1. Why…2. Explain…3. What if…4. Predict…Defend…Propose…
17Exit Slip: You are invisible for 24 hours. What do you do?
18Responding to Social Control: How does peer pressure relate to our discussion of deviance?Which do people most respond to? Why?What reinforces internal social control?What reinforces external social control?
19Theories of DevianceFunctionalists argue that deviance serves a positive social function by clarifying moral boundaries and promoting social cohesion.Conflict theorists believe that a society’s inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so that the less powerful are more likely to be criminalized.Why is what he’s doing against the law?Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
20Conflict Theory of Deviance (Cont’d) Quinney:, norm violation occurs among both the rich and the poor. The rich commit crimes of domination, and do so because they can get away with it. The poor commit crimes of predatory deviance to survive, and do so because they have no other options.
21Conflict Theory of Deviance (Cont’d) Conflict theorists believe that most sociologists are too willing to accept elites’ definitions of deviance. Mainstream sociologists allow the dominant class to dictate their research agenda. They do not research misbehavior of elites, or the inequality of criminal law.• Current drug laws mandate more severe penalties for crack possession than possession of cocaine in the powdered form.Research shows that minorities are more often arrested for crack, and white offenders for powdered cocaine.
22Theories of Deviance (Cont’d) Merton’s structural strain theory argues that the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an individual’s ability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject either the goals (achieving success), the means (hard work, education), or both.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
23Merton’s AdaptationsIntroduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
24Which type are you? Do you follow socially accepted means and RitualistConformistInnovatorRetreatistRebelWhich type are you? Do you follow socially accepted means andgoals? You’re a conformist. Doing the bare minimum? You’reprobably a ritualist. If you’re like WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbersand want to earn big rewards but have few scruples about how youreach them, you’re an innovator. You’re a retreatist if you rejectall means and goals of society. You’re a rebel, like Che Guevara,if you not only reject social means and goals but also want todestroy society itself and replace it with a new paradigm.
25Theories of Deviance (cont’d) Symbolic Interactionist theories of deviance focus on how interpersonal relations and everyday interactions shape definitions of deviance and influence those who engage in deviant behavior.Differential association theory states that we learn to be deviant through our associations with deviant peers.
26Theories of Deviance (cont’d) Labeling theory claims that deviance is a consequence of external judgments, or labels, which both modify the individual’s self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person.Labeling theory is also related to the idea of the self-fulfilling prophecy, which is a prediction that causes itself to come true.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
27Degradation Ceremonies Labeling is often preceded by a degradation ceremony - a ceremony in which authority figure(s) who are perceived to have legitimate power devalue, degrade, or otherwise label a person as deviant.What examples of degradation ceremonies can you name?Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
28Stigma and Deviant Identity A stigma is Erving Goffman’s term for any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group’s identity, and which may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
29Stigma and Deviant Identity (cont’d) There are three main types of stigma:physical including physical or mental impairments,moral signs of flawed character, ortribal membership in a discredited or oppressed group.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
30One strategy analyzed by Goffman that stigmatized individuals use to negotiate everyday interaction is called passing, or concealing the stigmatizing information.Provide ExamplesManaging StigmaIntroduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
31Managing Stigma (Cont’d) Others have what Goffman called an in-group orientation, where stigmatized individuals follow an orientation away from mainstream society and toward new standards that value their group identity.Provide ExamplesManaging Stigma (Cont’d)Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
32Managing Stigma (Cont’d) Finally, others choose deviance avowal, a process by which an individual self-identifies as deviant and initiates his or her own labeling process.Provide ExamplesManaging Stigma (Cont’d)Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
39Crime and PunishmentCrime is the violation of a norm that has been codified into law.Violent crime is a crime in which violence is either the objective or the means to an end, including murder, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
40Violent Crime: Total U.S. Violent Crime Rate, 1960–2008 Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
41Crime and Punishment (cont’d) Property crime is crime that does not involve violence, including burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.White-collar crime is crime committed by a high status individual in the course of her or his occupation.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
42Property CrimeIntroduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
43Crime and Punishment (cont’d) In the United States the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), an official measure of crime collected and published by the FBI, allows sociologists to study the relationship between crime and demographics like class, age, gender, and race.Crime and Punishment (cont’d)Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
44National Recidivism Rates for Prisoners Released in 1983 and 1994 Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
45Crime and Punishment (cont’d) There is an ongoing debate about the role of punishment in the criminal justice system, a collection of social institutions (legislatures, police, courts, and prisons) that create and enforce laws.Crime and Punishment (cont’d)Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
46Different Approaches to Punishment Deterrence is an approach to punishment that relies on the threat of harsh penalties to discourage people from committing crimes.Retribution is an approach to punishment that emphasizes retaliation or revenge for the crime as the appropriate goal.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
47Different Approaches to Punishment (Cont’d) Incapacitation is an approach to punishment that seeks to protect society from criminals by imprisoning or executing them.Finally, rehabilitation is an approach to punishment that attempts to reform criminals as part of their penalty.Different Approaches to Punishment (Cont’d)Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity
48Take Away Points:Deviance is the flip side of the same coin as conformityWe all conform and deviate.We mostly conform.Deviance is relativeSince norms are defined mostly by those in power departing from the norms they’ve established is a process of social control.Therefore politics pervades discussions of deviance.Introduction to Sociology: Deviance and Conformity