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Presentation on theme: "ENGLAND’S COLONIAL EXPERIMENTS: THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY"— Presentation transcript:

America: Past and Present Chapter 2

2 Leaving Home Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England
English population mobile Different motives for migration religious versus economic Different New World environments Different colonial economies

3 The Stuart Monarchs

4 Four Colonial Subcultures
The Chesapeake New England Middle Colonies The Carolinas

5 The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth
Richard Hakluyt and other visionaries keep alive the dream of English colonies Anti-Catholicism prompts English people to challenge Spanish claims in New World

6 Entrepreneurs in Virginia
Joint-stock companies provide financing English stockholders in Virginia Company expect instant profits Jamestown settled 1607 Colony’s location in a swamp unhealthy Competition from expansive Powhattans Colonists do not work for common good

7 Order Out of Anarchy 1608-1609--John Smith imposes order
1609--London Company reorganizes colonial government “Starving Time” ended by arrival of Lord De La Warr, fresh settlers Conflict with Powhattans Contributes to “starving time” 1622—natives attempt to drive out English 1644—second attempt to drive out English; Powhattan empire destroyed

8 “Stinking Weed” 1610--John Rolfe introduces tobacco
“Headrights” instituted to encourage development of tobacco plantations Headright: 50-acre lot granted to each colonist who pays his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony Allows development of huge estates 1618--House of Burgesses instituted for Virginia self-government

9 Time of Reckoning Population increase prevented by imbalanced sex ratio 3,570 colonists to Virginia Men outnumber women 6:1 after 1619 Contagious disease kills settlers 1618: Virginia population numbers 700 : 3,000 immigrate 1622: Virginia population numbers 1,240 1622--Powhattan attack kills 347 settlers

10 Scandal and Reform 1624--King James I dissolves London Company
Virginia becomes a royal colony House of Burgesses continues to meet

11 Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics
Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as refuge for English Catholics 1632--Calvert’s son Cecilius (2nd Lord Baltimore) gains charter to Maryland Requires toleration among Catholics and Protestants

12 Lord Baltimore’s Disappointment
Wealthy Catholics unwilling to relocate in America Common settlers demand greater voice in Maryland government Protestants refuse to tolerate Catholics Protestants seize control in 1655 Scattered riverfront settlements of poor tobacco planters

13 Reinventing England in America: Plymouth
Pilgrims Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled Escape persecution in Holland 1620--Plymouth founded at Cape Cod Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

14 The Great Migration Puritans
Wish to remain within the Church of England, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman Catholic past 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule 1630--John Winthrop leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter

15 A “City on a Hill” I 1630-1640--16,000 immigrated
Settlers usually came as family units Area generally healthy Puritans sacrifice self-interest for the good of the community

16 “A City on a Hill” II Puritans establish Congregationalism
a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members Puritan civil government permits voting by all adult male church members Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes

17 “A City on a Hill” III Local, town governments autonomous
Most participated in public life at town level Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold Village life intensely communal Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order

18 Defining the Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams
An extreme Separatist Condemns all civil states Champions “liberty of conscience” Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636

19 Defining the Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson
Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works” Banished to Rhode Island by General Court

20 Breaking Away New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century
Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut

21 Diversity in the Middle Colonies
New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware

22 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New Netherlands
Location: Hudson River New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company Population included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, as well as Dutch 1664--English fleet captured colony

23 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New York
New York made personal property of James, Duke of York Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level James derived little profit from the colony.

24 Confusion in New Jersey I
Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret Settlers refuse to pay rents grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly Berkeley splits colony by selling out to Quaker group

25 Confusion in New Jersey II
West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony Democratic system of government introduced Diverse, contentious Neither Jersey prospers

26 Quakers in America Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers
“Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord” Members call sect “Society of Friends”

27 Quaker Belief and Practice
Founder: George Fox ( ) Believed in “Inner Light” Rejected idea of original sin, predestination Each may communicate directly with God Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light Persecuted as dangerous anarchists

28 Penn's "Holy Experiment" Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles Promotes religious toleration Protects rights of property-less

29 Settling Pennsylvania
Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany Quaker population racked by contention Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals 1701--Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware

30 Planting the Carolinas
Reliance on slave labor produced superficial similarity to Chesapeake Diversity of settlers, environment produced great divergence from Chesapeake

31 Proprietors of the Carolinas
Granted by Charles II in 1663 to eight “Proprietors” to reward loyalty “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” drawn up by John Locke created local ruling aristocracy while protecting rights of small landholders Few inhabitants in first years

32 The Barbadian Connection
Anthony Ashley Cooper encourages settlement by planters from Barbados Barbadians settle around Charleston Barbadians reject Fundamental Constitutions for greater self-government French Huguenot settlers oppose 1729--Strife prompts Crown to take over, divide Carolina

33 Founding of Georgia Georgia founded in 1732
Strategic purpose: buffer between Carolinas and Spanish Florida Charitable purpose: refuge for imprisoned debtors from England By 1751 a small slave colony

34 Rugged and Laborious Beginnings
All colonies faced early struggle to survive Distinct regional differences intensified and persisted throughout the colonial period Colonists eventually saw themselves as a distinct people


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