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Presentation on theme: "ENGLAND’S COLONIAL EXPERIMENTS: THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY America: Past and Present Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:


2 Leaving Home F Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England F English population mobile F Different motives for migration – religious versus economic F Different New World environments F Different colonial economies

3 The Stuart Monarchs

4 Four Colonial Subcultures F The Chesapeake F New England F Middle Colonies F The Carolinas

5 The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth F Richard Hakluyt and other visionaries keep alive the dream of English colonies F Anti-Catholicism prompts English people to challenge Spanish claims in New World

6 Entrepreneurs in Virginia F Joint-stock companies provide financing F English stockholders in Virginia Company expect instant profits F Jamestown settled 1607 F Colony’s location in a swamp unhealthy F Competition from expansive Powhattans F Colonists do not work for common good

7 Order Out of Anarchy F 1608-1609--John Smith imposes order F 1609--London Company reorganizes colonial government F 1610-- “Starving Time” ended by arrival of Lord De La Warr, fresh settlers F Conflict with Powhattans –Contributes to “starving time” –1622—natives attempt to drive out English –1644—second attempt to drive out English; Powhattan empire destroyed

8 “Stinking Weed” F 1610--John Rolfe introduces tobacco F 1618-- “Headrights” instituted to encourage development of tobacco plantations – Headright: 50-acre lot granted to each colonist who pays his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony – Allows development of huge estates F 1618--House of Burgesses instituted for Virginia self-government

9 Time of Reckoning F Population increase prevented by imbalanced sex ratio –3,570 colonists to Virginia 1619-1622 – Men outnumber women 6:1 after 1619 F Contagious disease kills settlers – 1618: Virginia population numbers 700 – 1618-1622: 3,000 immigrate – 1622: Virginia population numbers 1,240 F 1622--Powhattan attack kills 347 settlers

10 Scandal and Reform F 1624--King James I dissolves London Company F Virginia becomes a royal colony F House of Burgesses continues to meet

11 Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics F Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as refuge for English Catholics F 1632--Calvert’s son Cecilius (2 nd Lord Baltimore) gains charter to Maryland F Requires toleration among Catholics and Protestants

12 Lord Baltimore’s Disappointment F Wealthy Catholics unwilling to relocate in America F Common settlers demand greater voice in Maryland government F Protestants refuse to tolerate Catholics F Protestants seize control in 1655 F Scattered riverfront settlements of poor tobacco planters

13 Reinventing England in America: Plymouth F Pilgrims – Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled – Escape persecution in Holland F 1620--Plymouth founded at Cape Cod F Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent F 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

14 The Great Migration F Puritans – Wish to remain within the Church of England, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman Catholic past F 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule F 1630--John Winthrop leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter

15 A “City on a Hill” I F 1630-1640--16,000 immigrated F Settlers usually came as family units F Area generally healthy F Puritans sacrifice self-interest for the good of the community

16 “A City on a Hill” II F Puritans establish Congregationalism – a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members F Puritan civil government permits voting by all adult male church members F Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes

17 “A City on a Hill” III F Local, town governments autonomous F Most participated in public life at town level F Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold F Village life intensely communal F Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order

18 Defining the Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams F An extreme Separatist F Condemns all civil states F Champions “liberty of conscience” F Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636

19 Defining the Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson F Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit F Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law F Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works” F Banished to Rhode Island by General Court

20 Breaking Away F New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century F Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts F Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker F New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut

21 Diversity in the Middle Colonies F New York F New Jersey F Pennsylvania F Delaware

22 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New Netherlands F Location: Hudson River F New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company F Population included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, as well as Dutch F 1664--English fleet captured colony

23 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New York F New York made personal property of James, Duke of York F Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands F Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level F James derived little profit from the colony.

24 Confusion in New Jersey I F Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret F Settlers refuse to pay rents – grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly F Berkeley splits colony by selling out to Quaker group

25 Confusion in New Jersey II F West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony F Democratic system of government introduced F Diverse, contentious F Neither Jersey prospers

26 Quakers in America F Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers F “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord” F Members call sect “Society of Friends”

27 Quaker Belief and Practice F Founder: George Fox (1624-1691) F Believed in “Inner Light” – Rejected idea of original sin, predestination – Each may communicate directly with God – Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light F Persecuted as dangerous anarchists

28 Penn's "Holy Experiment" F Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends F Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania F "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles F Promotes religious toleration F Protects rights of property-less

29 Settling Pennsylvania F Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany F Quaker population racked by contention F Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals F 1701--Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware

30 Planting the Carolinas F Reliance on slave labor produced superficial similarity to Chesapeake F Diversity of settlers, environment produced great divergence from Chesapeake

31 Proprietors of the Carolinas F Granted by Charles II in 1663 to eight “Proprietors” to reward loyalty F “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” drawn up by John Locke – created local ruling aristocracy while protecting rights of small landholders F Few inhabitants in first years

32 The Barbadian Connection F Anthony Ashley Cooper encourages settlement by planters from Barbados F Barbadians settle around Charleston F Barbadians reject Fundamental Constitutions for greater self-government F French Huguenot settlers oppose F 1729--Strife prompts Crown to take over, divide Carolina

33 Founding of Georgia F Georgia founded in 1732 F Strategic purpose: buffer between Carolinas and Spanish Florida F Charitable purpose: refuge for imprisoned debtors from England F By 1751 a small slave colony

34 Rugged and Laborious Beginnings F All colonies faced early struggle to survive F Distinct regional differences intensified and persisted throughout the colonial period F Colonists eventually saw themselves as a distinct people

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