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Chapter 15 Section 3 The Protestant Reformation. Review Erasmus differed from Italian scholars in that he studied the works of who? What did writers such.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Section 3 The Protestant Reformation. Review Erasmus differed from Italian scholars in that he studied the works of who? What did writers such."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Section 3 The Protestant Reformation

2 Review Erasmus differed from Italian scholars in that he studied the works of who? What did writers such as Shakespeare and Marlowe focus on? Which approach to study included critical analysis of material? The Renaissance began in Italy because the ________ increased trade and brought them in contact with Byzantine scholars

3 An Era of Reform Erasmus was not alone in his opinions of the church. The religious conflicts led to a religious revolution called the Reformation. {Immoral behavior amongst the clergy, their excessive involvement in politics and war and the selling of indulgences, or pardons from punishment of sin as a way for the pope to raise money, were all causes of religious dissent} The humanists then encouraged those who believed the church was corrupt and needed change, to leave the church and meet with like-minded people

4 The selling of indulgences. These people are paying a fee in order to receive a pardon for the sins they have committed.

5 The Beginning of Reformation The first break with the church took place in what is now Germany with a monk named Martin Luther Through his extensive biblical studies, Luther developed his belief that ceremonies and good deeds made no difference in saving a sinner. What counted was faith in God. According to Luther, faith could lead everyone to salvation. This idea was called “justification by grace through faith” This was the beginning of Lutheranism Luther claimed that the church had make a huge error in asking people to give up money for false promises of forgiveness (indulgences)

6 Martin Luther

7 In 1517 Luther challenged the church by posting his 95 theses about indulgences on a church door Luther probably did not want to leave the church, he just wanted reform. But because he challenged the church, he was excommunicated in 1521 By 1520 Luther openly voiced his disagreements with church policy He claimed the Bible was the sole religious authority {Luther’s teachings decreased the role of the clergy} in his belief that popes, bishops and priests had no special role in helping people to salvation

8 Continued…. {Luther’s ideas spread quickly because of his use of the printing press} Holy Roman Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to come to Worms and before a council denounce his ideas Luther refused. For that he was declared an outlaw and the printing and sale of his works was banned Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony, gave Luther refuge to hide until the uproar had died down In that time {Luther helped popularize his faith by translating and printing the Bible in German} so that all Germans who could read could now interpret the Bible themselves

9 Martin Luther’s reply when asked if he wanted to recant any of his ideas or works: "Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen."

10 Protestantism Because of their protests, Luther’s followers and later reformers came to be called “Protestants” After a time, the Lutheran church was established Within a short time many German rulers established the Lutheran church within their states In 1546, Charles V sent armies against the Protestant princes in Germany Charles V did not win and was forced to compromise. The Peace of Augsburg stated that each ruler in Germany had the right to choose the religion for his state

11 The presentation of The Peace of Augsburg to King Charles V. Note the war raging in the background

12 The Rise of Sects (The Anglican Church) In England it was King Henry VIII who broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry VIII withdrew England from the Catholic church and started the Church of England AKA the Anglican Church, with the king as its head {The Anglican Church was created as a result of Henry VIII’s fight with the pope about his divorce} It kept the organization and ceremonies of the Catholic Church but over time adopted some Protestant ideas

13 Catherine of Aragon: Divorced Anne Boleyn: Beheaded for treason and adultery Jane Seymour: died giving birth to a son, Prince Edward Anne of Cleves: divorced Catherine Howard: beheaded for infidelity Katherine Parr: survived after the kings death Henry VIII

14 The Rise of Sects (Calvinism) In Switzerland John Calvin founded a Protestant church and developed Calvinism Calvin published a complete set of religious beliefs that explained exactly what followers should believe on every major religious question Calvinism was based on faith and the Bible {John Calvin also taught predestination, the idea that at the beginning of time God had already decided who would be saved} In 1536 Calvin moved to the city of Geneva where Calvinism became the official religion The city of Geneva became a theocracy, or a government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God’s authority

15 French Protestant John Calvin

16 Calvinism Continued… In the theocracy citizens were given strict rules. No card playing, dancing, swearing or showy dressing Breaking these laws resulted in severe punishment Calvinists saw the rules in a positive way, it gave them a drive to make the world a better place Calvinism spread to France. After many years of bloody civil war, in 1598 King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes. {The Edict of Nantes gave French Calvinists, called Huguenots, some rights} including freedom of worship. Calvinism spread to parts of Scotland, The Netherlands and Germany

17 This is one of the greatest photographers ever, Lewis Hine. He is a genius when it comes to composition and lighting

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20 Review were some causes of religious dissent? What did Luther’s teachings do? How did Luther’s ideas spread quickly? Why was the Anglican Church created? The Edict of Nantes gave French Calvinists, called ________, some rights

21 The End


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