Presentation on theme: "World History Ch. 23 War & Revolution The Impact Today World War I led to the disintegration of empires and the creation of new states. Communism became."— Presentation transcript:
World History Ch. 23 War & Revolution
The Impact Today World War I led to the disintegration of empires and the creation of new states. Communism became a factor in global conflict as other nations turned to its ideology.
The Impact Today The Balkans continue to be an area of political unrest.
Chapter Objectives Name the members of the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. Summarize the causes of World War I. Describe the stalemate on the Western Front and events on the Eastern Front.
Chapter Objectives Explain innovations in warfare. Explain what is meant by “total war” and its effects on society.
Chapter Objectives Trace the fall of czarist Russia and the rise of the Communists. Explain the Allies’ victory. List the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
Section 1 The Road to World War I
Daily Objectives Discuss how militarism, nationalism & a crisis in the Balkans led to World War I. Explain why Serbia’s determination to become a large, independent state angered Austria-Hungary & initiated hostilities.
I. Nationalism & the System of Alliances Increase competition Rivalries over colonies & trade 1882 Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy 1907 Triple Entente: France, Great Britain & Russia
I. Nationalism & the System of Alliances Each state was guided by its own self-interest & success Not all ethnic groups had become nations Slavic minorities in the Balkans & the Hapsburg Empire
II. Internal Dissent Socialist labor movements Conservative leaders feared that their countries were on the verge of revolution The desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged them to plunge into war.
III. Militarism Growth of mass armies Conscription, a military draft European armies doubled in size between 1890 & 1914 Militarism - aggressive preparation for war Influenced by Military leaders
IV. The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 Militarism, nationalism, desire to stifle internal dissent & the crisis in the Balkans in the summer of 1914 led directly to the conflict
A. The Serbian Problem Serbia, supported by Russia wanted to create a large, independent Slavic state in the Balkans Austria-Hungary which had its own Slavic minorities was determined to prevent this
B. Assassination in Sarajevo The Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist organization wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria- Hungary June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was killed by Gavrilo Princip
C. Austria-Hungary Responds Wanted to attack Serbia Sought the backing of their German allies Emperor William II of Germany responded with a “blank check” & could rely on “full support” July 28, war was declared
D. Russia Mobilizes Czar Nicholas II mobilized the Russian army against Austria- Hungary Mobilization is the process of assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war. Based on a war against both Germany & Austria-Hungary
E. The Conflict Broadens Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 Germany’s military plans had been drawn up under General Alfred von Schlieffen
E. The Conflict Broadens Schlieffen Plan, called for a two-front war with France & Russia. By declaring war on France, Germany brought Great Britain into the war. Germany declared war on France on August 3, 1914
E. The Conflict Broadens August 4, 1914, Great Britain declared war on Germany
the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sarajevo to avenge the seizure of Bosnia by Austria
Section 2 The War
Daily Objectives Report how the stalemate at the Western Front led to new alliances, a widening of the war & new weapons.
Daily Objectives Summarize how governments expanded their powers, increased opportunities for women & made use of propaganda.
I to 1915: Illusions & Stalemate propaganda, ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause Most people believed the war would be over in a few weeks
A. The Western Front Germany made a vast encircling movement through Belgium (who was neutral) into northern France Halted a short distance from Paris First Battle of the Marne
A. The Western Front The Western Front reached a stalemate due to trench warfare trench warfare, ditches protected by barbed wire two lines of trenches soon reached from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland
Trench Warfare Warfare in the trenches of the Western Front produced unimaginable horrors. Battlefields were hellish landscapes of barbed wire, shell holes, mud, and injured and dying men. The introduction of poison gas in 1915 produced new forms of injuries.
A. The Western Front The Western Front had become bogged down in trench warfare that kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years
B. The Eastern Front Russian army defeated by the Germans at the battle of Tannenberg & the Battle of Masurian Lakes as a result, Russia was no longer a threat to German territory Austrians defeated by the Russians in Galicia
B. The Eastern Front Italy, attacked Austria in May 1915, & thus joined the *Triple Entente, now known as the Allied Powers, or Allies German-Austrian army defeated the Russian army in Galicia & pushed Russians back
B. The Eastern Front Russian causalities stood a 2.5 million The Russians had almost been knocked, out of the war Joined by Bulgaria in September 1915, Germany & Austria- Hungary eliminated Serbia
B. The Eastern Front Their successes in the east would enable the Germans to move back to the offensive in the west The Eastern Front was a more typical war of movement & maneuver
II to 1917: The Great Slaughter Trenches protected by barbed wire entanglements Concrete machine-gun nests, heavy artillery Troops lived in holes in the ground, separated by “no-man’s land”
A. Tactics of Trench Warfare developments baffled military leaders “Breakthrough” by throwing masses of men against enemy lines Offensive began with an artillery barrage
A. Tactics of Trench Warfare “softening up” the enemy” flatten the enemy’s barbed wire & leave the enemy in a state of shock Soldiers would climb out of their trenches with fixed bayonets & work their way toward enemy
British artillery firing on the Germans at the Battle of the Somme Advancing troops in the Battle of the Somme
A. Tactics of Trench Warfare Attacks rarely worked Advancing unprotected across open fields could be fired at by the enemy’s machine guns In 10 months at Verdun, France in 1916, 700,000 men were killed over a few miles of land
A. Tactics of Trench Warfare World War I had turned into a war of attrition, a war on wearing the other side down by constant attacks & heavy losses
B. War in the Air Airplanes first used to spot the enemy’s position Later, began to attack ground targets, especially enemy communications At first, pilots fired at each other with handheld pistols Later, machine guns
B. War in the Air Germans, used giant airships - the zeppelins - to bomb London Caused little damage but frightened many people zeppelins were filled with hydrogen gas, when hit became raging infernos
III. Widening of the War Ottoman Empire joined with Germany in August 1914 Russia, Great Britain & France - the Allies - declare war on the Ottoman Empire Allies land at Gallipoli, southwest of Constantinople in April 1915
The map on the right shows the Middle East front during World War I. Study the map and then answer the questions on the following slides.
III. Widening of the War Bulgaria, entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, Germany, Austria-Hungary & the Ottoman Empire were called Gallipoli was a disastrous campaign, Allies forced to withdraw
III. Widening of the War Italy joins the Allies and opened up a front against Austria- Hungary In the Middle East, a British officer known as Lawrence of Arabia, in 1917, urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overlords
III. Widening of the War British forces from Egypt destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East British mobilized forces from India, Australia & New Zealand Japan seized a number of German-held islands in the Pacific
III. Widening of the War Australia seized German New Guinea
IV. Entry of the United States Involvement grew out of the naval war between Germany & Great Britain Britain set up a navel blockade of Germany Germany retaliated with its own blockade of Britain
IV. Entry of the United States Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare May 7, 1915, the British ship Lusitania was sunk by German forces killing 1,100 civilian, including 100 Americans
IV. Entry of the United States The Germans suspended unrestricted submarine warfare in Sept to avoid antagonizing the United States Jan 1917, Germany resumed the use of unrestricted submarine warfare
IV. Entry of the United States The return of unrestricted submarine warfare brought the United States into the war in April 1917 Psychological boost & a new source of money & goods
V. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War Total war, a complete mobilization of resources & people Affected the lives of all citizens increased government powers & manipulation of public opinion
A. Increased Government Powers Drafted young men Free market capitalist systems were temporarily put aside Price, wage & rent controls rationed food supplies & materials
A. Increased Government Powers Regulated imports & exports took over transportation systems & industries planned economies, systems directed by government agencies
B. Manipulation of Public Opinion As casualties grew worse, patriotic enthusiasm waned civilian morale was beginning to crack Authoritarian regimes relied on force to subdue their populations
B. Manipulation of Public Opinion Democratic states expanded their police powers to stop internal dissent British Parliament passed the Defence of the Realm Act Allowed government to arrest protestors as traitors
B. Manipulation of Public Opinion Newspapers were censored, & publication suspended Propaganda to arouse enthusiasm for the war Exaggerated German atrocities Citizens only to willing to believe
B. Manipulation of Public Opinion As moral sagged, government was forced to devise new techniques for motivating Recruiting posters
C. Total War & Women New roles for women Asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them before Chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers & factory workers in heavy industry
C. Total War & Women Governments quickly remove women from the jobs at the end of the war Positive impact: the right to vote
Russia Germany Germany had the largest number of soldiers and great wealth and so was likely to be a strong opponent in a war.