Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Russia C18 EQs: What factors led to the emergence of the Russian Empire? Who led efforts to Westernize Russia?"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rise of RussiaC18EQs: What factors led to the emergence of the Russian Empire?Who led efforts to Westernize Russia?
2IntroductionThe Rise of Russia involved very limited commercial exchange (unlike Europe)Mongol rule fostered a new level of independence in the 15th century and Russia pushed eastward conquering central and eventually Eastern Asia all the way to the PacificRussia experienced limited interaction with the West early on until the early 18th centuryRussia was rivaled by regional states like Poland and the BalticsRussia was still dominated by an air of Byzantine culture and influence (though the empire was long since gone)
3Revival and ExpansionMoscow took the lead to liberate Russia from the Mongols in the late 15th centuryMongol occupation did not change Russian culture but it weakened it and changed Russian economy into strictly agrarian (no trade)…even weakened literacyIvan III (the Great) developed a military government/influence coupled with nationalism and Orthodox religious fervor to create a Russian “manifest destiny”Ivan III dreamed to turn Russia into the third Rome and took the title Tsar (Caesar)His son, Ivan IV (the Terrible) continued this policy…he killed off nobles (boyars) to consolidate his power
4Revival and ExpansionThe tsars focused on taking lands away from their former Mongol masters in Central AsiaBoth Ivans recruited peasant pioneers (cossacks) to conquer and settle this territory in Central & Eastern Asia…most of this territory was vast open and fertile plains which would be used to expand Russia’s agricultural economyAcquisition of territory gave the tsars the ability to gain noble loyalty by offering land grants, however, nobility continued the institute of serfdom to level that it was slaveryExpansion into the east created cultural interaction, though the Russians allowed these people to retain cultural identity under Russian rule (much like the Mongols did)
5Early Western Contact and Romanov Policy The Ivans began a limited contact with the West, establishing diplomatic relations in an effort to improve Russia’s economyBritish merchants traded manufactured goods for furs and raw materialsItalian artists and architects brought inHowever, Ivan IV died without an heir and the Time of Troubles (20-30 year civil war) ensued where boyars attempted to gain control of RussiaWestern nations like Sweden and Poland captured Russia’s Baltic territoriesIn 1613, Michael Romanov was chosen by the boyars as tsar and the Time of Troubles ended, with Romanov restoring internal order, expelling foreign invaders (fought war w/Poland) and interestsRomanov’s son Alexis abolished the boyar assemblies and instituted state control of the Orthodox Church…began the infamous pattern of exiling people to Siberia
6Peter the Great Son of Alexis The Great “Westernizer” of Russia…known for traveling to other European kingdoms in secret to learn their waysWas a brutal autocrat, crushed dissent mainly by murdering the dissenters…was not interested in the emerging parliamentary governments, rather preferred despotic direct ruleFought wars with the Ottomans and the Swedes for territoryOne major gain was Russia’s “window to the Baltic” where Peter built his new capital, St. Petersburg and moved Russian rule to that locale, thus establishing a new era of contact with the WestFILM CLIP
7The Impact of Peter the Great Despite despotic rule, Westernization did bring a wave of political, social and economic changes to RussiaBureaucracy and military were modeled after the West…a Russian navy was built…with the boyar council gone, Peter set up advisors under his direct control…a system of governors was established…laws and taxes were created that put more pressure on the serfs (peasants)…Nobles had to shave their beards and dress like westerners (if they did not they were taxed)…Peter brought technical and scientific education to his elitesThese changes, however, were met with some measure of resistance…and an eventual build up to revolution/rebellion among the peasantry as they saw no benefits from Westernization
8Catherine the GreatAfter several decades of weak rule, Catherine (a German princess) conspired to overthrow her “retarded” husband (Peter III)She continued Peter the Great plans and style of rule, strictly autocratic, quelled all dissent and rebellion (Pugachev’s)She used sexual relations to get her way in European affairsShe was a Westernizer and brought the European enlightenment (particularly French) to Russia, but still maintained strong central authority (Instruction of 1767)Was an expansionist (conquered the Caucuses region, claimed Alaska, successfully partitioned Poland among 3 European kingdoms)
9Themes in Russia: Serfdom Russian society embraced serfdom and the exploitation of the peasantry, while the rest of Europe rapidly advanced sociallyRussia’s peasantry was used to the good life before and during Mongol rule, however, the despotism of the nobility led to serfdom becoming hereditary (1649)…serfs were treated like slaves unlike those in a feudal system…the serfs produced food for the masses and for sale while nobles/landlords kept the profits and bought luxury goods for themselves…peasants remained poor and illiterate, living off the few spoils of their noble mastersThe only thing the peasants had were ties amongst villages, small political and religious entities that dictated their daily livesRussia thus remained largely a rural agrarian society, with few cities and most people were tied to the land on which they were born
10Themes in Russia: Trade and Dependence There were few artisans who produced goods…merchants that did exist traded furs and other light manufactured goods…though Peter the Great increased these areas of economic development, the nobility prevented the emergence of a strong mercantile classRussia’s agricultural wealth and efforts, though backwards and limited, still managed to keep the nations economy afloat, even in times of famine and hunger
11Themes in Russia: Social Unrest Serfs did eventually start to rebel against the system…they didn’t stay ignorant and illiterate forever!Western Europeans cried for an end to serfdom in Russia and attempted to educate the serfs of Russia on democratic and capitalist ideas…most rebellions and foreign intrusions were dealt with harshlyEmelian Pugachev’s led a rebellion in the 1770s promising end to serfdom, low taxes and abolition of the landed nobility…he was chopped into many pieces in Moscow
12Russia and Eastern Europe The Eastern European societies, once influenced by Byzantium and Russia, began to fall into the sphere of Western influenceBalkan states in Romania and Bulgaria fell to the Ottomans, Russia’s new enemyCzech and Slovak along with parts of Poland were absorbed by the Prussians, yet parts of Eastern Poland did become part of RussiaHungary and Bohemia were absorbed into the Hapsburg Austro-Hungarian Empire
13This WeekTuesday: Document AnalysisWednesday: Leader ComparisonThursday: Change AnalysisFriday: TEST on Chapter 18, notes due!
14Change Analysis: Russia BEFORE and AFTER Westernization Remember to identify changes AND continuities…we will discuss/go over after 25 minutes or soAssignments:Political: Jon Schwinn, Elizabeth Ewing, FRANK!Social: Ethan Lee, Ben HearnEconomic: Alex Smith, Molly CainArtistic, Intellectual, Technological: Keiasha Ricketts, Cassie WootersMilitary, Geographic, Demographic: Kyle Pepper, Deronte FrisbyNO RELIGION (total continuity) OR WOMEN (not discussed in any real way)!