Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Expansion and Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America, 1625-1700."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Expansion and Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America, 1625-1700
Objectives How and Why did the four regions of English North America develop in such divergent ways in the 17 th Century? Why did indentured servitude evolve into slavery in the plantation colonies, and why did non-plantation colonies have both fewer indentured servants and slaves? How and Why did Indian-European relations take the courses they did in each colonial region? Why had England’s North American colonial empire outstripped those of her European rivals by the end of the 17 th century?
The New England Way A City on a Hill 1625-1642 –King Charles move to drive all puritan influence from the Anglican church –1628 Massachusetts Bay Colony formed by Puritan Merchants, Company’s officers and stockholders went with the company –Governor John Winthrop –Mission was to create a “City on a Hill”. –By 1642 15,000 colonists lived in New England
The Pequot War 1637 Pequots resisted as colonial population grew and expanded Puritans waged war against them that resulted in the founding of Connecticut
Dissent and Orthodoxy 1630-1650 Puritan Orthodoxy is enforced All residents were required to attend services and pay tithes 1 teacher for every 50 households to teach children to read the Bible Harvard College founded to educated teachers in 1636 Dissenters- Roger Williams preached separation of church and state, Williams was banished and eventually founded Rhode Island (1635). Anne Hutchinson also banished because she questioned the moral authority of clergy. Migrated to Rhode Island Main challenge came from merchants that resisted regulation of their businesses
Power to the Saints Puritans had no church hierarchy Church run by male members and clergy Only those that could prove their salvation were accepted as members Male church members were allowed to vote, elected legislative body. 1641- 55% of Males could vote. More democratic than England or Virginia. Town meetings were open to all male taxpayers.
New England Families Male was head of the household Divorce was allowed Courts disciplined unruly family members that did not fulfill the proper role in the household and community Women had no property rights Life expectancy was better in New England and people had larger families New Englanders farmed, made rum, lumber, fishing, business Prosperity brought a more materialistic society
The Half-Way Covenant 1622 Puritan membership declined in the 1660’s and led to the signing of the half-way covenant. Partial church membership for those that agreed to live by the creed of the church.
Expansion and the Native Americans 1650-1676 Indian population declined because of disease and warfare. Food supply was decrease by expansion of colonists Some turned to alcohol, some converted to Christianity and moved in with whites Metacom led an Indian revolt in New England called King Philip’s War. Ended in disaster for the Indians.
Salem Witchcraft and the Demise of the New England Way 1691-1693 Economic resentment, breakdown of religion or community, assertive women may have contributed to the Salem With Trials. 1691-1962 young girls in Salem accused several of witchcraft including the Governors wife. 20 or more were executed, over 100 were imprisoned before thhe trials came to a close.
Chesapeake Society State and Church in Virginia –Royal Colony –Settlers were granted the right to elect representatives –Charles I agreed to allow the colonists to continue this practice –Bicameral legislature –Anglican Church was official church and settlers paid taxes to the church
Maryland Proprietary Colony Founded by Lord Calvert as a safe haven for Catholics Lord Calvin was the proprietor but stayed in England More Protestants than Catholics settled in Maryland Act of Religious Toleration- All religious groups tolerated Protestant controlled legislature repealed the Act.
Death, Gender and Kinship 1700- 90% of immigrants to Chesapeake area were indentured servants. Life expectancy was 20 years less than New England Disease and overwork
Tobacco Shapes the Region 1630- 1670 Tobacco was the main crop Large landowners became very wealthy
Bacon’s Rebellion 1675-1676 Resentment of large farmers by small farmers led to Bacon’s Rebellion Nathanial Bacon started a war with local Indians for the purpose of taking their land for small farmers The royal governor tried to put down the rebellion and the small farmers revolted against Jamestown, burning it to the ground. The Rebellion ended when Bacon died
Slavery Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619. They were originally treated as indentured servants Slavery eventually replace indentured servants from England
The Spread of Slavery: The Caribbean and Carolina Introduction –1630-1642 most English immigrants went to the West Indies, Some later resettled in the Carolinas and Virginia and brought their slaves with them. –1710 Slaves represented a majority of the Carolinas population
Sugar and Slaves: The West Indies Tobacco was the first export mainly produced by white indentured sservants. Sugar plantations proved more profitable which led to the need for more labor By 1710 slaves outnumber whites in the West Indies 4-1
Rice and Slaves: Carolina English supporters of Charles II were given a tract of land in America that was named Carolina in his honor Headright system was adopted Northern Carolinians cultivated tobacco Southern Carolinians raised cattle Carolinans discovered that rice cultivation was profitable Slaves were shipped to Southern Carolina for the Rice Plantations
The Middle Colonies New Netherland and New Sweden was founded by the Dutch for fur trading Dutch, Germans, Swedes, Africans Multiple religious groups Eventually annexed by Peter Stuyvesant and renamed New Amsterdam
English Conquest: New York and the Jerseys 1664 Charles II gave New Netherland to his bother the Duke of York who changed the name to New York. Land was granted to land lords, friends of James who became almost as wealthy as the South Carolina planters. Lord Berkley and Sir Philip Carteret took over the area for King James and it became a royal colony named New Jersey
Quaker Pennsylvania Charles II owed a debt to William Penn so he gave him a huge tract of land in America Penn was a Quaker and founded the colony on Quaker principles Founded Philadelphia as a center of trade Lower Delaware separated in 117044 and formed their own colony
Rivals For North America France claims a Continent –Louis XIV sent 600 settlers yearly into the Ohio Valley, mainly fur traders –French claimed the entire Mississippi Basin and called it Louisiana
New Mexico: The Pueblo Revolt Spain attacked the Pueblo Indians and forced them to convert to Catholicism and work on Encomiendas 1680 Indian leader name Pope led the Indians in revolt
Florida and Texas Indians revolted repeatedly against Spanish rule 1680 English from the Carolinas and Creek Indians French in Louisiana also threatened Spanish Spain responded by building a settlement in Texas 1716