Presentation on theme: "Expansion and Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America,"— Presentation transcript:
1Expansion and Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America, 1625-1700 Chapter 3Expansion and Diversity: The Rise of Colonial America,
2ObjectivesHow and Why did the four regions of English North America develop in such divergent ways in the 17th Century?Why did indentured servitude evolve into slavery in the plantation colonies, and why did non-plantation colonies have both fewer indentured servants and slaves?How and Why did Indian-European relations take the courses they did in each colonial region?Why had England’s North American colonial empire outstripped those of her European rivals by the end of the 17th century?
3The New England Way A City on a Hill 1625-1642 King Charles move to drive all puritan influence from the Anglican church1628 Massachusetts Bay Colony formed by Puritan Merchants, Company’s officers and stockholders went with the companyGovernor John WinthropMission was to create a “City on a Hill”.By ,000 colonists lived in New England
5The Pequot War 1637Pequots resisted as colonial population grew and expandedPuritans waged war against them that resulted in the founding of Connecticut
6Dissent and Orthodoxy 1630-1650 Puritan Orthodoxy is enforcedAll residents were required to attend services and pay tithes1 teacher for every 50 households to teach children to read the BibleHarvard College founded to educated teachers in 1636Dissenters- Roger Williams preached separation of church and state, Williams was banished and eventually founded Rhode Island (1635).Anne Hutchinson also banished because she questioned the moral authority of clergy. Migrated to Rhode IslandMain challenge came from merchants that resisted regulation of their businesses
8Power to the Saints Puritans had no church hierarchy Church run by male members and clergyOnly those that could prove their salvation were accepted as membersMale church members were allowed to vote, elected legislative body.% of Males could vote. More democratic than England or Virginia.Town meetings were open to all male taxpayers.
9New England Families Male was head of the household Divorce was allowedCourts disciplined unruly family members that did not fulfill the proper role in the household and communityWomen had no property rightsLife expectancy was better in New England and people had larger familiesNew Englanders farmed, made rum, lumber, fishing, businessProsperity brought a more materialistic society
11The Half-Way Covenant 1622Puritan membership declined in the 1660’s and led to the signing of the half-way covenant.Partial church membership for those that agreed to live by the creed of the church.
12Expansion and the Native Americans 1650-1676 Indian population declined because of disease and warfare.Food supply was decrease by expansion of colonistsSome turned to alcohol, some converted to Christianity and moved in with whitesMetacom led an Indian revolt in New England called King Philip’s War. Ended in disaster for the Indians.
13Salem Witchcraft and the Demise of the New England Way 1691-1693 Economic resentment, breakdown of religion or community, assertive women may have contributed to the Salem With Trials.young girls in Salem accused several of witchcraft including the Governors wife. 20 or more were executed, over 100 were imprisoned before thhe trials came to a close.
15Chesapeake Society State and Church in Virginia Royal Colony Settlers were granted the right to elect representativesCharles I agreed to allow the colonists to continue this practiceBicameral legislatureAnglican Church was official church and settlers paid taxes to the church
16Maryland Proprietary Colony Founded by Lord Calvert as a safe haven for CatholicsLord Calvin was the proprietor but stayed in EnglandMore Protestants than Catholics settled in MarylandAct of Religious Toleration- All religious groups toleratedProtestant controlled legislature repealed the Act.
17Death, Gender and Kinship % of immigrants to Chesapeake area were indentured servants.Life expectancy was 20 years less than New EnglandDisease and overwork
18Tobacco Shapes the Region 1630-1670 Tobacco was the main cropLarge landowners became very wealthy
19Bacon’s RebellionResentment of large farmers by small farmers led to Bacon’s RebellionNathanial Bacon started a war with local Indians for the purpose of taking their land for small farmersThe royal governor tried to put down the rebellion and the small farmers revolted against Jamestown, burning it to the ground.The Rebellion ended when Bacon died
21Slavery Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619. They were originally treated as indentured servantsSlavery eventually replace indentured servants from England
22The Spread of Slavery: The Caribbean and Carolina Introductionmost English immigrants went to the West Indies, Some later resettled in the Carolinas and Virginia and brought their slaves with them.1710 Slaves represented a majority of the Carolinas population
23Sugar and Slaves: The West Indies Tobacco was the first export mainly produced by white indentured sservants.Sugar plantations proved more profitable which led to the need for more laborBy 1710 slaves outnumber whites in the West Indies 4-1
24Rice and Slaves: Carolina English supporters of Charles II were given a tract of land in America that was named Carolina in his honorHeadright system was adoptedNorthern Carolinians cultivated tobaccoSouthern Carolinians raised cattleCarolinans discovered that rice cultivation was profitableSlaves were shipped to Southern Carolina for the Rice Plantations
25The Middle ColoniesNew Netherland and New Sweden was founded by the Dutch for fur tradingDutch, Germans, Swedes, AfricansMultiple religious groupsEventually annexed by Peter Stuyvesant and renamed New Amsterdam
27English Conquest: New York and the Jerseys 1664 Charles II gave New Netherland to his bother the Duke of York who changed the name to New York.Land was granted to land lords, friends of James who became almost as wealthy as the South Carolina planters.Lord Berkley and Sir Philip Carteret took over the area for King James and it became a royal colony named New Jersey
28Quaker PennsylvaniaCharles II owed a debt to William Penn so he gave him a huge tract of land in AmericaPenn was a Quaker and founded the colony on Quaker principlesFounded Philadelphia as a center of tradeLower Delaware separated in and formed their own colony
30Rivals For North America France claims a ContinentLouis XIV sent 600 settlers yearly into the Ohio Valley, mainly fur tradersFrench claimed the entire Mississippi Basin and called it Louisiana
31New Mexico: The Pueblo Revolt Spain attacked the Pueblo Indians and forced them to convert to Catholicism and work on Encomiendas1680 Indian leader name Pope led the Indians in revolt
32Florida and Texas Indians revolted repeatedly against Spanish rule 1680 English from the Carolinas and Creek IndiansFrench in Louisiana also threatened SpanishSpain responded by building a settlement in Texas 1716