Planting Colonies in North America The Spanish, the French, and the Dutch in North AmericaThe Spanish, the French, and the Dutch in North America The Chesapeake: Virginia and Maryland The New England Colonies The Proprietary Colonies Conflict and War Conclusion
Pueblo de Taos, New Mexico.
Chapter Focus Questions In what ways were the Spanish, French, and English colonies in North America similar? In what ways were they different? What was the nature of the colonial encounter between English newcomers and Algonquian natives in the Chesapeake?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d) How did religious dissent shape the history of the New England colonies? What role did the restored Stuart monarchy play in the creation of new proprietary colonies? Why did warfare and internal conflict characterize the late seventeenth century?
North America and Santa Fe
American Communities: Communities and Diversity in Seventeenth-Century Santa Fé Pueblos and Spanish clash over religious practices 1680: Pope, a Pueblo priest Successful revolt, temporary ended to Spanish rule. 1692: Spanish regained control Religious restrictions loosened
American Communities: Communities and Diversity in Seventeenth-Century Santa Fé Pueblos observed Catholicism in churches and missionaries tolerated traditional practices away from the mission. Spanish developed “colonies of inclusion,” accommodating Native cultures, as in Santa Fé.
the Dutch in North America The Spanish, the French, and
MAP 3.1 New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century
New Mexico Spain ignored the Southwest until 1580s 1598: Juan Oñante looks for gold mines Oñante recalled, Santa Fe established 1609 Forced Indian labor Modest farming and sheep raising Few Spaniards settled, leading to a largely mestizo and native population.
MAP 3.2 New France in the Seventeenth Century
New France 1605: Samuel de Champlain Port Royal, Bay of Fundy (fur trade) 1608: Quebec Dominated St. Lawrence River valley Champlain, Iroquois v. Hurons French in fur trade throughout region French Catholics
New France (cont.) French colonial empire Quebec, administrative center Canada to New Orleans Intermarried with Indians Formed alliances with Indians rather than conquering Missionaries learn about Indian customs
New Netherland United Provinces and a global commercial empire Dutch East India Company / Dutch West India Company Dutch established settlements Albany (1609) and Manhattan Island. 1637: Dutch conquered Swedish settlements in Delaware River
New Netherland (cont'd) Iroquois—middlemen of the fur trade with the Dutch Iroquois attacks on Hurons Challenge of French control of Great Lakes fur trade
The Chesapeake: Virginia and Maryland
Seizing Chief Opechancanough, Powhatan’s brother, by the scalplock, Smith attempts to obtain needed supplies from the Indians
MAP 3.3 European Colonies of the Atlantic Coast 1607–39
Jamestown and the Powhatan Confederacy King James I and royal charters 1607: Virginia Company at Jamestown colony Jamestown colonists Independent conquistadors Depended on supplies and new colonists from England
Jamestown and the Powhatan Confederacy (cont'd) Algonquian (pop. 14,000) Powerful confederacy headed by Powhatan Powhatans supplied starving colonists with food, but abandoned that policy Warfare until Pocahontas held captive
Jamestown and the Powhatan Confederacy (cont'd) Powhatan called for peace and Pocahontas married John Rolfe. Continued conflict pushed England toward policy of exclusion.
Tobacco, Expansion, and Warfare Cash crop, stimulated migration Dominated economy Area became a territory of exclusion No Indian intermarriage thus pushed Indians off of their land Disease claimed settlers 1622–1632 and 1644: Algonquians and English conflicts
Tobacco, Expansion, and Warfare (cont'd) 1633: Last Indian resistance by the Powhatan Confederacy ended in Indians’ defeat.
What kind of relationship between Europeans and Indians is depicted in this image?
FIGURE 3.1 Population Growth of the British Colonies in the Seventeenth Century
Maryland 1632: King Charles I grant Ten million acres at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay -Calvert family, the Lords Baltimore. “Proprietary colony” Calverts, Catholic, encouraged others Catholics to migrate to America
Maryland (cont'd) 1640: Headright system Undermined Calverts’ feudal plans with settlements of independent planters Maryland’s tobacco economy mirrored Virginia’s engraving of surprise attack by Indians on Virginia colonists 18th-century engraving promoting tobacco sales
Slaves pack tobacco leaves into “hogsheads” for shipment to England, overseen by a Virginia planter and his clerk
Community Life in the Chesapeake Women fared better than men Fewer in number, lower mortality rates, widows remarried, accumulated wealth High mortality rates = small families and weak kinship bonds Little local community life developed and close ties with England were maintained
Community Life in the Chesapeake (cont’d) Three-quarters migrants were indentured servants 1619: First African slaves came to the Chesapeake (more expensive than servants) In terms of treatment, there was little difference between indentured labor and slavery.
Community Life in the Chesapeake (cont’d) By 1700, nearly 90,000 colonists lived in the Chesapeake.
The New England Colonies
Governor John Winthrop
The Mason children
Puritanism John Calvin Puritans wanted to purify and reform the English church. Calvinist emphasis on enterprise Puritanism appealed most to merchants, entrepreneurs, and commercial farmers. After James I abandoned Elizabeth’s policy of toleration conflict with Puritans increased.
Puritanism (cont'd) Persecution of the Puritans and disputes between James I and Charles I and Parliament provided context for migration of Puritans to New England.
The first map printed in the English colonies, this view of New England was published in Boston in 1677
Plymouth Colony First English colony in New England Founded by Separatists (Pilgrims) -Believed they needed to found independent congregations to separate themselves from the corrupt English church. 1620: Departed England and signed the Mayflower Compact First document of self-government in America
Plymouth Colony (cont'd) With help from the Indians, the Plymouth colony eventually established a small community of self-sufficient farms and an experiment in inclusion.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629: Grant for Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop Puritans “City on a hill” (model of reform) 1629–1643: Approximately 20,000 people relocated to Massachusetts. Massachusetts was governed locally by a governor and elected representatives.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (cont'd) This was the origin of democratic suffrage and bicameral division of legislative authority.
Dissent and New Communities Puritans were not tolerant of other religious viewpoints. In 1636, Thomas Hooker led his followers west and founded Hartford in what would become the colony of Connecticut. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished because of his views on religious tolerance and founded the colony of Rhode Island.
Dissent and New Communities (cont'd) In 1638, Anne Hutchinson and her followers moved to Rhode Island to escape religious persecution in Massachusetts.
Indians and Puritans English desire to acquiring land Disease depopulated parts of New England, “opening” for English settlement Pressure on native leaders to relinquishing lands 1637: English and their Narragansett allies defeated the Pequots, allies of the Dutch
Indians and Puritans (cont'd) Slaughter of the Pequots justified by Puritan reading of Scripture
The Economy: New England Merchants Initially, the New England economy was based on sales of land and supplies to migrants. Civil War in England led to quest for new markets New England merchants developed diversified trade of fish, farm products, and lumber.
The Economy: New England Merchants (cont'd) Diversified economy strengthened New England and contrasted sharply with French reliance on the fur trade.
Community and Family in New England Towns and strong families in New England contrasted sharply with weak community life in the Chesapeake. New England Puritans were not “puritanical,” as Anne Bradstreet’s poems demonstrate. Settlers clustered near the town center, building churches and schools.
Community and Family in New England (cont'd) Harvard College (1636), first printed book (1640) emphasis on male literacy
The Position of Women Women managed the household and bore children while men dominated political life. Married women, subordinate to their husbands, could not make contracts, own property, vote or hold office. Unmarried women or those without children aroused suspicion among their neighbors.
The Salem Witch Trials The cultural mistrust of women was manifested in public witch scares. The Salem witch scare reflected social tensions and economic and religious divisions. Most accused witches were marginal or independent women. The crisis exposed a dark side of Puritan thinking about women.
The Proprietary Colonies
The earliest known view of New Amsterdam, published in 1651
MAP 3.4 The Proprietary Colonies
The Carolinas King Charles II initiated the founding of new colonies along the Atlantic Coast. In 1663, the colony of Carolina was chartered but soon divided into a northern and a southern colony. North Carolina was home to 5,000 small farmers and large tobacco planters, many from Virginia.
The Carolinas (cont'd) South Carolina was settled by West Indies planters who relocated with their slaves.
New York and New Jersey Dutch West India Company Promoted migration to their New Netherland colony A series of three wars New Netherland to the English King Charles II gave the colony to his brother the Duke of York New York
New York and New Jersey (cont'd) 1665: Delaware Bay region becomes New Jersey 1700: 33,000+ people lived in the two colonies
The Founding of Pennsylvania 1681: King Charles II granted Penn a huge territory west of the Delaware River. Penn oversaw the organization of Philadelphia. Penn was a Quaker and established his colony as a “holy experiment.” Penn purchased the land from the Algonquians, dealing fairly with the Indians.
The Founding of Pennsylvania (cont'd) Immigrants flocked to Pennsylvania (breadbasket and important port).
Conflict and War
John Seller’s “A Mapp of New England,”
Conflict and War In the last quarter of the seventeenth century, intertribal and inter-colonial rivalry stimulated violence that extended from Santa Fé to Hudson’s Bay.
MAP 3.5 Spread of Settlement: British Colonies, 1650–1700
King Philip’s War 1670s: Relations deteriorated between Plymouth colonists and Pokanokets King Philip (Metacom) After 40 years, the Indians realized that the colonists were interested in domination. King Philip’s War Alliance of Indian peoples against the United Colonies of New England and New York
King Philip’s War (cont'd) 1676: King Philip’s War ended in defeat. 4000 natives and 2000 colonists died, the most destructive Indian-colonist war in American history.
Bacon’s Rebellion and Southern Conflicts 1670s: Conflicts between Virginia settlers and the Susquehannocks on the upper Potomac River. Nathaniel Bacon Demanded death or removal of Indians from colony. Gov. William Berkeley attempted to suppress unauthorized military expeditions.
Bacon’s Rebellion and Southern Conflicts (cont'd) Bacon and his followers rebelled against Berkeley, burning Jamestown. When Bacon died, his rebellion collapsed. Planters turned to African slave labor. A similar event, Culpeper’s Rebellion in North Carolina, challenged the proprietor’s authority in 1677.
Bacon’s Rebellion and Southern Conflicts (cont'd) South Carolina officials responded by forcing natives to yield land for settlement.
The Glorious Revolution in America In 1685, King James II created Dominion of New England Colonial governments were disbanded / Anglican forms of worship were imposed The Glorious Revolution of 1688 overthrew King James Colonial revolts broke out in favor of the Glorious Revolution.
The Glorious Revolution in America (cont'd) King William and Queen Mary Dominion of New England abolished and colonists revived assemblies and returned to self-government.
King William’s War In 1689, England and France began years of warfare over control of North. English gains in the fur trade led to the outbreak of King William’s War. The war ended inconclusively in 1697.
King William’s War (cont'd) England feared loss of control of the colonies and replaced proprietary rule with royal rule and tightened control over her colonies as European conflict heightened the importance of colonies to their mother countries.
Planting Colonies in North America, 1588–1701 During the seventeenth century, Spain, Holland, England and France all established colonies which grew and expanded throughout the century. Facing conflict with Native Americans, colonists found ways to accommodate or exclude native peoples, setting patterns that would last through the colonial period.