Presentation on theme: "APUSH: “Safe for Democracy” – The U.S. and WWI,"— Presentation transcript:
1 APUSH: “Safe for Democracy” – The U.S. and WWI, 1916-1920 Weber217
2 Activator Congratulations on finishing first semester! You have accomplished a whole lot and have so much to be proud of.The new semester is a completely fresh start.1. Reflecting on how you did first semester, what are you happiest about and what are you not so happy about?2. What is your goal for this semester?3. What specifics things can you do to accomplish this goal?Remember to turn in your DBQ on the Progressives today.
3 Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) “Safe for Democracy” WWII overview (45-60 minutes)I. An Era of InterventionComprehension check (5 minutes)II. America and the Great WarIII. The War At HomeIV. 1919V. Forging a New International OrderExit ticket and homework
4 Objective AP Topic #18: “The Emergence of America as a World Power” American imperialism: political and economic expansionWar in Europe and American neutralityThe First World War at home and abroadTreaty of VersaillesSociety and economy in the postwar years
5 Focus QuestionsWhat was the role of the Committee on Public Information (CPI) during the war and what admen (advertisers) were able to gain from the CPI?What were some wartime examples of coercive patriotism and how did it operate?In what ways did the U.S. intervene in world affairs, aside from WWI, in the first two decades of the 20th century?What were the major arguments made by W.E.B. DuBois in furthering civil rights in America?What were the major causes of the Red Scare?
6 “Safe for Democracy”This chapter begins with Wilson’s concept of moral foreign policy of “liberal internationalism.”Wilson promised to bring the Progressive agenda to the world but fell short. This forced Americans once again to debate the true extend of liberty.The era of intervention refers to the foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.Wilson was originally neutral going into WWI but when pushed into war his 14 points outlined his vision that this war should make the world “safe for democracy.”At home, the war was sold to the public via the Committee on Public Information (CPI).War also made some try to create racial boundaries and define who was “American.” Race was studies through eugenics which fueled the anti-immigrant sentiment of the era. Anti-German hysteria was high and German immigrants were forced to prove their loyalty.African Americans were asked to work in the defense industries and serve in the army but faced continued discrimination and violence.In 1919 there was a world-wide revolutionary upsurge.Labor unions were attacked during the Red Scare as dangerous and part of a communist conspiracy.Wilson’s dreams for peace were shattered as the US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
7 I. An era of intervention Theodore Roosevelt and Roosevelt CorollaryPanamaU.S.-backed separation of Panama from ColombiaU.S. acquisition of Panama Canal ZoneConstruction of Panama CanalDominican RepublicCubaWilliam Howard Taft and Dollar DiplomacyNicaraguaHonduras
8 U.S. Global Investments and Investments in Latin America
10 I. An era of intervention (cont’d) Woodrow Wilson and “moral imperialism”HaitiDominican RepublicMexicoMexican Revolution under leadership of Francisco MaderoAssassination of Madero and outbreak of Civil WarWilson dispatch of troops, skirmishes with Pancho Villa
12 Theodore Roosevelt: Speak Softly but Carry a Big Stick Big Stick Diplomacy (below).Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine establishing U.S. intervention and international police power (right).
13 Moral Diplomacy The U.S. should be the conscience of the world. Spread democracy.Promote peace.
14 Comprehension Check Write a brief summary in your own words. Write 3-5 questions that this brought up that you hope to find answers to in the reading.
15 II. America and the Great War Outbreak of European warAssassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandAllied Powers (Britain, France, Russia, Japan) versus Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)Protracted, bloody stalemateImplications of European warUndermining of faith in human progress and reasonIndication of power of nationalism in modern world
16 II. America and the Great War (cont’d) American ResponseMixed sentimentsSympathy for Allied PowersBritish rootsAssociation of Britain with democracy, Germany with tyrannyOpposition to Allied Powers, and/or U.S. involvementGerman, Irish, Russian (anti-czarist) rootsAntiwar feminists, pacifists, social reformers
19 II. America and the Great War (cont’d) American ResponseThe road to American involvementInitial declaration of neutralityBritish and German blockadesAmerican business ties to BritainSinking of Lusitania“Preparedness” policyGerman suspension of submarine warfare against neutralsReelection of Wilson; “He Kept Us Out of War”German resumption of open submarine warfareZimmerman NoteFirst Russian Revolution (Menshevik); overthrow of czarAmerican declaration of war against Germany
20 II. America and the Great War (cont’d) From American to ArmisticeSecond Russian Revolution (Bolshevik)Vladimir Lenin’s break with AlliesWithdrawal of Russia from warWilson’s Fourteen PointsDefeat of German advance; Allied counteroffensiveGerman surrender
21 Comprehension Check Write a summary in your own words. Write 3-5 questions you have that you hope to answer when reading the chapter.
22 III. The war at homePerceived prospects for fulfillment of Progressive visionEconomic rationalizationSpirit of national unity and purposeSocial justice
23 III. The war at home (cont’d) Expansion of federal powersMilitary conscriptionEconomic interventionAreasWar production (War Industries Board)National transportation (Railroad Administration)Coal and oil (Fuel Administration)Farming and food preparation (Food Administration)Labor relations (National War Labor Board)Varied degrees of interventionCoordination of overall war production (WIB)Control of some sectors (coal, oil, labor relations)
24 III. The war at home (cont’d) Expansion of federal powersEconomic interventionPartnership between business and governmentGuaranteed profitSuspension of anti-trustLabor-management-government cooperationUninterrupted productionFederal mediationLabor’s right to organizeImproved wages and working conditionsRaising of revenueCorporate and income tax increasesLiberty bonds
25 III. The war at home (cont’d) Propaganda warWidespread opposition to American entryIndustrial Workers of the WorldSocialist partyCommittee on Public Information; George CreelModes of propagandaPamhletsPostersAdvertisementsMotion picturesFour-Minute speechesThemesSocial cooperationExpanded democracy and freedomDemonization of Germans
27 III. The war at home (cont’d) Revitalization of Progressive causesWomen’s suffrageOptimism that wartime patriotism will gain women the voteInsistence that women should enjoy “democracy” at homeNational Women’s partyAlice PaulSupport from WilsonPostwar ratification of Nineteenth Amendment
29 III. The war at home (cont’d) Revitalization of Progressive causesProhibitionSources of supportEmployersUrban reformersWomenAnti-immigration ProtestantsAnti-GermansProgressPassage of state lawsPostwar ratification of Eighteenth Amendment
30 III. The war at home (cont’d) Repression of dissentInstrumentsFederal governmentEspionage ActSedition ActState governmentsVigilante organizationsThemesDefinition of “patriotism” as support for government, war, economic status quoDefinition of “un-Americanism” as labor radicalism, opposition to war
32 III. The war at home (cont’d) Repression of dissentMeansCriminalization of dissent; conviction of Eugene V. DebsInvestigations of suspected dissidentsMass arrestsPublic harassment and intimidationSuppression of labor protestTerrorMinimal reaction from Progressives
33 III. The war at home (cont’d) The “race problem”Progressive-era conceptualizationEthnic groups as “races”Inbred “racial” characteristicsRacial diversity as threat to American civilizationProgressive solutionsMainstream“Americanization”EugenicsInsistence by some on respect for other cultures
34 III. The war at home (cont’d) The “race problem”Wartime AmericanizationGovernment-sponsoredPressure on immigrants to demonstrate patriotismSuppression of German-American cultureHeightened interest in immigration restriction, eugenicsAmbiguous status of groups neither black nor whiteMexicans in SouthwestPuerto RicansAsian Americans
38 III. The war at home (cont’d) Status and response of African-AmericansProgressive eraBarriers to political rights, employment opportunity, consumer economyProgressives’ indifference or aversion to black freedomActivistsIntellectualsPresidents
40 III. The war at home (cont’d) Status and response of African-AmericansProgressive eraW. E. B. Du Bois and revival of black protestDu Bois backgroundThe Souls of Black FolkChallenge to Booker T. Washington accommodationism“Talented tenth”Niagara movementNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People
42 III. The War at Home (cont’d) Status and response of African-AmericansWorld War I eraOptimism that wartime patriotism would gain blacks equal rights“Close ranks”Minimal gainsGreat migrationScale and directionMotivations and aspirationsDisappointing realitiesAnti-black violence, North and SouthNew spirit of militancySilent Protest ParadeGarveyism
45 Comprehension Check Write a summary in your own words. Write 3-5 questions you have that you hope to answer when reading the chapter.
46 IV. 1919 Upheaval around world Inspirations and manifestations Russian RevolutionSpread of communist-led governmentsGeneral strikesPeasant movementsAnti-colonial campaignsUnderlying aspirationsSocialism“Industrial democracy”National self-determination
47 IV. 1919 (cont’d) Upheaval around world Labor upheaval in America Counter-mobilizationAllied intervention in Soviet UnionLimits of Wilson’s internationalismReceding of postwar radicalism around worldLabor upheaval in AmericaBreadth and magnitudeSpirit and themesAppropriation of wartime rhetoric of freedom and democracySocial and ideological diversity
48 IV. 1919 (cont’d) Labor upheaval in America Leading instances Seattle general strikeBoston police strikeCoal strikeSteel StrikeAnti-union mobilizationEmployersGovernmentPrivate organizationsDefeats of postwar strikes
50 IV. 1919 (cont’d) Labor upheaval in America Red Scare Methods Outcomes Federal raids on officers of labor and radical organizations; Palmer RaidsArrestsDeportationsSecret FilesOutcomesDevastation of labor and radical organizationsBroad outrage over abuse of civil liberties
52 Comprehension Check Write a summary in your own words. Write 3-5 questions you have that you hope to answer when reading the chapter.
53 V. Forging of postwar international order Wilson’s performance abroadRapturous reception in ParisHardheaded diplomacy at VersaillesTreaty of VersaillesWilsonian elementsLeague of NationsNew sovereign nations in EuropeHarsher elementsFrench occupation of Saar basin and RhinelandRestrictions on German militaryCrippling reparations for Germany
55 V. Forging of postwar international order (cont’d) Treaty of VersaillesLimits of national sovereigntyDenial of independence for French and British coloniesLeague of Nations “mandates” for former Ottoman landsReallotment of former German coloniesSeeds of instability for twentieth-century worldWilsonian internationalism in postwar AmericaShort term setbacksLeague of Nations debateWilson’s stroke, incapacitySenate rejection of Versailles treatyEclipse of Progressivism; “return to normalcy”
57 V. Forging of postwar international order (cont’d) Wilsonian internationalism in postwar AmericaLong-term legacy for American foreign policyBlend of idealism and power politicsAppeals to democracy, open markets, global missionImpulse for military intervention abroad
58 Exit ticket and homework How useful do you find the overviews of the chapter?If it was completely up to you, how would you design the 5 hours of instruction so that we comprehensively cover one chapter per week?Tues (2 hours); Thurs (2 hours); Fri (1 hour)HomeworkRead Ch. 19 for the test on Thursday.