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Communism in Crisis: 1976 – 1991 IB Paper One Document Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Communism in Crisis: 1976 – 1991 IB Paper One Document Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communism in Crisis: 1976 – 1991 IB Paper One Document Analysis

2 Topics to be covered, China: Power struggle after Mao’s death and the defeat of the Gang of Four China under Deng Xiaoping and 4 Modernizations Political changes/ Tiananmen Square

3 Topics to be covered: USSR Domestic and foreign problems of Brezhnev era Economic and political stagnation Afghanistan Gorbachev’s aims, perestroika and glasnost Consequences of 1980s policies for Eastern Europe (Poland and Czechoslovakia)

4 Things to remember… OPVL…always… We have access to documents from USSR, which has allowed some objective secondary research in recent years Accounts from China outside the official view are hard to come by, and largely anecdotal Question inherent assumptions in prompts and sources (IB really likes this)

5 China 1976: Mao dies Hua Guofeng is designated successor Gang of Four (led by Jiang Qing) jockey for power Struggle ensues between Right and Left Hua Guofeng is neutral –“Two Whatevers”

6 Gang of Four Led by Jiang Qing Radical Leftists, drivers of Cultural Revolution Power in media, urban militia, universities Eliminate revisionism and Four Olds Allied with Mao’s nephew – Mao Yuanxin Cut short mourning period for Zhou Enlai –Qingming Festival turns into a protest, riot, crackdown

7 Gang of Four Bid for Power Gang of Four see Hua as weak and malleable Losing base of support, plan a coup Includes assassinations of Hua and other party officials General Chen and Su report plans to Hua Gang of Four arrested and denounced

8 End of Gang of Four Years in prison before trial Celebrations and denounced as enemies of the people Show trial Death sentences and long prison sentences Blamed for excesses of Cultural Revolution “10 Lost Years”

9 Pragmatists Led by Deng Xiaoping Support in moderates, rightists, military Deng rehabilitated after 3 rd purge Four Modernizations Soon moved away from Hua’s “2 whatevers”

10 10 Year Plan (way better than 5) Driven by incentives and catching up Military: –Modernize technology Science and Technology: –Reform education, send students overseas Industry: –Heavy industry, SOE’s, limited autonomy Agriculture: –Mechanize, Household Responsibility System

11 Adding foreign capital Open Door Policy –Nixon visits in 1972 –Diverisfy –Need managerial and technical training Special Economic Zones –Special zones for foreign investment to limit exposure to west –Lenient economic policies

12 Results? Huge economic growth (11%) Specialists training abroad had to adjust to outdated systems at home Consumer choice grew Pollution and deforestation Party members still privileged Resentment growing…

13 Political Reforms Criticism of Gang of Four led to greater criticism Democracy Wall becomes a forum for public dissent Pro-democracy advocates growing “5 th Modernization” –Wei Jingsheng (show trial, 15 years)

14 More Political Reforms Deng travels, seeking new markets and allies Foreign journalists (like Jan Wong) allowed to report from within China Intellectuals allowed some criticism 1986: students encouraged to participate in government –Demonstrate for better conditions and freedoms

15 Lead-up to Tiananmen Square Hu Yaobang dies (General Secretary) in April Mourning turns into criticism and calls for social change Students lead demonstrations in Tiananmen Square Includes pro-democracy movement and “Goddess of Democracy” statue

16 Tiananmen Square, June 1989 Zhao Ziyang (new Gen. Sec) tries to work with protesters Students intensify protest, hunger strikes Global attention due to Gorbachev’s visit –Foreign press in town Deng orders military to seize control 100s killed, riots suppressed –“Tank Man”

17 Reaction? World supported protestors Very little official response to repression Leaders rounded up and arrested “Most Favored Nation” status renewed in US Zhang purged Economic liberalization NOT political

18 USSR: Brezhnev Era Economic Stagnation Years of poor harvests lead to morale and productivity declines Consumer goods limited and poor quality Thriving ‘black market’ 25% GNP spent on military (missile gap)

19 Dissent in USSR Samizdat –Self-published illegal pamphlets distributed in USSR Tamizdat –Smuggled illegal pamphlets published abroad Minorities and non-Russians –Using Helsinki Accords 1975 to advocate for equal treatment

20 Political Stagnation Gerontocracy: rule by elderly Very conservative No new ideas or leaders “stability” meant stagnation

21 Foreign Policy Challenges Brezhnev Doctrine – limited sovereignty Keep communist regimes in place, protect from internal and external threats Détente: SALT Arms limitation Role in Angolan revolution, Somalia, Mozambique

22 Afghanistan Rebel forces, Mujahideen, oppose PDPA Mujahideen assassinate PDPA leaders, Soviet advisors…civil war brewing Invasion to support PDPA, invoking Brezhnev Doctrine 10 year intervention, 10,000s lives lost “USSR’s Vietnam” CIA supported Mujahadeen

23 Andropov and Chernenko Brezhnev dies 1982 Continuation of much the same policies Supported suppression of Polish Solidarity movement Poor relations with USA Gorbachev takes power in 1985

24 Gorbachev, = young and vital! Reformer Sought to repair an ailing system “the worst time for a regime to reform is when it is in crisis”

25 Gorbachev’s Reforms Decreased alcohol consumption (lost tax revenue) Perestroika: Economy –Decentralize planning, end price controls Glasnost: Politics –Open to criticism, dissidents rehabilitated Demokratiztsiya

26 Gorbachev’s Foreign Policy Satellites expensive! –Renounce Brezhnev Doctrine Withdraw from Afghanistan –Too costly, no clear objective Meet with Reagan –Ease strain of confrontation INF and START treaties –Reduce stockpiles and cost of maintaining arsenal

27 Consequences in Eastern Europe Satellites facing same problems Dissent, economic instability, shortage of consumer goods Local party officials (apparatchiks) concerned with Gorbachev’s reforms Fear losing control Nationalist movements gain momentum

28 Poland - Solidarity Origins 1970 strike in Gdansk shipyard Lech Walesa and others strike for better conditions “consumer socialism” Rent controls, food prices controlled Riot in 1976 to protest food prices Leads to dissent movement and underground newspaper “Robotnik”

29 Poland cont… Pope John Paul II visits 1980, encourages dissent on religious grounds National debt rising, food prices again 21 demands, including legalize unions, pay and working conditions, religion Allowed to exist for 469 days Leader imprisoned, martial law

30 Poland Cont… Created atmosphere of pluralism Moral revolution Peaceful focus, anti-political 1981 October Program challenged Communist Party Martial Law imposed, Walesa imprisoned

31 Poland Cont… Jaruzelski (Polish leader) imposes control Allows media and religious freedom as long as distanced from Solidarity Weakness of economy difficult to address –“Fondest dream is of a roll of toilet paper” Solidarity legalized and invited to government meetings in Feb 1989 Sweep elections

32 East Germany – Berlin Wall GDR loyal hardliners, Stasi feared “Ostpolitik” built a bridge between east and west Open borders in Hungary and Czechoslovakia lead to alarming exodus to west Dissent and protests abound Travel laws relaxed, wall opens Nov 9, 1989

33 Czechoslovakia – Velvet Revolution Resisted de-Stalinization Economic decline in 1950s lead to reforms Dubcek as leader: “Socialism with a human face” –Open debate, relax censorship and travel rules, greater autonomy for Slovakia Reforms concern hardliners

34 Czechoslovakia Students get involved, start non- communist parties Leader Vaclav Havel, writer and dissident Genuine democracy seems attainable Neighboring regimes get concerned by reforms Hardliners appeal to Moscow

35 Prague Spring 1968 Warsaw Pact forces invade in August First exercise of “Brezhnev Doctrine” Likened to Nazi invasion in 1939 Disillusioning to students and leaders Confusion as to who was ‘helping’ who Dubcek forced to capitulate at gunpoint in Moscow

36 “Normalization” Gustav Husak hardliner Purge party of reformers, censorship restored, etc Roll-back of reforms State provided basic standard of living, better than most Soviet bloc states Charter 77 issued as opposition, gained global publicity

37 Czechoslovakia Perestroika and Glasnost exciting ideas in Prague Even more exciting: rejection of Brezhnev Doctrine Dissidents cautious… Economic decline leads to greater dissent Opportunities for young limited

38 Velvet Revolution 1989 Opposition coming from environmental groups, political groups, rock and roll, etc Religious freedom demands growing (like Poland) May: borders open, June: Solidarity wins, Nov. 9: Berlin Wall down Nov 17 commemoration turns into anti- government riot

39 Velvet Revolution cont… Riot dealt with violently, leading to more protest and outrage Civic Forum created by Havel to articulate demands Communist party can’t hold on – no new ideas Police and military can’t be relied on to crackdown President resigns, Dubcek and Havel appear triumphant Havel new president by the end of 1989

40 Issues for post-Soviet control Lack of democratic traditions –United by opposition, now what do we want? Remnants of old regime –Old party admins needed to create structure Economic disasters –Harsh realities of global markets and capitalism Socio-cultural –Economic crisis, fear and nationalism


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