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Introduction State of Europe on the verge of Exploration and Colonization.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction State of Europe on the verge of Exploration and Colonization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction State of Europe on the verge of Exploration and Colonization

2 I. Politically Medieval European Government --Decentralized and Local New View of Politics during the Renaissance --Machiavelli, The Prince Emergence of Centralized, Competitive Monarchies

3 II. Religiously Growing Secularism Protestant Reformation Division Breeds Dissent No sense of religious toleration or separation of church and state Dissenters need places of refuge = colonies

4 III. Economically Increasing Secularism --move away from “just price” theory Emergence of Long-Distance Trade --breaks monopoly of the guild system Emergence of Middle-class capitalists -- “New rich” = lots of $, wrong blood Mercantilism and the role of colonies Joint Stock Companies—Source of capital for colonial ventures

5 IV. Socially Very Hierarchical society Emergence of a new “middle class” Increasing Social Tensions between classes Agricultural changes leads to excess population heading toward European towns and American colonies

6 V. Technologically New Sailing Technology --New Instruments: Astrolabe, Compass --Caravels—Multi-sail ships

7 V. Technologically (cont) New Military Technology --Emergence of gunpowder weaponry --The Rise of the “Standing Army” --Royalized Warfare Merged and Used against colonial populations Lots of imperial warfare— competition for power

8 VI. Racially New notion, type and scope of slavery Colonial populations viewed as weak due to disease disaster created by European contact Death of native population leads to the need of alternate labor supply = African slave trade Traditional American problem = abundant land and capital, but scarcity of labor

9 Patterns of Discovery Rival European powers converge on a “New World” that isn’t really “new” at all—just “different”

10 I. European Background to Exploration Myth of the “West” goes all the way back to the Greeks—Atlantis Vikings discover Greenland around 1000 A.D. Columbus’ Voyage— 1492 Motivations for Exploration?

11 II. Native Americans

12 A. Pre-European Contact Mode and timing of arrival on the continent Not a “new world” but rather a “different” world when the Europeans arrive Great diversity among Native American tribal units Begin to farm as a early as 5000 B.C. Most advanced civilizations in Mexico and Central America Tribes of North America = less technologically accomplished

13 A. Pre-European Contact (cont.) Moved from centralized, coercive societies (Mississipian centers like Cahokia) to small villages linked by reciprocity Algonquian-speaking people inhabited the area from Maine to North Carolina Significance of Kinship and Reciprocity “Manitou” and other Spiritual Values Reciprocity as applied to land use Warfare as ritual to restore order Incorporated strangers for more thoroughly and enthusiastically than Puritans

14 B. European Contact Transitional phase with periodic contact during the 15 th and early 16 th centuries No sudden invasion, then, but a slow infiltration of men and microbes

15 C. Results of European Contact Initial phase of mutual dependence Upsets balance between Native American tribes Epidemiological disaster --America = “widowed land” Inherent differences in value systems and land use patterns The “Columbian Exchange” Some inter-marriage, mostly with Spanish Lots of Silver and Gold ruins the Spanish economy

16 III. Spanish Pattern of Exploration and Settlement First ranking world power in the 1400’s and 1500’s The Reconquista of Spain— produces conquistadors The voyages of Columbus The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Cortes’ conquest of the Aztecs Administration of New Spain -- “encomienda”

17 III. Spanish pattern (cont.) Brought Catholicism to the New World More fluid racial categories than with other European settlement No real settlement in New Mexico and California until later Importation of precious metals leads to rampant inflation in Spain and the rest of Europe—also leads to piracy

18 IV. French Pattern of Exploration and Settlement Interest in New World developed more slowly Motivation for exploration = northwest passage No real success at first --Jacques Cartier Developed fur trade with Hurons and other Native American enemies of the Iroquois --Samuel Champlain

19 IV. French Pattern (cont) Marquette and Joliet traveled down the Mississippi River in 1670’s Indifference of French monarchy to colonization Individualistic trappers carve out isolated existence

20 V. Dutch Pattern of Exploration and Settlement Some Dutch settlement along the Hudson River Valley in Henry Hudson Nurtured a fur trade with the Iroquois confederacy Peter Minuet bought Manhattan Island from the natives in 1626 creating New Amsterdam

21 V. Dutch Pattern (cont) Beyond New Netherlands, no real Dutch presence in the New World --No religious turmoil --Booming commerce = plenty of jobs --No surplus agricultural population

22 VI. English Pattern of Exploration and Settlement English fishermen explored the Grand Banks in the 1480’s First official visit = John Cabot in 1497 English interest wanes for 75 years Elizabeth I merges English nationalism with Protestantism as she increasingly challenges the Spanish in Europe and in America Ireland = “Dress Rehearsal” for treatment of Native Americans

23 VI. English Pattern (cont.) The glorious failures of Sir Humphrey Gilbert The colonial vision of Sir Walter Raleigh The Lost Colony of Roanoke ( ) -- “Croatan” Propagandist Richard Hakluyt keeps English fascination with the New World alive through his writings --Voyages, 1589

24 VII. Settlement Patterns and Success Depended upon... Support of Mother Country Characteristics and density of Native American population where settlement was attempted Geography and climate of the land itself The abundance of game, timber, and/or precious metals All of these ingredients were, to a great extent, beyond the control of the actual explorers and colonists


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