Presentation on theme: "ENGAGING SCHOOLS IN THE PEACE PROCESS. DISCUSSION FLOW Assumptions / Premises The “peace process”: expanding our frontiers of meaning (the Tracks) Why."— Presentation transcript:
DISCUSSION FLOW Assumptions / Premises The “peace process”: expanding our frontiers of meaning (the Tracks) Why be involved in the peace process? Why teach peace?… “in loco parentis” Education for transformation: (the ABC of violence; notions of peace) Toward the enabling and ennobling classroom: Educating for democratic competence Drawing from inherent capacities for peacefulness Positioning ourselves toward the peace process
Homogenizing our cultures 1. We are children of our time 2. Our thinking tendencies … Distrust and blame Forget faith and spirit 3. Our peace educ. efforts not new Poverty in a vacuum People as statistics
Frameworks: all-encompassing, sufficiently common and “sharable”, Skills- and process-based education Studies of ourselves and our cultures reduced to the level of technique Lederach, 1995Lederach, 1995
TRACK I DIPLOMACY Official governmental diplomacy “A technique of state action whereby communications from one government go directly to the decision-making apparatus of another". Conducted by official representatives of a state or state-like authority and involves interaction with other state or state-like authorities: heads of state, state depart- ment or ministry of foreign affairs officials, and other governmental departments and ministries Track I I Diplomacy Track 1½ Diplomacy Track III Diplomacy
citizen diplomacy multi-track diplomacy supplemental diplomacy pre-negotiation consultation interactive conflict resolution back-channel diplomacy facilitated joint brainstorming facilitated coexistence work coexistence Track I I Diplomacy INFORMAL INTERMEDIARIES / NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTORS: Religious institutions Academics Former government officials Non-governmental organizations, Non-governmental organizations Humanitarian organizations Think tanks, among others.
Involves unofficial actors (former government officials, or religious or social organizations such as the Church or the Quakers) who intervene in unofficial interactions between official government representatives to promote a peaceful resolution of conflict. Direct mediation or conciliation by unofficial third parties "Consultation" and facilitation of interactive problem- solving by unofficial facilitators. Facilitation of problem solving or confidence-building by official third-party actors among private citizens in influential sectors. TRACK 1½ DIPLOMACY
TRACK III DIPLOMACY Unofficial third parties work with people from all walks of life and sectors of their society to find ways to promote peace in settings of violent conflict. Aimed at building or rebuilding broken relationships across the lines of division among ordinary citizens in communities, in a range of sectors. The premise of track three diplomacy: “Peace can and must be built from the bottom up as well as from the top down.”
Culture as a contact point, a field of contest in which all ideas, behaviors, values and power structures are legitimized / discarded, “foregrounded” / “backgrounded”/ pushed to the margins, within the culture that successfully draws the people’s allegiance or confuses them. - Atty. Michael Mastura
BEHAVIOR: Hatred for the enemy, direct physical violence, killing, torture, intimidation, insults, etc. ATTITUDES: Feelings/ Values Sources: Hatred, fear, mistrust, racism, bigotry, sexism, intolerance CONTEXT + System + Struc Structural/ institutional violence, discrimination (e.g. in education, employ- ment, health care, etc.), globalization of economy, denial of rights and liberties, segregation (e.g., apartheid)
ACTION Control the behavior Control the behavior Violence reduction to promote negative peace Violence reduction to promote negative peaceACTION Control the behavior Control the behavior Violence reduction to promote negative peace Violence reduction to promote negative peace ACTION Work to change attitude and context Work to change attitude and context Violence reduction to promote positive peace Violence reduction to promote positive peaceACTION Work to change attitude and context Work to change attitude and context Violence reduction to promote positive peace Violence reduction to promote positive peace
PEACE NEGATIVE PEACE Absence of direct/ physical violence (both macro and micro) NEGATIVE PEACE Absence of direct/ physical violence (both macro and micro) POSITIVE PEACE Presence of conditions of well- being and just relationships: social, economic, political, ecological POSITIVE PEACE Presence of conditions of well- being and just relationships: social, economic, political, ecological Direct Violence e.g., war, torture, abuse of children and women Direct Violence e.g., war, torture, abuse of children and women STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE e.g., poverty, hunger STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE e.g., poverty, hunger SOCIO-CULTURAL VIOLENCE e.g., racism, sexism, religious intolerance SOCIO-CULTURAL VIOLENCE e.g., racism, sexism, religious intolerance ECOLOGICAL VIOLENCE e.g., pollution, overconsumption ECOLOGICAL VIOLENCE e.g., pollution, overconsumption VIOLENCE
not just about the imposition of "solutions," but about the creation of OPPORTUNITIES
the creation of SPACES (political, economic, social spaces) in which indigenous actors can identify, develop, and use all that are necessary to build a peaceful, prosperous and just society
ATTITUDES / VALUES Self –respect Respect for Others Respect for Life / Nonviolence Compassion Ecological Concern Cooperation Openness & Tolerance Social Responsibility Positive Vision ATTITUDES / VALUES Self –respect Respect for Others Respect for Life / Nonviolence Compassion Ecological Concern Cooperation Openness & Tolerance Social Responsibility Positive Vision KNOWLEDGE Holistic Concept of Peace Conflict & Violence -causes Some Peaceful Alternatives Disarmament Nonviolent Conflict Resolution Human Rights Gender Fairness Human Solidarity Democratization Dev’t Based on Justice Sustainable Development KNOWLEDGE Holistic Concept of Peace Conflict & Violence -causes Some Peaceful Alternatives Disarmament Nonviolent Conflict Resolution Human Rights Gender Fairness Human Solidarity Democratization Dev’t Based on Justice Sustainable Development SKILLS Reflection Critical Thinking & Analysis Decision Making Imagination Communication Conflict Resolution Group Building SKILLS Reflection Critical Thinking & Analysis Decision Making Imagination Communication Conflict Resolution Group Building Schema of Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes/ Values Global Concern
Diversity as a learning resource; Diversity as a place for compassion and appreciation; Diversity as a point of enrichment and celebration Dissent as an opportunity for the exercise of reason Dissent as a venue for the search for truth. Dissent as a self-corrective mirror
Spiritual Roots Scientific Roots Public policies Social Institutions Spiritual Institutions Political Institutions Economic Institutions Educational Institutions Training Institutions Security Institutions Research Institutions Communications media Cultural Resources Capabilities for Peacefulness
Social Institutions Educational Institutions: The possibility of basing an entire university upon the multifaith spirit of non-violence in service to human needs. (Barefoot College in India, Deemed University combining disci-plinary studies with community applications (pol sci & village decision-making, physics & radio repair, biology & well-cleaning, Shanti Sena (peace corps), Training Institutions : Institutions that provide non-violence training for social change, conflict zone intervention, social defense, etc., including Aikido (Peace Brigades, Intl., Transcend, Nonviolence Intl.)
Research Institutions: Institutions that carry out research on nonviolent struggles for democracy, security, and justice; researches to support nonviolent social change; promotion of worldwide sharing of discoveries in research, education, and action Problem-solving Institutions : Institutions dedicated to solving problems on nonviolence principles (ex., Amnesty International (vs. human rights violations & abolition of death penalty, Greenpeace International (defense of the environment & abolition of nuclear weapons), Medicins sans Frontieres (humanitarian medical care for victims of violence),.
Cultural Resources: Creations of art and intellect that uplift the human spirit and inspire advances toward realization of a nonviolent society; synergizing creativity for peaceful social transformation in the audio-visual, performing, and literary arts Communications Media : Books and media that educate for nonviolent social change, or that evoke non-violent thinking on various social issues
ALTERNATIVES FOR PEACE Academic departments University peace corps Universities Political parties Public service depts Common security institutions Civil society institutions Spiritual councils Problem-solving consortia Training institutions Leadership study and revitalization centers Centers for creativity in the arts Research and policy analysis institutes Media of communication Memorials Zones of peace Economic enterprise Centers for non-violence
STATICUNSTABLE DYNAMIC 3. Negotiation 4. Advocacy and Education for Sustainable Peace 1. Education Latent 2. Confrontation War Educator, Researcher, Advocate Conciliator, Convenor, Decoupler Unifier, Enskiller, Trainer, Envisioner Mediator, Guarantor, Facilitator, Moderator Reconciler, Enhancer, Rehabilitator, Developer Peacekeeper, Observer, Monitor, Enforcer WHERE DO WE STAND? Our Roles in the Progression of Conflict
Changing Attitudes about the "Other" Opening Channels of Communication Improving Quality of Communication Relationship and Trust Building Changing Perceptions of the Conflict Exploring New Options for Negotiation Changing Conflict Dynamic: Strengthening Voices of Moderation Developing Social Networks: An Infrastructure for Peace Some Suggested Entry Points
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