Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology Influence of Groups on our Behaviors."— Presentation transcript:
Social Psychology Influence of Groups on our Behaviors
Attribution Theory: How we explain the behavior of others Why did the Nazi’s during WWII commit atrocities against fellow human beings? Why are people homeless? Why are some people in prison? What are the major reasons why people become substance abusers?
Dispositional vs. Situational Dispositional Attribution: Believe that people’s personality and personal choices can explain why they behave as they do. Situational Attribution: Look at the various factors and pressures in a person’s situation to help explain why they behave as they do.
Explanations for Your Behaviors Why did you cheat on a test? Why do you sometimes lie? Why have you teased or bullied someone?
Make the Attribution Error for the behavior of others but for our own When we are explaining other people’s behaviors, we overplay their disposition or personality and ignore the significant impact of situational variables. However, when explaining our own misdeeds, we are more than willing to address the pressures of the situation!
Conformity to Norms of Groups Asch Experiment: Which line matches one on left?
Asch Study is a classic in demonstrating conformity Groups have norms or standards of behavior We tend to conform to the norms of a group even if we don’t agree. Why? One-third of the time, subjects conformed to the wrong answer in the line experiment if 4 or more others first gave the wrong answer.
Group Think Groups members work more toward harmony and avoidance of discord than toward critical thinking Groupthink is more likely to occur when strong members speak early, frequently and strongly about their opinions
Engineers under pressure from Directors of the Mission Engineers knew that the weather was way too cold for the O ring to function properly to maintain the integrity of the shuttle Spent time making their case but in the end they caved, resulting in the inevitable explosion of the Challenger after take-off
Classic Group Think Engineers concerned about foam hitting the wing of Columbia Two directors of Columbia mission immediately dismiss their concerns and fairly quickly reduced dissent Why difficult to dissent at that point?
Plot of “12 Angry Men” Start with judge sending jury to room for deliberation Room is very hot and most want to get home as quickly as possible Take a close ballot and only one dissents from a vote of guilty Henry Fonda asks them simply to re-examine the evidence Much anger and bitterness develops See how jury moves from 11-1 for guilty to 12-0, not guilty—very absorbing drama.
This was the incident that started the research on bystander apathy Over 38 people stated to the police that they had heard Kitty yell for help Many of them also had seen her being assaulted None came to her assistance or even called the police. Why?
What reasons did the witnesses give for not taking action? Karl Ross called police at 3:50 but not before call friend to ask what he should do. Middle-class neighborhood but large apartment complex— therein lies the problem—diffusions of responsibility Rationales given to police by residents: Sounded like a “lovers’ quarrel.” Didn’t want to get involved Frankly, we were afraid. Were too tired.
Studies of Bystander Apathy Number of witnesses to crises crucial to if someone will come forward to assist Ideal number is one or two Four or more and likely to ignore or observe without assisting
Scene of Bystander Apathy: Train Station in Liverpool
Famous Studies by Latane & Darley Experiment where subjects sit in a room completing a questionnaire when smoke begins to enter the room. If subject is the only person in room, 75% leave room to report possible emergency If three subjects in room, only 38% of the time will one of them report the smoke If two passive confederates are in room with subject, subject reports only 10% of the time.
How respond when smoke flowing into the room http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KE5YwN4 NW5o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KE5YwN4 NW5o
Explanation Give for Behavior If report that smoke flowing into the room, state do so because it could be fire If not report the smoke but, instead stay seated, state not believe it was a dangerous situation No one ever mentions that presence of others doing nothing about the fire inhibited them from reporting smoke
Lady in Distress Experiment Situation: Sitting in Room when hear woman fall and appear to have been hurt Sitting alone: 70% assist Sitting with stranger: 40% help Sitting with one passive confederate: 7% What are reasons give?
Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment Male Stanford College Students Volunteer to participate Randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards Guards tended to conform to maltreatment of prisoners OR did nothing to protest treatment Prisoners initially work together but soon felt isolated
Video about Prison Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RazP8D- Mfe8&feature=related
Zimbardo Interview on Daily Show http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/thu- march-29-2007/philip-zimbardo http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/thu- march-29-2007/philip-zimbardo
Treatment of Iraqi Detainees by American Soldiers: No one in charge
Conforming Behavior in Schools Gang up and bully certain kids More willing to perform anti-social behaviors in groups Why do we conform?
Obedience Experiment by Milgram http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6GxIulj T3w
Obedience Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6GxIuljT3 w http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6GxIuljT3 w
Degree of Obedience Depend on Situational Variables
Assertiveness Training Have the right to refuse to request and to right a wrong Self-assertion: Stand up for these rights by speaking on your behalf Direct, honest expression of feelings and desires
Methods used by Cults Initially very affectionate and friendly to people who are a bit lonely and depressed Isolate from non-cult members to increase commitment and decrease critical thinking Ask small favors at first, like attending a meeting Slowly increase time, effort and $$ contributions
Encourage unquestioning acceptance of beliefs and dogma Members begin as balanced, thinking people but taught to suspend faculties of independence and objective thought.
Members not know they are joining a cult! Join because think group will fulfill genuine spiritual needs and for finding meaning in their life within an apparent caring community Cult leaders give lip service to being “humble” leaders when actually receive and expect honor from followers that borders on worship.
Use of Indoctrination Expose continually to propaganda of the cult Use “Foot in the Door” tactics Start with small favors Slowly escalate in what asking of members
Gain Total Control Over Members Sign over bank accounts Give control over children and women Leaders are portrayed as having total control Cult presents positive image to community Fundamentalist groups of all religions seem to be inclined toward forming cult-like societies
Leaders of Cults Speak and act from an infallible, unquestioned position of divine authority Authority to pronounce words and teachings that have the weight of absolute power behind them Usually a charismatic male
Prejudice Increase under frustration More commonly directed at group that presents a threat Conforming to our reference group Prejudiced personality: authoritarian, rigid, see things in black and white, impressed by power, accepts over-simplifications
Prejudice Experiencing frustration Perceive a group or person as a threat Conforming to reference groups
Variable that Encourage Aggression Biological Capacity for not sufficient Frustration Under High Stress Excessive heat Aversive stimuli around as a knife or gun Aggressive models
Factors that encourage pro-social & anti-social behaviors Role models in your home Behavior of peers Stories covered in the media Role models shown on TV and in films