Presentation on theme: "Influence of Groups on our Behaviors"— Presentation transcript:
1Influence of Groups on our Behaviors Social PsychologyInfluence of Groups on our Behaviors
2Attribution Theory: How we explain the behavior of others Why did the Nazi’s during WWII commit atrocities against fellow human beings?Why are people homeless?Why are some people in prison?What are the major reasons why people become substance abusers?
3Dispositional vs. Situational Dispositional Attribution: Believe that people’s personality and personal choices can explain why they behave as they do.Situational Attribution: Look at the various factors and pressures in a person’s situation to help explain why they behave as they do.
4Explanations for Your Behaviors Why did you cheat on a test?Why do you sometimes lie?Why have you teased or bullied someone?
5Make the Attribution Error for the behavior of others but for our own When we are explaining other people’s behaviors, we overplay their disposition or personality and ignore the significant impact of situational variables.However, when explaining our own misdeeds, we are more than willing to address the pressures of the situation!
6Conformity to Norms of Groups Asch Experiment: Which line matches one on left?
7Asch Study is a classic in demonstrating conformity Groups have norms or standards of behaviorWe tend to conform to the norms of a group even if we don’t agree. Why?One-third of the time, subjects conformed to the wrong answer in the line experiment if 4 or more others first gave the wrong answer.
8Group ThinkGroups members work more toward harmony and avoidance of discord than toward critical thinkingGroupthink is more likely to occur when strong members speak early, frequently and strongly about their opinions
10Engineers under pressure from Directors of the Mission Engineers knew that the weather was way too cold for the O ring to function properly to maintain the integrity of the shuttleSpent time making their case but in the end they caved, resulting in the inevitable explosion of the Challenger after take-off
13Classic Group ThinkEngineers concerned about foam hitting the wing of ColumbiaTwo directors of Columbia mission immediately dismiss their concerns and fairly quickly reduced dissentWhy difficult to dissent at that point?
16Plot of “12 Angry Men”Start with judge sending jury to room for deliberationRoom is very hot and most want to get home as quickly as possibleTake a close ballot and only one dissents from a vote of guiltyHenry Fonda asks them simply to re-examine the evidenceMuch anger and bitterness developsSee how jury moves from 11-1 for guilty to 12-0, not guilty—very absorbing drama.
18This was the incident that started the research on bystander apathy Over 38 people stated to the police that they had heard Kitty yell for helpMany of them also had seen her being assaultedNone came to her assistance or even called the police. Why?
19What reasons did the witnesses give for not taking action? Karl Ross called police at 3:50 but not before call friend to ask what he should do.Middle-class neighborhood but large apartment complex—therein lies the problem—diffusions of responsibilityRationales given to police by residents:Sounded like a “lovers’ quarrel.”Didn’t want to get involvedFrankly, we were afraid.Were too tired.
20Studies of Bystander Apathy Number of witnesses to crises crucial to if someone will come forward to assistIdeal number is one or twoFour or more and likely to ignore or observe without assisting
21Scene of Bystander Apathy: Train Station in Liverpool
22Famous Studies by Latane & Darley Experiment where subjects sit in a room completing a questionnaire when smoke begins to enter the room.If subject is the only person in room, 75% leave room to report possible emergencyIf three subjects in room, only 38% of the time will one of them report the smokeIf two passive confederates are in room with subject, subject reports only 10% of the time.
24Explanation Give for Behavior If report that smoke flowing into the room, state do so because it could be fireIf not report the smoke but, instead stay seated, state not believe it was a dangerous situationNo one ever mentions that presence of others doing nothing about the fire inhibited them from reporting smoke
25Lady in Distress Experiment Situation: Sitting in Room when hear woman fall and appear to have been hurtSitting alone: 70% assistSitting with stranger: 40% helpSitting with one passive confederate: 7%What are reasons give?
26Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment Male Stanford College Students Volunteer to participateRandomly assigned to be prisoners or guardsGuards tended to conform to maltreatment of prisoners OR did nothing to protest treatmentPrisoners initially work together but soon felt isolated
35Degree of Obedience Depend on Situational Variables
36Assertiveness Training Have the right to refuse to request and to right a wrongSelf-assertion: Stand up for these rights by speaking on your behalfDirect, honest expression of feelings and desires
37Methods used by CultsInitially very affectionate and friendly to people who are a bit lonely and depressedIsolate from non-cult members to increase commitment and decrease critical thinkingAsk small favors at first, like attending a meetingSlowly increase time, effort and $$ contributions
38Encourage unquestioning acceptance of beliefs and dogma Members begin asbalanced, thinkingpeople but taught tosuspend facultiesof independenceand objectivethought.
39Members not know they are joining a cult! Join because think group will fulfill genuine spiritual needs and for finding meaning in their life within an apparent caring communityCult leaders give lip service to being “humble” leaders when actually receive and expect honor from followers that borders on worship.
40Use of Indoctrination Expose continually to propaganda of the cult Use “Foot in the Door” tacticsStart with small favorsSlowly escalate in what asking of members
41Gain Total Control Over Members Sign over bank accountsGive control over children and womenLeaders are portrayed as having total controlCult presents positive image to communityFundamentalist groups of all religions seem to be inclined toward forming cult-like societies
42Leaders of CultsSpeak and act from an infallible, unquestioned position of divine authorityAuthority to pronounce words and teachings that have the weight of absolute power behind themUsually a charismatic male
45Prejudice Increase under frustration More commonly directed at group that presents a threatConforming to our reference groupPrejudiced personality: authoritarian, rigid, see things in black and white, impressed by power, accepts over-simplifications
46Prejudice Experiencing frustration Perceive a group or person as a threatConforming to reference groups
47Variable that Encourage Aggression Biological Capacity for not sufficientFrustrationUnder High StressExcessive heatAversive stimuli around as a knife or gunAggressive models
48Factors that encourage pro-social & anti-social behaviors Role models in your homeBehavior of peersStories covered in the mediaRole models shown on TV and in films