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Chapter 3 - The Gloss of History: An Introduction to the Separation of National Security Powers ‘‘It did nothing of the sort. Rather, it created a government.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 - The Gloss of History: An Introduction to the Separation of National Security Powers ‘‘It did nothing of the sort. Rather, it created a government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 - The Gloss of History: An Introduction to the Separation of National Security Powers ‘‘It did nothing of the sort. Rather, it created a government of separated institutions sharing powers.’’ Richard E. Neustadt, Presidential Power 26 (2d ed. 1980).

2 Learning Objectives Does the provision of a statutory process implicitly disapprove alternative processes? How do we make sense of multiple opinions based on different assumptions? Is Youngstown strong precedent, or just a case driven by special facts? What do post 9/11 events tell us about current meaning of Youngstown?

3 Review of Executive Branch Orders Executive orders (Youngstown) National Security Decision Directive - NSDD Presidential Decision Directives - NDD What is the difference between Executive Orders and NSDDs? Are NSDDS reviewed by the attorney general? Are they published?

4 The Korean War Map of Korea and the Military Intrusions Did the US declare war? What was the role of the UN? What is the historical significance of this response? Is the war popular in 1952? How well did it work out? What is the current status of North Korea?

5 Truman How did Truman become president? What was famous about his 1948 reelection? How popular was he? Why should this matter? Is there a parallel with the current national security cases before the court? This case took place in 1952 Why might that be important?

6 Background of the Seizure Why is steel production a national security issue? What factors might influence this analysis? What did the court know from the papers that might have affected their decision? What prompted Truman to seize the mills?

7 Legal Framework Did Congress authorize the seizure of the steel industry? Who is expected to bear the cost of the seizure and operate the mills?

8 The Taft-Hartley Act What is the history of strikes and the role of the government that underlies the Taft-Hartley Act? What can the president do under the Act to deal with a strike? Does this provision amount to an implicit rejection of other interventions, such as injunctions? What is your reasoning?

9 The Seizure What administrative law device did the president use to seize the mills? Who did the president tell to operate the mills? Who is opposing the president's order? Did they cooperate in operating the mills? What would the president's recourse if they had not? How did the district court rule on their injunction against the seizure?

10 Analyzing Divided Opinions - The Modern Supreme Court Do not look just at the bottom line of each opinion Look at the individual issues the judges discuss Are there some issues where the majority and the dissent agree? Look at the assumptions the judges use If you slightly change the assumptions, does the majority shift? Might Frankfurter have ruled differently earlier in the war?

11 Justice Black What sort of constitutional analyst was Black? Is he sympathetic to implied powers? What was he looking for to justify the president's action? What about the Defense Production Act? Why didn't Truman use it? Did Black find authority?

12 Justice Frankfurter What is the significance of the Labor Management Relations Act to Frankfurter? Does it end the question in his mind? Would he allow the president to use powers beyond on those in the Constitution if it were a long standing practice that was not specifically banned by Congress?

13 Does the Nature of the War Matter to Frankfurter? "Absence of authority in the President to deal with a crisis does not imply want of power in the Government. Conversely the fact that power exists in the Government does not vest it in the President. The need for new legislation does not enact it." Under this theory, who has to change the law?

14 Justice Douglas How does Douglas characterize the seizure? What would the president have to do to make it legal? Why can't he do this? Why does he say this statement is an unavoidable part of separation of powers?

15 Jackson - Philosophy The actual art of governing under our Constitution does not and cannot conform to judicial definitions of the power of any of its branches based on isolated clauses or even single Articles torn from context. While the Constitution diffuses power the better to secure liberty, it also contemplates that practice will integrate the dispersed powers into a workable government.

16 Deference to the President I should indulge the widest latitude of interpretation to sustain his exclusive function to command the instruments of national force, at least when turned against the outside world for the security of our society. But, when it is turned inward, not because of rebellion but because of a lawful economic struggle between industry and labor, it should have no such indulgence.

17 Justice Jackson Three Classes of Presidential Action Acting pursuant to the direction of Congress Acting where Congress was silent Acting where Congress has disallowed the action What does Jackson say determines the legality of the action in this case?

18 Judicial Deference (Chevron)? What level of deference does Jackson say the court should give when the president is acting against the will of Congress? How does this look like Black's analysis? What does the Solicitor General claim is the legal authority? Does this sound familiar? What does Jackson think of this?

19 Congressional Power Does Jackson believe that Congress could seize the mills? What constitutional provision would he use? How would Jackson limit the notion of Commander in Chief? How does Jackson think the President is trying to use his power over foreign affairs to leverage his domestic powers? That seems to be the logic of an argument tendered at our bar—that the President having, on his own responsibility, sent American troops abroad derives from that act ‘‘affirmative power’’ to seize the means of producing a supply of steel for them. What did Teddy Roosevelt do as precedent?

20 Congress in a Crisis What prophetic statement does Jackson make about Congress is a crisis? Is this a realistic fear? What examples have you seen since 9/11?

21 Justice Burton Is Justice Burton comfortable with expansive presidential powers in an emergency? Why does he not grant them in this case? Did the subsequent effects of the strike support his view? Should judges be deciding what is an emergency? If not, what is the check on presidential power? Is this an emergency?

22 Justice Clark Is he sympathetic to "extra constitutional" powers? What does he mean when quotes Lincoln: is it possible to lose the nation and yet preserve the constitution? Is the reverse also possible? Why does he reject the president's power here? Do you think he was also affected by the belief that this was not really a crisis?

23 The Dissent - Vinson, Reed, and Minton Does the dissent take a different view of the level of crisis? Why? The dissent points to the Price Stabilization Act that was in force at the time as limiting the president's power to grant price increases to allow the mills to pay the worker's more. How do they say this allows him to act against the implicit direction of the Labor act to not use injunctions and seizures? Why are they not worried about this leading to dictatorship? What is the constraint they see on the president's actions? Why is the Labor Relations Act this legislation?

24 Congressional Inaction How can the president make law by "going first"? What are the reasons for congressional inaction? Do they all equally support president action?

25 What Constitutes Congressional Acquiescence? Does it matter if Congress considers the matter after the president acts and still does not pass legislation? What if they pass legislation on the topic and do not address the president's actions What if this has been going on for a long time, since the early Congress? Why does acquiescence by the early Congress matter more? Does it matter if the president's action is Constitutional gloss, i.e., something that is not contemplated by the Constitution, as opposed to just something that Congress has not thought of? What if it is forbidden by the Constitution?

26 The President's Emergency Powers Post Youngstown What are examples of emergency powers that were used post 9/11? Does Youngstown pose a real obstacle to presidential emergency powers?

27 Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 US 654 (1981) What was the Iranian hostage crisis? What did President Carter have to agree to as a condition of the hostages being released? Was this power specifically authorized by Congress? Did the Court find any specific statutory authority for the president's actions?

28 Private Claims Affecting Foreign Policy What sort of private claims can their be against foreign governments? Is there any international law right to private claims against states? Are these used by human rights advocates? How can these effect diplomacy? What about threats of prosecutions of heads of state or senior government officials once out of office? What is the current controversy over this threat?

29 Legal Authority and Custom Had presidents settled such claims before, in the absence of clear statutory authority? Where did the court look for congressional intent? Crucial to our decision today is the conclusion that Congress has implicitly approved the practice of claim settlement by executive agreement. This is best demonstrated by Congress’ enactment of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, 22 U.S.C. §1621 et seq. (1976 ed. and Supp. IV). Did Congress review President Carter's actions? Did Congress take any action to counter the President's actions? Why does the court say this inaction is acquiescence?

30 Public Citizen v. DOJ (Advisory Committee Act and Judicial Appointments) Kennedy separates the cases into those that involve a clear conflict with constitutional allocation of powers between the branches and those that do not. He says there should be no compromise when the constitution clearly allocates a power to one branch, but there must be when the authority is ambiguous. The pardons clause is an example of a power that is exclusively the presidents and would brook no interference from Congress. Does the advisory committee act affect the president's appointment's power? Kennedy thought it did and that it violated the Appointment's Clause Does this give us any additional information about Youngstown?

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