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IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

2 Unit Three: Chapter 15 abstain deficit affiliate dissent agnostic diversion aspire lucrative benevolentmandatory

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 abstain Abstain means A. to desire. B. to believe in. C. to deny oneself. Although Luis has given up high-calorie desserts, he doesn’t abstain completely from chocolate. He allows himself one small square of a Hershey bar a day. My sister called off her engagement to Clayton because he wouldn’t abstain from dating other women. – verb

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Abstain means A. to desire. B. to believe in. C. to deny oneself. Although Luis has given up high-calorie desserts, he doesn’t abstain completely from chocolate. He allows himself one small square of a Hershey bar a day. My sister called off her engagement to Clayton because he wouldn’t abstain from dating other women. In the first item, the words given up suggest that Luis is not denying himself chocolate. And if the sister called off her engagement, Clayton must not have denied himself the pleasure of dating other women. 1 abstain – verb

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 affiliate – verb Affiliate means A. to join. B. to study. C. to hold back. Diane is neither a Democrat nor a Republican. She isn’t affiliated with any political party. The young singer could have earned more if she had been affiliated with the musicians’ union, but she couldn’t afford the membership dues.

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Affiliate means A. to join. B. to study. C. to hold back. Diane is neither a Democrat nor a Republican. She isn’t affiliated with any political party. The young singer could have earned more if she had been affiliated with the musicians’ union, but she couldn’t afford the membership dues. If Diane is neither a Democrat or a Republican, she has not joined either party. If the young singer couldn’t afford the membership dues, she must not have joined the union. 2 affiliate – verb

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 agnostic Iris believes there is a God, and Marcia feels sure there isn’t. Jean, an agnostic, feels that we can’t be certain one way or the other. My uncle, who was an agnostic, used to say, “Humans cannot understand a flower, let alone whether or not there’s a God.” – noun Agnostic means A. one who denies God’s existence. B. one who feels we can’t know if God exists. C. one who is sure there is a God.

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Iris believes there is a God, and Marcia feels sure there isn’t. Jean, an agnostic, feels that we can’t be certain one way or the other. My uncle, who was an agnostic, used to say, “Humans cannot understand a flower, let alone whether or not there’s a God.” Agnostic means A. one who denies God’s existence. B. one who feels we can’t know if God exists. C. one who is sure there is a God. If Jean feels we can’t be sure one way or the other, she feels we can’t know if God exists. If the uncle believes humans can’t understand whether or not there’s a God, he feels we can’t know if God exists. 3 agnostic – noun

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Twelve-year-old Derek, who loves drawing buildings, aspires to be an architect. Millions of young people aspire to be professional athletes, but only a few will succeed. 4 aspire Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Aspire means A. to fear. B. to wish. C. to volunteer. – verb

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Twelve-year-old Derek, who loves drawing buildings, aspires to be an architect. Millions of young people aspire to be professional athletes, but only a few will succeed. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Aspire means A. to fear. B. to wish. C. to volunteer. If Derek loves drawing buildings, it is logical that he wishes to be an architect. Millions of young people wish to become professional athletes, but very few achieve it. 4 aspire – verb

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Benevolent means A. recreational. B. profitable. C. charitable. 5 benevolent – adjective People are more benevolent at Christmas, the “season for giving.” In 1878, William Booth founded a benevolent association to help the poor of London. He called it the Salvation Army.

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Benevolent means A. recreational. B. profitable. C. charitable. People are more benevolent at Christmas, the “season for giving.” In 1878, William Booth founded a benevolent association to help the poor of London. He called it the Salvation Army. If Christmas is the season for giving, people are more charitable. The Salvation Army is a charitable organization. 5 benevolent – adjective

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Deficit means A. a lack. B. an overflow. C. a collection. Our club has spent much more money than it has taken in, so it now has a huge budget deficit. Residents are asked not to water their lawns because a deficit of rain has dangerously lowered the water supply. 6 deficit – noun

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Deficit means A. a lack. B. an overflow. C. a collection. Our club has spent much more money than it has taken in, so it now has a huge budget deficit. Residents are asked not to water their lawns because a deficit of rain has dangerously lowered the water supply. If a club spends more than it takes in, it ends up with a lack of money. If the water supply is dangerously lower, there must have been a lack of rain. 6 deficit – noun

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Dissent means A. plans. B. opposition. C. relief. The committee was so torn by dissent that its members could not even agree on whether or not to schedule another meeting. The dictator permitted people to agree with his policies or keep silent about them, but not to express dissent. 7 dissent – noun Protesters expressing dissent over a proposed state budget

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Dissent means A. plans. B. opposition. C. relief. The committee was so torn by dissent that its members could not even agree on whether or not to schedule another meeting. The dictator permitted people to agree with his policies or keep silent about them, but not to express dissent. If the members can’t agree, there must be opposition among the committee members. If one must agree or keep quiet, there is no opportunity to express opposition. 7 dissent – noun Protesters expressing dissent over a proposed state budget

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Diversion means A. a way to relax. B. something easy. C. an assignment. My history teacher says that one of her favorite diversions during summer vacation is reading mystery novels. Skip likes his job, but he also enjoys such diversions as playing video games, watching baseball, and reading humorous stories. 8 diversion – noun “I’m going crazy swimming around and around in this bowl all day! I need a diversion!”

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Diversion means A. a way to relax. B. something easy. C. an assignment. My history teacher says that one of her favorite diversions during summer vacation is reading mystery novels. Skip likes his job, but he also enjoys such diversions as playing video games, watching baseball, and reading humorous stories. Reading mystery novels, playing video games, watching baseball, and reading humorous stories are all ways to relax. 8 diversion – noun “I’m going crazy swimming around and around in this bowl all day! I need a diversion!”

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Lucrative means A. required. B. financially rewarding. C. risky. Investments in the stock market can be lucrative. However, they can also result in great financial loss. “Teaching at a small college isn’t lucrative,” Professor Baum admitted, “but I’ve never felt the need to make lots of money.” 9 lucrative – adjective

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Lucrative means A. required. B. financially rewarding. C. risky. Investments in the stock market can be lucrative. However, they can also result in great financial loss. “Teaching at a small college isn’t lucrative,” Professor Baum admitted, “but I’ve never felt the need to make lots of money.” The words great financial loss are a clue that lucrative means the opposite—“financially rewarding.” If Professor Baum doesn’t need lots of money, he or she would be contented with a job that is not financially rewarding. 9 lucrative – adjective

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Mandatory means A. unimportant. B. helpful. C. essential. 10 mandatory Members of the basketball team have to follow strict rules. For example, it’s mandatory that each player attend at least 80 percent of the practices. “A research paper isn’t mandatory,” the instructor said, “but if you write one, you’ll get extra credit.” – adjective

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Mandatory means A. unimportant. B. helpful. C. essential. Members of the basketball team have to follow strict rules. For example, it’s mandatory that each player attend at least 80 percent of the practices. “A research paper isn’t mandatory,” the instructor said, “but if you write one, you’ll get extra credit.” If the rules are strict, then it must be essential to attend 80 percent of the practices. If students can choose whether or not to write a research paper, the paper is not essential to passing the course. 10 mandatory – adjective

23 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.My kid brother _________s to become the video-game champion of the world. 2.The __________ fund at my church collects money to help poor families in our parish. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory

24 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.My kid brother __________ to become the video-game champion of the world. 2.The __________ fund at my church collects money to help poor families in our parish. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory The brother desires to become the world champion. If the fund collects money for the poor, it is a charitable fund. aspires benevolent

25 SENTENCE CHECK 1 3.My parents enjoy card games, but my sister and I prefer such _________s as computer games and music videos. 4.An entrance fee wasn’t __________, but a sign at the museum entrance suggested that visitors make a donation. 5.Because Hank needs to lose weight, his doctor recommended that he __________ from all sweets and fatty foods. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory

26 4.An entrance fee wasn’t __________, but a sign at the museum entrance suggested that visitors make a donation. SENTENCE CHECK 1 3.My parents enjoy card games, but my sister and I prefer such __________ as computer games and music videos. 5.Because Hank needs to lose weight, his doctor recommended that he __________ from all sweets and fatty foods. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory Card games, computer games, and videos are pastimes. If the museum only suggested a donation, an entrance fee was not required. If Hank needs to lose weight, he should refrain from eating sweets and fatty foods. diversions mandatory abstain

27 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.We could overcome a(n) _______ of organs for transplants if more people would agree to have their organs donated after they die. 7.There was no __________ in the family on whether or not to start a vegetable garden this year. We all agreed it was a great idea. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory

28 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.We could overcome a _________ of organs for transplants if more people would agree to have their organs donated after they die. 7.There was no __________ in the family on whether or not to start a vegetable garden this year. We all agreed it was a great idea. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory The shortage could be overcome if more people donated their organs. If they all agreed, there was no disagreement. dissent deficit

29 9.“When someone who believes in God marries someone who does not,” the comic asked, “do they give birth to a(n) __________?” SENTENCE CHECK 1 8.Yong could have joined the all-male club, but he prefers to __________ with organizations that welcome both men and women. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory 10.Acting is __________ for only a small percentage of performers. The rest need additional sources of income, such as waiting on tables or parking cars.

30 9.“When someone who believes in God marries someone who does not,” the comic asked, “do they give birth to an __________?” 10.Acting is __________ for only a small percentage of performers. The rest need additional sources of income, such as waiting on tables or parking cars. SENTENCE CHECK 1 8.Yong could have joined the all-male club, but he prefers to __________ with organizations that welcome both men and women. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. abstainB. affiliateC. agnosticD. aspireE.benevolent F. deficitG. dissentH. diversionI. lucrativeJ.mandatory The word joined tells you the meaning of affiliate. If most actors need additional sources of income, acting must be well-paying for only a few actors. affiliate agnostic lucrative The joke is that their child would feel we can’t know if God exists.


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