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16 th -century Background to Baptist Beginnings Copyright 2007 NOBTS, Rex D. Butler and Lloyd A. Harsch.

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Presentation on theme: "16 th -century Background to Baptist Beginnings Copyright 2007 NOBTS, Rex D. Butler and Lloyd A. Harsch."— Presentation transcript:

1 16 th -century Background to Baptist Beginnings Copyright 2007 NOBTS, Rex D. Butler and Lloyd A. Harsch

2 Global Context 1492 – Columbus discovered the New World & inspired global exploration during the 16 th century 1492 – Columbus discovered the New World & inspired global exploration during the 16 th century 1607 – England staked a claim in the New World with founding of Jamestown 1607 – England staked a claim in the New World with founding of Jamestown

3 Global Context 1517 – Martin Luther sparked Reformation with 95 Theses 1517 – Martin Luther sparked Reformation with 95 Theses 1521 – Ulrich Zwingli, began Reform movement in Switzerland 1521 – Ulrich Zwingli, began Reform movement in Switzerland 1536 – John Calvin wrote first edition of Institutes 1536 – John Calvin wrote first edition of Institutes

4 Global Context 1536 – William Tyndale was martyred for translating Bible into English; prayed “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes!” 1536 – William Tyndale was martyred for translating Bible into English; prayed “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes!” 1539 – Henry VIII ordered Great Bible to be placed in every church in England 1539 – Henry VIII ordered Great Bible to be placed in every church in England

5 Anabaptists 1525, in Zürich, Ulrich Zwingli’s students became convinced that believer’s baptism was the correct NT practice 1525, in Zürich, Ulrich Zwingli’s students became convinced that believer’s baptism was the correct NT practice Zwingli & Zürich City Council condemned & persecuted these Anabaptists, or “Re- baptizers” Zwingli & Zürich City Council condemned & persecuted these Anabaptists, or “Re- baptizers” Most leaders were dead within 5 years

6 Anabaptists Commonalities with early Baptists Commonalities with early Baptists Authority of Scripture for faith and practiceAuthority of Scripture for faith and practice Scripture determines doctrine and practice Scripture determines doctrine and practice Believer’s baptismBeliever’s baptism Baptism is a public declaration of one’s faith, not a rite that brings one into the Church Baptism is a public declaration of one’s faith, not a rite that brings one into the Church Lord’s Supper as symbolic memorial and witness to Christ’s sacrificeLord’s Supper as symbolic memorial and witness to Christ’s sacrifice

7 Anabaptists Commonalities with early Baptists Commonalities with early Baptists Priesthood of the believerPriesthood of the believer Because of the Holy Spirit’s indwelling, every believer has the ability to understand God’s Word and apply it appropriately Because of the Holy Spirit’s indwelling, every believer has the ability to understand God’s Word and apply it appropriately Religious liberty Religious liberty Belief cannot be coerced by the State which should not prescribe an official beliefBelief cannot be coerced by the State which should not prescribe an official belief Congregational polity Congregational polity Strong emphasis on church disciplineStrong emphasis on church discipline

8 Anabaptists Differences with early Baptists Differences with early Baptists Forbade taking oaths of allegiance to governmentForbade taking oaths of allegiance to government Forbade participation in governmentForbade participation in government Forbade participation in the military (Balthasar Hubmaier was an exception to these three prohibitions)Forbade participation in the military (Balthasar Hubmaier was an exception to these three prohibitions)

9 The English Reformation

10 Henry VIII ( ) Opposition to Luther earned him title: “Defender of Faith” Opposition to Luther earned him title: “Defender of Faith” But when Pope denied him divorce, he split from Catholic Church & formed Church of England with Henry as its head But when Pope denied him divorce, he split from Catholic Church & formed Church of England with Henry as its head 1534, “Act of Supremacy” His children: His children: Mary (by Catherine, 1 st wife) Elizabeth (by Anne, 2 nd wife) Edward (by Jane, 3 rd wife)

11 Edward VI (r ) Became king at 9 yrs. Became king at 9 yrs. Protestant reform advanced under Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury Protestant reform advanced under Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury Introduced Book of Common Prayer Introduced Book of Common Prayer Catholicism made illegal Catholicism made illegal

12 Mary Tudor (r ) Returned England to Catholicism Returned England to Catholicism Executed over 300 Protestants & Anabaptists Executed over 300 Protestants & Anabaptists Including Archbishop Thomas Cranmer Including Archbishop Thomas Cranmer Many exiles fled to Geneva Many exiles fled to Geneva “Bloody Mary” “Bloody Mary”

13 Elizabeth I (r ) Returned England to Protestantism Returned England to Protestantism 1559, Elizabethan Settlement: Acts of Uniformity & Supremacy Balance between Catholics & Protestants: via media Balance between Catholics & Protestants: via media Anglican Church: Catholic rituals, Protestant theology, Episcopal polity Anglican Church: Catholic rituals, Protestant theology, Episcopal polity Two dissenting sects arose: Two dissenting sects arose: Puritans – advocated purification & reform within Church of England Separatists – called for separation of true church from Church of England

14 English Dissenters

15 English Dissent Catholic resistance to Anglican Church Catholic resistance to Anglican Church Anglo-Catholics: Remained in Anglican Church but preferred only Catholic views in Prayer BookAnglo-Catholics: Remained in Anglican Church but preferred only Catholic views in Prayer Book Recusants: Refused to abide by the Prayer Book & held illegal worship services using Catholic liturgyRecusants: Refused to abide by the Prayer Book & held illegal worship services using Catholic liturgy

16 English Dissent Puritans Puritans Wanted Anglican Church to follow theology, worship & polity of Reformed (Presbyterian) faith & practiceWanted Anglican Church to follow theology, worship & polity of Reformed (Presbyterian) faith & practice Advocated purification & reform but remained within Anglican ChurchAdvocated purification & reform but remained within Anglican Church Majority favored rule by presbyteryMajority favored rule by presbytery Accepted Prayer Book but conducted worship as “church within the church”Accepted Prayer Book but conducted worship as “church within the church” Cambridge became a hotbed of PuritanismCambridge became a hotbed of Puritanism

17 English Dissent Separatists Separatists Started meeting during Mary’s reign & began organizing during Elizabeth’s reignStarted meeting during Mary’s reign & began organizing during Elizabeth’s reign Rejected state established Anglican Church; called for separation of true church – gathering of professing believers joined together by covenantRejected state established Anglican Church; called for separation of true church – gathering of professing believers joined together by covenant Held illegal meetings & rejected use of Prayer BookHeld illegal meetings & rejected use of Prayer Book

18 English Dissent Separatists Separatists Calvinistic on predestinationCalvinistic on predestination Retained infant baptism within the model of a convenanted communityRetained infant baptism within the model of a convenanted community Congregational polityCongregational polity No governance from outside congregation; No governance from outside congregation; Each congregation decides matters of faith & order; Each congregation decides matters of faith & order; Each congregation calls, ordains & supervises ministers & church discipline Each congregation calls, ordains & supervises ministers & church discipline

19 Founding Church Founding Church Robert Browne ( ) believed congregation, not the bishop, should choose the pastorRobert Browne ( ) believed congregation, not the bishop, should choose the pastor Formed Separatist church in 1581 at Norwich (an area with a sizable Dutch community) Formed Separatist church in 1581 at Norwich (an area with a sizable Dutch community) After his imprisonment, most went to Holland and eventually dissolved After his imprisonment, most went to Holland and eventually dissolved Browne withdrew from Separatism & conformed to Anglican Church Browne withdrew from Separatism & conformed to Anglican Church Separatists

20 Separatists Second Separatist Congregation in London Second Separatist Congregation in London Henry Barrow and John Greenwood carried on in LondonHenry Barrow and John Greenwood carried on in London Staunch, often belligerent advocates of reform Staunch, often belligerent advocates of reform Both executed in 1593 Both executed in 1593

21 Separatists Ancient Church Ancient Church Francis Johnson ( ) became pastor of what became known as the “Ancient Church”; he was imprisoned Francis Johnson ( ) became pastor of what became known as the “Ancient Church”; he was imprisoned Conventicle Act placed penalties on those meeting outside church Conventicle Act placed penalties on those meeting outside church Church moved to Amsterdam (Johnson joined them in 1597) Church moved to Amsterdam (Johnson joined them in 1597) Often fought over minor details (jewelry, dresses) Often fought over minor details (jewelry, dresses)

22 called Henry Ainsworth as pastor called Henry Ainsworth as pastor Later split between Johnson and Ainsworth Later split between Johnson and Ainsworth Johnson advocated ministerial control over the congregation Johnson advocated ministerial control over the congregation Ainsworth wanted congregational control Ainsworth wanted congregational control Johnson died and church declined Johnson died and church declined Separatists

23 1596, Ancient Church issued a confession of faith with 45 articles called “True Confession” 1596, Ancient Church issued a confession of faith with 45 articles called “True Confession” Reformed in theologyReformed in theology Written in defense of church’s doctrine and polityWritten in defense of church’s doctrine and polity Separatists

24 Double predestination (art. 3)Double predestination (art. 3) Sacrificial atonement (art. 14)Sacrificial atonement (art. 14) 5 offices: pastor, teacher, elder, deacon, helper (art. 19)5 offices: pastor, teacher, elder, deacon, helper (art. 19) Congregational rule over pastors and discipline (art )Congregational rule over pastors and discipline (art ) Attacked episcopacy (art ) Attacked episcopacy (art ) Separatists

25 SacramentsSacraments Given only by chosen and ordained leaders (art. 34) Given only by chosen and ordained leaders (art. 34) Infant baptism used as sign of God’s covenant (art. 35) Infant baptism used as sign of God’s covenant (art. 35) Receive wine and bread which are a sign, neither Roman Catholic nor Lutheran (art. 35) Receive wine and bread which are a sign, neither Roman Catholic nor Lutheran (art. 35) Separatists

26 Congregations should follow same rule of faith (art. 38)Congregations should follow same rule of faith (art. 38) King has authority to enforce correct doctrine and practice (art. 39)King has authority to enforce correct doctrine and practice (art. 39) Separatists


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