Presentation on theme: "Issue #4: To what extent should my actions as a citizen be shaped by an ideology? Chapter 14 Reflecting on Ideology, Action, and Citizenship."— Presentation transcript:
Issue #4: To what extent should my actions as a citizen be shaped by an ideology? Chapter 14 Reflecting on Ideology, Action, and Citizenship
The Orange Revolution Massive demonstration against the November 21, 2004 election results in Ukraine. Pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner over pro- democratic, pro-western Viktor Yushchenko. Widespread accusations of election fraud. Yushchenko was poisoned during the campaign. Yushchenko called on his supporters to come to the capital and demand a re-election. Hundreds of thousands of protesters descended on the capital of Kiev. A new election was held with Yushchenko being declared the winner.
The Anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa Apartheid – a strict, legislated system of racial segregation and discrimination against black South Africans set in place by the National Party of South Africa from 1948 to Liberation movements lead the struggle to end apartheid. One of these liberation movements was the African National Congress (ANC) One of their leaders was Nelson Mandela. ANC first used nonviolence and civil disobedience and eventually began using violence but only in response to violence used by the government.
The Anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa con’t Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) was another group fighting for rights of blacks in South Africa. This group followed a policy of civility and non-violence. March 21, 1960 peaceful protests (protesters demanded to be arrested for not having their official passes with them) outside police stations turned violent. In the township of Sharpeville, 69 people were killed and 200 wounded when police opened fire. Most were shot in the back as they ran. The ANC and PAC were outlawed and their leaders imprisoned. Countries of the world began to impose sanctions and embargos on South Africa.
The Anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa con’t Mandela was imprisoned in In the late 1980’s the policies of Apartheid were slowly reduced. In 1990, Mandela was freed from prison. The ANC was free to exist the first interracial election was held and Mandela became president. Apartheid was ended.
The War Against the Vietnam War After WWII Vietnam wants independence from France and France is defeated Vietnam “temporarily” divided into two zones, North and South Vietnam, in preparation for an election. The two zones get caught up in the Cold War and the US policy of containment. The North is supported by communist countries and the south by the US. By 1961 the US is sending troops to support the Saigon government. By the time Nixon becomes president in 1969 many Americans had been killed in Vietnam.
The War Against the Vietnam War con’t The anti-war movement began slowly at various universities. By the end of 1968, 500,000 American troops were involved in the war. Many of the soldiers were young and had been drafted. Experience was a problem. Many tried to get out of service by joining the National Guard or the Peace Corps. Others known as draft dodgers fled to other countries. The anti-war movement was in full swing by the late 1960s. The media provided people with unprecedented information on the war.
The War Against the Vietnam War con’t Opposition to the war in the US and around the world grew louder. The anti-war movement had an impact on American foreign policy. Many protests and marches were held. In January 1973 a peace treaty was signed. However, fighting continued until April Vietnam was united as a communist country. In 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was completed in Washington D.C..
1968 Olympic Protest After winning Olympic medals Tommie Smith and John Carlos bowed their heads and raised their fists in protest during the American national anthem. They were suspended from the team, banned from the village, and sent home. They faced backlash for years. Quotes page Ahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAHsYmaodk A
Other examples of action for change: Adam Werbach and Wal-Mart pages 497/498 The Dixie Chicks March During a London concert ten days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, lead vocalist Maines said, "we don't want this war, this violence, and we're ashamed that the President of the United States is from Texas"London 2003 invasion of Iraq WIhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lCQZeG9O WI
Dissent To what extent should citizens express dissent?
Dissent To differ in opinion It may well be that our means are fairly limited and our possibilities restricted when it comes to applying pressure on our government. But is this a reason to do nothing? Despair is not an answer. Neither is resignation. Resignation only leads to indifference, which is not merely a sin but a punishment. Elie Weisel
Law and Order Laws are a social contract between governments and their citizens. These reflect the values of any given society. The respect for law and order is what allows pluralistic societies to exist. Many different cultures with many different beliefs/values existing side by side due to respect for common laws that apply to everyone equally. Are the values and attitudes of society always correct? Fair?
Non-violent Means Demonstrations Strikes Hunger Strikes Civil Disobedience Draft dodging Defection Passive Resistance Violent Means Terrorism Kidnapping/Hostages Assassination Armed Insurrection Civil War Riot
Dissent happens in both democratic and authoritarian governments. All of the previously mentioned forms of dissent can be taken to different extremes From moderate forms of non-violent dissent i.e. hunger strikes and passive resistance in India To extreme forms of violent dissent i.e. FLQ Crisis
Problem: Different forms of government respond to dissent differently. The Chinese Government has brutalized and killed thousands of its own citizens for peacefully protesting for Tibet’s independence (dissent). Depending on an nations values and human rights status you could be thrown in jail or killed outright for dissenting.
The importance of dissent is that it can be used to express disagreement with both democratic and authoritarian regimes.